Kuyang'ana pa Vuto la Othipron mu Kuunika kwa Mkangano (Mzere 457)

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Mugawo lapitalo ndidapereka mkangano pakati pa ine ndi David Enoch (onani Pano Kujambula) pafunso loti ngati Mulungu ndi wofunikira ngati maziko a kutsimikizika kwamakhalidwe (kapena: Kodi popanda Mulungu zinthu zonse ndi zololedwa). Pokambirana, woyang'anira (Jeremy Fogel) adadzutsa vuto la Othipron, yemwe pamaso pake ankawoneka kuti sakugwirizana ndi zokambiranazo. Patapita kanthawi ndinakumbutsidwa ng'ombe 278 Ndathana kale ndi vuto ndi tanthauzo lake pa umboni wochokera ku makhalidwe abwino (kupachikidwa kwa makhalidwe abwino pa Mulungu). Pazokambirana pamwambapa ndayankha funsoli mwachidule, ndipo apa ndibwereranso ku nkhaniyi kuti ndifotokoze kugwirizana kwake ndi mkangano ndi Enoke ndikuwongolera kusiyana komwe ndidapanga pamenepo komanso ndime yapitayi.

Ndikofunikira kuti ndiyambe ndikunena kuti lingaliro la Mulungu momwe ndikuchitira ndi gawo ili siliri lofanana ndi Mulungu "woonda" yemwe ndidakumana naye m'gawo lapitalo. Malingaliro ena omwe ndimapanga apa ndi owonjezera omwe sali mbali ya Mulungu "woonda" wofunikira kuti akwaniritse malamulo amakhalidwe abwino. Ndibwerera ku mfundo iyi kumapeto kwa ndime.

The Othipron Dilemma

Mu zokambirana za Platonic A. Eitifron Funso lotsatirali likufunsidwa: Kodi chabwino ndi chabwino chifukwa chakuti milungu ikuchifuna, kapena kodi milunguyo imafuna zabwino chifukwa chakuti ndi zabwino? M’mawu ena, funso n’lakuti ngati pali tanthauzo lenileni la chabwino, kapena ngati chimene chimapangitsa kukhala chabwino ndi chosankha cha milungu, koma pamlingo womwewo iwo angasankhe kuti khalidwe lina lililonse n’labwino kapena loipa. Chilichonse chimaperekedwa ku chifuniro chawo chosasinthika. Funso lofananalo likhoza kudzutsidwanso mokhudzana ndi Mulungu, ndi Avi Sagi ndi Daniel Statman, m'buku lawo. Chipembedzo ndi makhalidwe abwino, Gwirani mwatsatanetsatane za nkhaniyi. Mapeto awo ndi akuti pafupifupi oganiza onse achiyuda amachirikiza chisankho chomaliza. Sindidzapita kuzinthu zonse ndi mikangano yomwe imapezeka m'buku lomwe lili pamwambali (ndikuganiza kuti pali zolakwika zina), ndipo ndidzifotokozera mwachidule za zifukwa zoyambira mbali zonse ziwiri.

Kumbali ina, zamulungu timaganiza kuti Mulungu ndi wamphamvuyonse ndipo sagonjera chilichonse. palibe wina koma lye. Iye analenga dziko lapansi ndipo anakhazikitsa malamulo amene ali mmenemo. Tanthauzo lake ndi lakuti akanatha kuwatsimikizira m’njira ina iliyonse imene akanaganizira. Chifukwa chake palibe tanthauzo lenileni la zabwino ndi zoyipa. Kumbali ina, ngati munthu atengera lingaliro limeneli, mapeto ake ndi akuti n’kosatheka kunena kuti Mulungu ndi wabwino. Mawu oti Mulungu ndi wabwino amalingalira kuti pali chabwino chomwe chimafotokozedwa mosasamala kanthu za iye, ndipo mtsutso ndi wakuti pali kugwirizana pakati pa khalidwe lake ndi zofunikira zake ndi cholinga chofanana cha ubwino. Koma ngati ndi chisankho chake chomwe chimafotokoza za ubwino, ndiye kuti mawu oti Mulungu ndi wabwino si kanthu koma tanthauzo la tautological (kapena analytical theorem) osati mtsutso. Kwenikweni limatanthauza: Mulungu amafuna zimene iye amafuna. Koma izi ndi zoona kwa tonsefe.

Akatswiri ambiri azaumulungu (ndipo ngakhale wodzikonda wamng'onoyo amalowa nawo) amakonda kuganiza kuti izi ndizovuta. Mulungu ndi wabwino kwambiri ndipo sakanatero. Izi zimangoganiza kuti zabwino zimafotokozedwa momveka bwino ndipo Mulungu mwa iye yekha amatengera tanthauzoli. Ndithudi iye akanatisokoneza ndi kutichititsa khungu kuti tisasiyanitse chabwino ndi choipa, koma sakanatha kusiyanitsa chabwino ndi choipa. Monga ndanenera, ngakhale pali zovuta zaumulungu, zikuwoneka kuti oganiza zambiri amalingaliro achiyuda amakhala ndi njira yachiwiri.

Kumvetsetsa ndi kuphunzitsa

Lingaliro loyamba likhoza kuwongoleredwa pang'ono, ndikupangidwa motere: Tili ndi chidziwitso cha zabwino ndi zoyipa. Mtsutso ndi wakuti chifuniro cha Mulungu chimagwirizana ndi chidziŵitso chomwecho. Koma chidziwitsochi chabzalidwa mwa ife ndi iye, kotero palibe lingaliro lazabwino ndi zoyipa. Choncho tinganene kuti mawuwa ndi odzinenera (osati kutanthauzira), koma panthawi imodzimodziyo ndi zonena zomwe zimagwirizana ndi malingaliro athu osati dziko lokha. Ponena za dziko lenilenilo, mawu akuti “Mulungu ndi wabwino” satanthauza kanthu (ndi chizindikiritso chopanda pake, tautology).

Ichi ndi vuto linalake la mgwirizano pakati pa tanthauzo ndi chiphunzitso. Kutenga chitsanzo chomwe akatswiri ofufuza nzeru zapamwamba amagwiritsa ntchito nthawi zambiri (onani mwachitsanzo. Pano), Zoti: Nyenyezi ya mbandakucha ndi nyenyezi yamadzulo. Ndilo lomwe lakhala likuganiziridwa kuti ndi nyenyezi ziwiri zosiyana (imodzi ikuwoneka madzulo ndi ina m'mawa), koma pamapeto pake zidadziwika kwa ife kuti ndi nyenyezi yomweyi. Tsopano tikufunsidwa: Kodi izi ndi zonena zopanda pake kapena tanthauzo (analytical theorem)? Kodi ili ndi chilichonse kapena ndi tautology yopanda kanthu? Mwachionekere, chiganizo choterocho sichinena kalikonse, chifukwa ndi chizindikiritso pakati pa chinthu ndi icho chokha. Koma malingaliro athu ndikuti pali zachilendo mu chiganizo ichi. Imatiphunzitsa kanthu kena ka malingaliro athu. Nyenyezi ziwiri zomwe tinkaganiza kuti ndi zosiyana ndi nyenyezi yomweyi. Chiganizochi chimasintha chidziwitso chathu cha dziko lapansi, ngakhale malingana ndi zomwe zili zolinga zake zikuwoneka ngati zopanda kanthu.

Zindikirani kuti izi ndizomwe zilili pachidziwitso chilichonse chamtundu: a ndi b. Kungoganiza kuti izi ndi zolondola, ndiye kuti zikutanthauza: a is a, mwachitsanzo tautology yopanda kanthu. Njira yothetsera vuto la tanthawuzo la zodzinenera ndikusiyanitsa pakati pa tanthauzo ndi chiphunzitso. Akatswiri anthanthi (otsatira Frege) amanena kuti malinga ndi kudziwika koteroko pali tanthauzo koma osati malangizo (kapena mtundu). Lili ndi tanthauzo lomwe siliri lachabechabe kapena laling'ono kwa ife, koma ngati muyang'ana pa zomwe likulozera m'dziko lapansi, ndi chidziwitso chochepa chabe.

Tsopano titha kubwerera ku vuto la Othipron. Malinga ndi mbali yakuti Mulungu ndi amene amalongosola zabwino ndi zoipa, tinganene kuti mawu akuti iye ndi wabwino ali ndi tanthauzo koma osati chiphunzitso. Pankhani ya chiphunzitso chake (mtundu) ilibe kanthu chifukwa ndi yabwino ndi tanthauzo lenileni la zabwino. Chilichonse chomwe angachite chimamusiya pansi pa tanthauzo la zabwino, kotero Amira yemwe ndi wabwino alibe chilichonse (kuwunika).

mapeto

Koma zimandivuta kuvomereza ngakhale mawu ofatsa awa. Lingaliro losavuta ndiloti Mulungu akuyeneradi kukhala wabwino, kutanthauza kuti kunena kuti iye ndi wabwino si tanthauzo lopanda pake koma kudzinenera. Ngati izi sizikanakhala choncho, sipakanakhala chifukwa chochita zabwino za Mulungu, ndipo sipakanakhala mafunso okhudza izo kuchokera ku machitidwe omwe amaoneka ngati oipa kwa ife (monga ngati kumanga Isake, kuwonongedwa kwa Amaleki, ndi ngati). Kuyenera kuzindikirika kuti ngati chimene Mulungu akufuna chitanthauzidwa kukhala chabwino ndiye kuti palibe mpata wa kukayikira za makhalidwe abwino. Analamula kuti atsatire Isake ndipo chifukwa chake kumanga Isake ndi chinthu chabwino. Kumva ngati kuti pali kusagwirizana pakati pa lamulo laumulungu ndi makhalidwe abwino kumasonyeza poyambira kuti Mulungu ndi wabwino. Monga momwe kukhalapo kwa mkangano wamakhalidwe kumasonyeza cholinga cha makhalidwe abwino (kupanda kutero sipakanakhala kanthu koti titsutse) ndipo kukhalapo kwa kutsutsidwa kwa chikhalidwe kumasonyeza cholinga cha mfundo zamakhalidwe abwino (kupanda kutero palibe malo odzudzula maganizo oipa ndi makhalidwe).

Mapeto ake ndikuti chidziwitso chosavuta chachipembedzo chimatiphunzitsa ife monga mbali ina ya vuto la Othipron kuti zabwino zimafotokozedwa momveka bwino komanso mokakamiza ngakhale ndi Mulungu. Ndiko kuti, Mulungu amafuna zinthu chifukwa nzabwino osati mwanjira ina. Ndi njira iyi yokha yomwe ingatsutse kuti ndi yabwino, komanso kutsutsa (kapena kufunafuna mafotokozedwe) pazochitika zosayenera. Koma monga tawonera njira iyi imabweretsa zovuta zosiyana, ndipo tsopano ndipitirizabe kuthana nazo.

Pakati pa malamulo a physics ndi "malamulo" a logic

Njira iyi imadzutsa zovuta zamulungu. Kodi zingatheke bwanji kuti Mulungu, amene analenga zonse ndi zonse zinapangidwa ndi mphamvu yake, adakali pansi pa mpambo wa malamulo akunja amene sanakhazikitse? Kuti timvetse izi, tiyenera kubwereranso ku kusiyana komwe ndidapanga pano m'mbuyomu pakati pa mitundu iwiri ya malamulo (onani mwachitsanzo, gawo 278). Ndithudi, Mulungu samvera malamulo a physics, pakuti iye anawalenga, ndipo pakamwa poletsa ndi pakamwa polola. Komanso sali pansi pa malamulo a boma ndithu (ngati chifukwa chakuti iye si nzika ya izo). Koma kumbali ina izo ndithudi "zomvera" ku malamulo a logic. Malamulo a kulingalira "amakakamizidwa" kwa Mulungu. Sangathe kupanga makona atatu ozungulira kapena kupatuka pamalingaliro, chifukwa palibe chomwe chimatchedwa makona atatu ozungulira ndipo palibe nyama yotere yomwe imapatuka pamalingaliro. Makona atatu potanthauzira siwozungulira. Izi sizili chifukwa cha lamulo lililonse lokhazikitsidwa pamakona atatu chifukwa chofunikira, koma ndi chikhalidwe chake. Mwa kutanthauzira kwake ngati katatu kumatsatira kuti siwozungulira ndipo sangakhale wozungulira. Chifukwa chake kulephera kupanga makona atatu ozungulira sichifukwa cha chopinga chakunja choperekedwa kwa Mulungu, ndipo chifukwa chake sikulinso malire pa kuthekera kwake konse, kapena kuipa kwake.

Cholengedwa champhamvu zonse chimatha kuchita chilichonse chotheka ngakhale m'malingaliro. Koma katatu kozungulira ndi lingaliro lopanda kanthu. Palibe chinthu choterocho ndipo sichingaganizidwe. Choncho kulephera kwa Mulungu kulenga chinthu choterocho sikungawononge luso lake. Tangoganizani wina akufunsani ngati Mulungu angathe kupanga katatu kozungulira. Ndikanamupempha kuti andifotokozere kaye mfundo imeneyi ndipo mwina ndikanayankha. Ndithudi iye sadzatha kufotokoza (kodi ili ndi ngodya zakuthwa kapena ayi? Chiwerengero cha ngodya zake ndi chiyani? Kodi mfundo zonse za pamenepo ndi mtunda wofanana kuchokera pamenepo?), Choncho funso likudziwonetsera lokha.

Monga ndinafotokozera pamenepo, chimene chimachititsa chisokonezocho ndi mawu akuti “lamulo,” amene amagwiritsidwa ntchito m’njira ziwirizi m’njira yosiyana. Malamulo a physics ndi malamulo amene Mulungu anakhazikitsa m’chilengedwe. Lamulo ili ndi lingaliro lake lopanga chilengedwe china cha dziko lapansi chomwe adachipanga kuchokera kuzotheka zingapo. Akanathanso kupanga malamulo ena a chilengedwe. Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, malamulo a logic si malamulo ofanana. Kugwiritsiridwa ntchito kwa liwu loti “lamulo” m’lingaliro lomveka kwabwerekedwa. Ndi tanthauzo chabe la zinthu osati zakunja zomwe zimakakamizika pa izo. [1]Makona atatu si ozungulira kapena chifukwa wina amaletsa kapena chifukwa choletsedwa. Chifukwa chokhala ngati makona atatu siwozungulira. Choncho sikoyenera kunena pano kuti Mulungu anasankha dongosolo limodzi lomveka kuchokera mu machitidwe angapo otheka. Palibe dongosolo lina lomveka.[2] Kuyambira pano munkhani yofanana ndi ya malamulo amalingaliro ndigwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "lamulo" m'mawu obwereza.

Mkhalidwe wa malamulo a makhalidwe abwino

Funso lomwe likubwera tsopano ndilo udindo wa malamulo a makhalidwe abwino: Kodi malamulowa ali m'lingaliro la malamulo a physics, kapena ndi "malamulo" m'lingaliro la "malamulo" a logic? Amene amalimbikitsa mbali yoyamba ya vuto la Othipron amakhulupirira kuti malamulo a makhalidwe abwino ndi ofanana ndi malamulo a fizikiki, choncho ndi Mulungu amene amasankha ndi kuwafotokozera. Mbali ina ya vutolo, kumbali ina, imalingalira kuti "malamulo" a makhalidwe abwino ndi ofanana ndi "malamulo" a logic (awa ndi "malamulo" osati malamulo), choncho amakakamizidwa kwa Mulungu. Iye sakanatha kupanga dongosolo losiyana la malamulo amakhalidwe abwino. Mwachitsanzo, sangapange dziko limene makhalidwe ena abwino adzakhalapo (kuti kupha kapena kuzunza anthu kudzakhala ndi zochita zabwino). Makhalidwe abwino potanthauzira amaletsa kupha.

Ndithudi iye akhoza kulenga dziko limene anthu adzasangalala ndi kuzunzidwa (kodi kukanakhala koyenera m’dziko loterolo kuwatcha “chizunzo”?), Ndiyeno sipangakhale vuto la makhalidwe poyambitsa kuvutika. Koma kumene kumayambitsa kuvutika si zachisoni. Kupenta anthu ndi chinthu choipa m'dziko lililonse lotheka. Likunena za dziko losiyana kwenikweni, kutanthauza dziko limene kuvutika sikuchititsa chisoni. Munthu angaganizenso za dziko limene kunyozedwa kwa anthu kumatanthauzidwa kukhala kwabwino, koma siliri dziko la makhalidwe osiyanasiyana koma dziko limene anthu ali osawona malamulo a makhalidwe abwino (komanso Mulungu amene analenga ilo alibe makhalidwe abwino. ). Mutha kusintha gawo lililonse mu chilengedwe cha dziko ndikupanga dziko losiyana komwe lidzakhala losiyana. Koma potengera chikhalidwe cha dzikolo, malamulo amakhalidwe abwino amachokera kwa iwo mosakayikira (amakakamizidwa pa ife). Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti izi ndi zomwe zikugwirizana ndi mawu odziwika bwino a Ramchal, "khalidwe labwino lochita zabwino." Mulungu mwachibadwa ayenera kuchita zabwino. Alibe njira ina (ndikokakamizidwa pa iye).

Izi zikutanthauza kuti kunena kuti "kupha ndi koyipa" ndikusanthula, monga lamulo lotsutsana. Ngakhale kuti ichi ndi chowonadi, sichimangokhala (koma chofunikira). Choncho palibe chotchinga kunena kuti kukukakamizika (kapena kuti: “kukakamizika”) kwa Mulungu, monganso mmene kuganiza “kukakamizidwira” pa iye. Izi ndi zosiyana ndi malamulo a chilengedwe mwachitsanzo. Tengani mwachitsanzo zonena za lamulo la mphamvu yokoka: zinthu ziwiri zilizonse zokhala ndi unyinji zimakopana ndi mphamvu yomwe imayenderana ndi kuchuluka kwa zinthu zomwe zimapangidwa ndi mphamvu yokoka komanso mosagwirizana ndi sikweya ya mtunda wapakati pazo. Izi sizongonena zowerengera, ndipo zitha kukhala zabodza. Pakhoza kukhala dziko limene lamulo la mphamvu yokoka likanakhala losiyana (monga mphamvu yofanana ndi mtunda wachitatu). Chotero lamulo loterolo ndi loperekedwa kwa Mulungu, ndipo chosankha chake chokha ndicho chimene chimatsimikizira zimene zili mu lamulolo.

Momwe zikugwirizana ndi gawo lapitalo

M’gawo lapitalo ndinatsutsa kuti sipangakhale makhalidwe abwino popanda Mulungu. Kodi izi sizikutsutsa zonena zanga pano kuti makhalidwe amakakamizika kwa Mulungu ndi pamaso pake, chonchonso osati zotsatira za chifuniro chake? Zikuoneka kuti pali kutsutsana apa. Tsopano ndikumvetsa kuti izi mwina ndi zomwe Jeremy Fogel, wotsogolera, amatanthauza, yemwe adadzutsa vuto la Othipron muzokambirana zathu ndipo anandifunsa maganizo anga pa izo.

M’kukambilana komweko ndidafotokoza mwachidule kuti ndimasiyanitsa pakati pa tanthauzo la chabwino ndi choipa ndi kudzipereka kwathu kwa iwo. Tanthauzo la zabwino ndi zoipa zimakakamizika kwa Mulungu ndipo sizingakhale mwanjira ina. Ngakhale iye sangadziŵe kuti kupha munthu n’kwabwino, kapena kuti kuthandiza ena n’koipa. Koma kudzipereka kuchita zabwino ndi kupewa zoipa kulibe popanda Mulungu. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, kunena kuti kupha ndikoletsedwa, kutanthauza kuti pali zovomerezeka zovomerezeka pazochitika zoletsa kupha, sikukakamizidwa kwa Mulungu. Zimachokera ku lamulo lake ndipo zimachitidwa ndi iye.

Kubwereranso ku ganizo la 'zowona zamakhalidwe', tikhoza kunena motere: zikhoza kukhalapo paokha, monga momwe Davide Enoki amanenera (ie si Mulungu adazilenga), koma monga ndinatsutsana naye ngakhale zilipo ndipo zaikidwa mu mbali ina ya dziko lamalingaliro (ndi), Izo sizingakhale zomangirira pa ine (ndiyenera). Ndidzanena kuti m'gawo lapitalo ndinasiyanitsa pakati pa funso la yemwe adalenga mfundo zamakhalidwe abwino (momwe Enoke adachita) ndi funso la yemwe amawapatsa kutsimikizika (momwe ndidachitapo). Zomwe ndafotokoza apa ndikuti ngakhale kuti Mulungu sadalenge zowona (zimakakamizika kwa Iye), ndi lamulo Lake lokha lomwe lingawapatse mphamvu zomangira.

Mwina tsopano wina angafunse kuti n’chiyani chimamukakamiza Mulungu mwiniyo kukhala ndi makhalidwe abwino? Ngati ali wabwino ndiye kuti nayenso ayenera kudzipereka ku makhalidwe abwino (ku dongosolo lake). Kodi ali womangidwa ndi lamulo lake? Izi ndizodabwitsa kwambiri, ndipo zimatsutsananso ndi zomwe ndimanena kuchokera pagawo lapitalo kuti chinthu chakunja chikufunika chomwe chidzapatsa de Dicto kuvomerezeka kwa lamulo.

Ndikuganiza kuti kungakhale koyenera kunena kuti Mulungu sanadzipereke ku makhalidwe abwino, koma amasankha. Sasankha makhalidwe abwino (chifukwa chiŵerengero chamtheradi ndi chokhwima chomwe chilibe m’manja mwake) koma amasankha kukondweretsa ndi kulamula zolengedwa zake makhalidwe abwino. Izi ndizofanana ndi zomwe ndimanena m'gawo lapitalo kwa Ari Alon, kuti munthu atha kudzipangira yekha ngati ali ndi makhalidwe abwino kapena ayi, koma sangathe kukhazikitsa malamulo a makhalidwe abwino (kutanthauzira zomwe zili zabwino ndi zoipa). Ngati ndi choncho, onse aŵiri munthu ndi Mulungu ali omangidwa ndi malamulo a makhalidwe abwino. Tanthauzo la zabwino ndi zoipa limakakamizika kwa iwo osati kwa iwo. Koma Mulungu akhoza kulamula makhalidwe abwino ndi kupereka matanthauzo amenewa mphamvu yomanga kwa ife, ndipo munthu sangachitenso zimenezo.[3]

Tsopano ndiwonjezera gawo lina pachithunzichi. Nkovuta kunena za kutsogola kwakanthawi kwa mfundo zamakhalidwe abwino (matanthauzo a chabwino ndi choipa) kwa Mulungu, popeza Iye wakhala alipo. Pamaso pake panalibe kanthu chifukwa palibe nthawi pamaso pake. Kulibe ndipo sikungakhale dziko, ngakhale longoyerekeza, momwe Mulungu kulibe. Koma mwanthanthi pakhoza kukhala dziko limene Mulungu samalamula kukhala ndi makhalidwe abwino (pokhapokha ngati tilingalira kuti chikhalidwe chake chabwino chimamukakamiza kuchita zabwino ndi kufuna kupindula). Tawonani kuti tsopano taphunzira kuti makhalidwe amatsogolera lamulo laumulungu, koma osati Mulungu. Ndi za kutsogola kwakanthawi. Koma pamlingo womwewo palinso patsogolo kwambiri.

Mfundo za makhalidwe abwino sizidalira malamulo a Mulungu, ndiponso siziri ntchito ya Mulungu. Koma kunena kuti makhalidwe abwino alipo ngakhale popanda Mulungu, palibe tanthauzo lililonse. Kungoganiza kuti Mulungu ndi amene kukhalapo kwake kuli kofunikira (ndipo apa ndikukamba za Mulungu wachipembedzo, osati "woonda" kuchokera pamndandanda wapitawo), ndiye kuti sizingatheke kunena zenizeni zomwe zilipo zofunika. kuti kulibe. Choncho ngakhale makhalidwe (kapena mfundo za makhalidwe abwino) alipo popanda lamulo sitinganene kuti alipo popanda Mulungu. Ngakhale kuti zonsezi zilipo mofanana, mfundo za makhalidwe abwino sizidalirabe Mulungu.

Koma tsopano tingathe kufika pa tanthauzo losiyana pang’ono: mfundo za makhalidwe abwino ndi fupa la Mulungu mwini (liri kwenikweni “khalidwe labwino kuchita zabwino” kwenikweni), liripo monga momwe iye alili, ndipo monga momwe iye alilidi ndipo nthawi zonse. iwo amakhalapo ndipo nthawi zonse. Ndipo komabe kutsimikizika kwawo sikokhazikika kapena kofunikira. Iwo alibe mphamvu zomangirira popanda kulamulidwa kutero.

Pakati pa kutumikira Mulungu ndi Aseri sizinagwire ntchito

Kumayambiriro kwa gawoli ndidaumirira kuti lingaliro la Mulungu lomwe likukambidwa m'gawoli si Mulungu "woonda" kuchokera pagawo lapitalo (Mulungu wofunikira kuti apereke kutsimikizika kwa malamulo amakhalidwe ndi mfundo zamakhalidwe). Mudzazindikira izi pamene mupendanso malingaliro osiyanasiyana omwe abwera pano okhudzana ndi mfundo yakuti pali kufunikira komwe kumakhalapo nthawi zonse, komanso ponena za mfundo yakuti mfundo za makhalidwe abwino ndizo mbali ya mphamvu zake ndikuti nkwachibadwa kuchita zabwino. ndi zina. Izi ndizowonjezera zomwe "zimapanga" pang'ono "zonenepa" kukhala "zoonda" ndi zochepa zomwe ndinachita nazo m'gawo lapitalo.

Izi zili choncho chifukwa zokambirana zomwe zili mu gawoli zikuchitika kwathunthu mu gawo la zamulungu, osati la meta-ethical. M'malo mwake, vuto la Othipron lokha ndilo gawo lazaumulungu. Popanda zamulungu sizikanakhala vuto kunena kuti Mulungu amatanthauzira malamulo a makhalidwe abwino (chifukwa panalibe chifukwa choganiza kuti mawu akuti iye ndi wabwino ndi kutsutsana pa iye osati tanthauzo), ndiye kuti vuto silikanakhalapo. adalengedwa. Kuonjezera apo, mu kuwerenga kwa filosofi kunalibe kutsutsana ndi mawu anga mu gawo lapitalo. Ngati Mulungu amatanthauzira zabwino ndi zoipa (zowona zamakhalidwe) ndiye kuti zimagwirizana bwino ndi zomwe ndidatsutsa mgawo lapitalo, ndipo panalibe chifukwa cha gawo lonseli. Cholinga changa apa chinali kugwirizanitsa zonena zanga zamakhalidwe abwino kuchokera mgawo lapitalo ndi Mulungu wa ndege ya zamulungu (Myuda-Mkristu) yemwe amaganiza kuti ndi wabwino. Uku ndi kukambitsirana kwaumulungu komveka bwino (osati nkhani zamakhalidwe).

Vuto la Othipron lokhudza mfundo zachipembedzo

Kangapo m'mbuyomo ndinanenapo kusiyana pakati pa zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo ndi makhalidwe abwino (onani mwachitsanzo ndime 15, Chiyambi cha bukhu langa Amayenda pakati poyimirira Ndi zina zambiri). Yankho lomwe ndikupangira kutsutsana pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe abwino ndiloti awa ndi machitidwe awiri odziimira okha. Act X akhoza halakhically odzipereka (chifukwa amalimbikitsa mtengo wachipembedzo A), koma nthawi yomweyo makhalidwe oletsedwa (chifukwa amakhumudwitsa makhalidwe B). Mfundo zachipembedzo ndi zachiwerewere, ndipo nthawi zina zimatha kukhala zosiyana kwambiri ndi makhalidwe abwino ndipo nthawi zina zimakhala zosagwirizana (pamene mkangano umangochitika muzochitika zina). Mtsutso wanga ndikuti palibe cholepheretsa kutsutsana kotereku, ndipo kwenikweni ndikolondola kunena kuti izi sizotsutsana (palibe chovuta pamlingo wamalingaliro muzochitika zotere), koma mikangano (ndizovuta kusankha chochita. kuchita pa mlingo wothandiza).

Kutsatira izi, Tirgitz adafunsa funso lotsatirali (bTalkback Kumndandanda wam'mbuyo):

Izi zikutanthauza kuti m'gawo lotsatira mukhalanso ndi eufroni pazachipembedzo ndi zikhalidwe zina, zomwe m'malingaliro anu ndi zomwe Mulungu amalola kuti asiye udindo uliwonse wamakhalidwe. Ndipo izi zikutanthauza kuti ngakhale Mulungu sanadzipangire yekha mwachisawawa.

Ndifotokoza funso lake. Malinga ndi njira yanga, Mulungu amatilamula kukhala ndi malamulo oletsa makhalidwe abwino kuti tilimbikitse makhalidwe achipembedzo. Ngati ndi choncho, Tirgitz akutsutsa, zikuwoneka kuti zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo zimakakamizika kwa iye ndipo siziri chifukwa cha chifuniro chake chokhazikika (malamulo ake olamulira). Malamulowo akadakhala kuti sadali “mfundo zomveka” zoperekedwa kwa Mulungu koma zidalengedwa ndi malamulo ake, ndiye kuti akadawakhazikitsa mosiyana. Zikatero ndingayembekezere kuti ngati akufuna (ndi kutengera) kuchita zabwino sangakhazikitse malamulo otsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino. Kukhalapo kwa mikangano kumasonyeza kuti malamulo a halakhah (kapena mfundo zachipembedzo, zomwe malamulo omwewo a halakhah amalimbikitsa) amakakamizikanso kwa Mbuye, choncho amagwidwa (kapena kutichitira nkhanza) chifukwa chofunikira pa mikangano imeneyi.

Ili ndi funso lalikulu, ndipo ndikuganiza kuti akulondola. Monga pali zowona zamakhalidwe palinso zowona za halakhic. Izi ndi izo sizidalira Mulungu ndipo zikukakamizidwa kwa Iye.[4] Kumayambiriro kwa bukhu lachitatu mu trilogy ndinali pafupi kufanizitsa chithunzi cha Kantian cha khalidwe labwino monga kulemekeza dongosolo lamagulu ndi chithunzi cha halakhic chomwe ndimapereka chochita mitzvah monga kulemekeza kudzipereka ku lamulo. Apa tikuwona kuti fanizoli likupitilira.[5]

Izi zikundibweretsa ku funso lina la Tirgitz, lomwe adafunsidwa masiku angapo m'mbuyomo (onani kukambirana kopitilira muyeso. Pano). Pamakhalidwe abwino ndizofala kuganiza kuti pakakhala kusamvana pakati pa zikhalidwe, ndiye kuti ngakhale nditakhala ndi chifukwa chochitira X ndikupitilira Y, pali vuto lomwe ndidapitilira Y. Ndiyenera kumva chisoni kapena chisoni kukhumudwitsa munthu kapena kuchita zachiwerewere, ngakhale ndikanachita zimenezi. Tirgitz adafunsa ngati chisoni choterechi chikuyenera kuwonekeranso m'mawu a halakhic (Q.)zolankhulidwa: "Chisoni kwa inu ndi chisoni kwa ine"). Ndiko kuti, ndinong'oneze bondo kuti chifukwa chochita mitzvah sindinagwedeze lulav (kapena kuti chifukwa ndinali kudwala sindinasala kudya pa Yom Kippur), monga momwe ndimamvera chisoni kuti chifukwa ndinapita kunkhondo ndinayenera kupha. anthu (ndipo nthawi zina anthu wamba). Mwachidule, funso lake ndi lakuti ngati pali kusiyana pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe abwino pankhaniyi.

Ndinamuyankha pamenepo kuti ndikuganiza kuti pali kusiyana pakati pa zochitikazo: m'makhalidwe abwino ngakhale mtengo wina ukakanidwa patsogolo pa mtengo wina, ndiyenerabe kumva chisoni kapena kusokonezeka chifukwa chodutsa mtengo wokanidwa (Ndimapweteka munthu) . Komano, mu halakhah ngati palibe udindo ndipo ndachita zomwe zili zondiyenereza palibe chifukwa chodandaulira zomwe sindidakwaniritse. Ndilololedwa mwangwiro ndipo palibe amene avulazidwa.

Koma kusiyana uku kukuganiza kuti mu halakhah muli lamulo lokha ndipo pamene palibe lamulo palibe chomwe chinachitika. Koma potengera chithunzi chomwe chikuwonekera apa zikuwoneka kuti ndiyenera kubwereranso kwa ine ndekha kuchokera pakusiyana uku. Ngati tikuganiza kuti lamulo la halakhic lidadza kulimbikitsa zikhulupiliro zachipembedzo, ndiye kuti ngakhale nditaphwanya halakhah mwachilungamo (chifukwa cha halakhah ina yomwe idayikana), komabe china chake mudziko la uzimu chidaipitsidwa nacho (ndinachita zosemphana ndi mfundo ya halakhic ndi anabweretsa chivulazo chauzimu). Zikuwoneka kuti chithunzi chomwe ndapereka apa chikuwonetsa kuti palibe kusiyana pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe abwino pankhaniyi.[6]

Ngakhale poganizira mopitilira, tinganene kuti mwachidziwitso ngati ndidachita china chake chololeza ndiye kuti kuwonongeka kwauzimu kudapewedwa (onani Zolemba Pa citric acid pa Paskha, pomwe ndidabweretsa magwero omwe amalemba choncho). Tinganene kuti Mulungu amachita chozizwitsa ndikuletsa kuwonongeka kotero kuti pasakhale choyipa cha munthu wolungama ngati ine amene ali wokhulupirika ku chilamulo. Izi ndithudi sizichitika pa ndege ya makhalidwe. Kumeneko ngakhale nditasokoneza makhalidwe abwino, chiwonongekocho sichingalephereke. Kusiyanaku kumachokera ku mfundo yakuti pamakhalidwe awa ndi zenizeni zenizeni ndipo muzochitika za halakhic izi ndi zenizeni zauzimu. Mulungu sasintha physics chifukwa sasokoneza machitidwe a dziko lapansi, koma amasintha zenizeni zauzimu (chifukwa mu dziko lauzimu iye amasokoneza. Apo si mechanically conduct).[7]. Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti pamene taona kuti mfundo zamakhalidwe abwino sizowona zenizeni, zimadalira zenizeni zakuthupi (kuvulazidwa kapena kuzunzika kwa munthu mwachitsanzo). Mwachitsanzo, ngati ndinaba ndalama za munthu kuti ndipulumutse moyo, ndiye kuti ngakhale zitaloledwa ndipo mwinamwake ngakhale mitzvah, kuwonongeka kwa wakuba kunachitika ndipo palibe chifukwa chodandaulira ( apa sichidzachitika chozizwitsa kuti Mulungu adzabwezera ndalamazo kwa iye).

Tanthauzoli lidzakhala lamilandu monga ndidafotokozera m'gawo lapitalo, pomwe dongosolo lamagulu limandiuza kuti ndisachite X ngakhale zilibe zotsatira zoyipa. Zikatero zikuwoneka kuti ngati chinthucho chikanidwa chifukwa cha mtengo wina palibe chodandaula. Izi ndizofanana ndi zomwe zikuchitika mu gawo la halakhic. Mwachitsanzo, tiyerekeze ndikweza msonkho wa NIS chikwi chimodzi kuti ndipulumutse moyo wa munthu. Zikatero palibe chomwe ndinganong'oneze nazo bondo pakuzemba misonkho chifukwa zilibe zotsatira zoyipa (ndinafotokozera izi mgawo lapitalo). Kupitilira zotsatira zovuta zomwe kulibe, zomwe zili pano ndikuphwanya dongosolo lamagulu, koma izi zidalungamitsidwa muzochitika izi. M'malo mwake, ndizolondola kunena kuti sindinaphwanye dongosolo lamtundu uliwonse muzochitika zotere. Malamulo onse amati aliyense azizemba msonkho kuti apulumutse moyo.

[1] M'gawo lapitalo ndidafotokoza chifukwa chake lamulo lotsutsana ngati lingaliro lowunikira silifuna kulungamitsidwa. Ili ndi lingaliro lomwelo kuchokera ku ngodya yosiyana pang'ono.

[2] Ganizilani za funso lakuti, kodi Mulungu angapange mpanda umene sungagonjetse zipolopolo zonse ndi cipolopolo copyola makoma onse. Yankho pa izi ndi zoipa ndithu, chifukwa ngati mpira analenga kudutsa makoma onse ndiye palibe khoma kuti kulimbana nawo, choncho palibe khoma amene kugonjetsedwa ndi mipira yonse, ndi mosemphanitsa. Kulephera kwa Mulungu kulenga zinthu ziwiri zotere nthawi imodzi sikusokoneza luso lake. Mwachidule pamlingo womveka palibe chowonadi chotero. Mwaona Pano Tanthauzo la funso mwala kuti Mulungu sangakhoze kukweza, ndiPano Pa funso la kuipa kwa chilengedwe (onaninso buku lachiwiri mu trilogy yanga mu mutu wakhumi).

[3] Mapeto ake ndi kuti ubwino wake (mluzu) ndi wosiyana ndi wathu. Alibe malamulo okakamiza amene amamvera, koma ndi amene amawatsimikizira. Munthuyo amamangidwa ndi dongosolo lamagulu lomwe kuvomerezeka kwake kumaperekedwa kwa iye, choncho chisankho chiyenera kupangidwa kuti chichite mogwirizana ndi izo. Mulungu, kumbali ina, sadadzipereka, koma amasankha kutsimikizira. Ramchal adzanena kuti chikhalidwe chake ndi kuchita zabwino.

[4] Kumayambiriro kwa gawo 278  Ndakambiranapo za nehma dhakisufa, ndipo ndikuwoneka kuti zokambirana zomwe zili pamenepo zimayankhanso funsoli.

[5] Onani nkhani za dongosolo la halakhah, zomwe zikuwonetsa kupitiriza kwa kufanana pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe abwino, koma nthawi ino zimakhudza zomwe zili mkati osati ndondomeko yomveka. Pamenepo ndikutsutsa kuti dongosolo lachigawo lili ndi halakhic.

[6] Ndibweretsa pano lingaliro loyambirira lomwe limafunikirabe kusokoneza. Ndikuganiza kuti pali kusiyana kwina. Pamakhalidwe abwino pali kudzipereka ku makhalidwe abwino, koma mu halakhah pali kudzipereka ku zikhulupiliro zachipembedzo komanso udindo womvera lamulo chifukwa chokhala dongosolo laumulungu (mosasamala kanthu kuti limalimbikitsanso makhalidwe achipembedzo. ). Lingaliro apa ndiloti mu makhalidwe mulibe lamulo laumulungu koma chifuniro chaumulungu kuti tichite motere. Dongosolo lamtunduwu lilibe mawonekedwe a mitzvah mkati mwa halakhah (ngakhale ndimanena kuti ili ndi halakhic. Onani zolemba zanga Pano).

Ndipo zikutsatira kuti pamene sindisala kudya pa Yom Kippur chifukwa ndikudwala, muyeso wa lamulo mulibe, popeza lamulo muzochitika zotere ndilo kudya osati kusala. Choncho kuchokera pakudya uku palibe vuto lomwe lachitika ndipo palibe chodandaula. Kumbali ina, m'makhalidwe abwino, ngakhale ngati phindu lina likukanidwa moyenerera, udindo wa makhalidwe abwino kuti ukhalebe umakhala wofanana (kupatulapo kuti sungathe kumvera. Ndipotu, ndikutsutsa kuti mkangano wamakhalidwe umakanidwa nthawi zonse" ' ndipo osati 'ololedwa'). Koma mu halakhah mulinso gawo lotsatira (kuwongolera kopangidwa kuchokera ku mitzvah ndi kuwononga kuchokera ku cholakwacho), ndipo ponena za izi zikuwoneka ngati zofanana ndi zomwe taziwona m'nkhani ya makhalidwe. Zimakhudzana ndi kusiyana pakati pa kukhalapo kwa de dicto ndi kukhalapo kwa de re, ndi zina zotero.

[7] Onani zolemba pa bZolemba Pa Chilango cha Halacha mu Chaputala D, pomwe ndidatulukira motsutsana ndi njira zamakanika mu zilango zakumwamba.

80 Malingaliro pa "Kuyang'ana pa Vuto la Othipron mu Kuunika kwa Mkangano (Colum 457)"

  1. Mzamba amanong'oneza bondo kuti adaletsedwa kusala kudya pa Yom Kippur. Pankhani ya lamulo ili laphimbidwa kwathunthu - ndi lomasulidwa. Mosiyana ndi zimenezo, lamulo loyang'anira moyo ndi moyo limadutsa kwambiri. Koma akumva chisoni, ngakhale akudziwa bwino lomwe kuti mitzvah yake pakali pano ndi kudya, chifukwa sanasale. Iye alibe tsiku la kusala kudya, kuyeretsedwa ndi chitetezero. Kodi mutaya malingaliro awa ngati Afra Daraa, ndikuchotsa pamalingaliro a 'psychology' - mikangano yomwe simukuliganizira? Kapena pali chinthu china apa chomwe chimafanana ndi chisoni cha kuphonya kwa makhalidwe abwino?

    1. Ndikumvetsetsa bwino chisoni ichi, ndipo ndikuganiza kuti chili ndi malo. Zomwe ndakambirana ndi funso ngati pali chidwi / udindo (osati halakhic) wonong'oneza bondo. Mwachidule, ndikuchita ndi zokhazikika osati zamaganizo. Ngati anthu ataya masewera a mpira pepani, ndiye simungakhale wansembe ngati wosamalira alendo?!

        1. Osati pamlingo womwewo, ngati ayi. Malinga ndi zomwe ndidalemba mgawoli, poganiza kuti Mulungu amaletsa kuwonongeka kwauzimu ngati wina achita movomerezeka, ndiye kuti palibe chomwe chinachitika. Ndipo ngati anong’oneza bondo (kutaya) kwa kutaika kwake (kutaya luso lake) – ndithudi uwu ndiufulu wake koma sikofunikira kukhala ndi phindu. Mwina limasonyeza mtundu wa Yarosh popeza chisoni chimasonyeza kuti zinthu ndi zofunika kwa iye. Koma chisoni cha makhalidwe ndi chinthu china choposa kusonyeza kuti mtengo ndi wofunika kwa iye. Kunena kuti china chake chavuta chinachitika pano, kupatulapo kuti ndine wopanda mlandu. Munkhani ya halakhic palibe vuto lomwe lidachitika. Nthawi zambiri simunachitepo kanthu.

  2. Ndikuganiza kuti palibe umboni wotsimikizira kuti pali mafunso okhudza Mulungu kuti makhalidwe amakakamizidwa pa iye.
    Mafunso amenewa amangoganiza kuti Mulungu anasankha lamulo la makhalidwe abwino monga mfundo yaikulu, choncho funsani mmene angadzitsutse.

    1. Sharpener - funso likumveka bwino komanso losagwirizana. Ndiko kuti, n'zoonekeratu kwa iye kuti pali kulungamitsidwa makhalidwe kwa ichi, popeza iye amaganiza kuti makhalidwe ndi mfundo yaikulu imene mimba wasankha.

      1. Sindinaganize kuti adawombana. Kupatula apo, ngati ali wabwino, ndiye kuti zolimbikitsa sizofunikira. Koma ndikuganiza kuti mukuphonya nyimbo ya mafunso awa: mumawapereka ngati mafunso omveka (okhudza kugwirizana kwake), koma mafunsowa ndi abwino. Zili ngati kuti Abrahamu amene analamula kuti amvere mwana wake amangodabwa ndi kugwirizana kwa Mulungu amene analonjeza kuti Isake adzamutcha Mbewu, ndi kunyalanyaza funso la momwe Mulungu angalamulire chinthu choterocho. Kwa inu awiriwa ndi mafunso omveka ofanana. Sizimene olemba ndakatulo amatanthauza.

  3. Ponena za funso la Tirgitz - ili ndi funso labwino, chifukwa kumverera ndikuti Halacha ndi yosiyana ndi ntchito zamakhalidwe abwino (monga momwe Maimonides amagawanika pakati pa malamulo amaganizo ndi omvera, ndi zina zotero). Njira imodzi yofotokozera izi ndi yakuti Mulungu ali pansi pa gulu lonse la uzimu lomwe sitingathe kulipeza - ndiyeno funso lidzafunsidwanso mwachibadwa - ngati Mulungu ali pansi pa ndondomeko ya malamulo otere, ndiye mwachiwonekere mndandanda wa malamulo awa. ndi munthu wapamwamba, mtundu wa Spinoza Mulungu Osati munthu payekha komanso wosayanjanitsika, koma mu dziko "lachirengedwe" lopanda thupi. Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti funso la kugonjera kwa Mulungu ku malamulo ndi lofooka kwambiri kuti silinakhalepo pa nkhani ya malamulo omveka, monga momwe munafotokozera (kuti iwo sali "malamulo"), ndipo ndi lolimba pang'ono pa nkhani ya malamulo a makhalidwe abwino. , chifukwa mwatsutsana - pang'ono pang'ono koma zonena zomwe ndingavomereze - kuti ndizofunikira mofanana. Koma pankhani ya malamulo a halakhic ndizovuta kwambiri kuvomereza, mwa lingaliro langa. Chifukwa kufunikira kwawo kumaphatikizapo kulenga dziko kumene kuli kofunikira, zikuwoneka, ndipo pamaso pake zikuwoneka ngati zosafunikira (zotsutsana ndizoti ndizofunikira pamlingo wapamwamba kwambiri, komabe zosatheka kuzimvetsa - zomwe ndizofunikira kwambiri; pokhapokha dziko lidalengedwa pamodzi ndi malamulowa Kuvuta kupondereza). Izi zili chonchonso ndi malamulo a makhalidwe abwino ("" Chifukwa ululu ndi woipa "ndi zonena kuti ndi zogwirizana ndi dziko kumene pali ululu - ndipo funso lalikulu ndi chifukwa chake Mulungu analenga ululu padziko lapansi osati chifukwa chake ananena izo. sayenera kuyambitsa kupweteka), komabe mwanjira ina zikuwoneka zamphamvu mdziko lapansi zomwe ndidapita komwe malamulo amawoneka osagwirizana. Mulimonse mmene zingakhalire, zimaika Mulungu m’dziko limene iye analiko asanakhalepo ndipo sangalilamulire. Mwa njira, pali mwayi wina wongopeka wothana ndi funsoli, lomwe sindikudziwa zomwe ndikuganiza - kunena kuti Mulungu angasankhe dziko lomwe malamulo amakhalidwe abwino okha ndi ofunikira monga ntchito yaumunthu, ndipo amatha kusankha. dziko limene malamulo amenewa amakanidwa motsutsana ndi makhalidwe ena. Ndipo anasankha njira yachiŵiri chifukwa popanda mkhalidwe wotero, sitikanayang’ana pa malamulo ameneŵa, anali odziŵika okha (monga momwe Maimonides akulembera ponena za mtengo wa chidziŵitso ndi doc). Malingana ndi kuthekera uku - kukhalapo kwa dziko la halakhic lomwe limatsutsana ndi malamulo a makhalidwe abwino nthawi zina limakhala lolungama pazifukwa zina zakunja, osati zofunikira, ndipo sizifuna dziko lonse la malamulo omwe Mulungu amamvera. Kumbali ina, monga tanenera, lingaliro lenilenilo lopanga dziko loterolo lingawonekere kukhala lokayikitsa.

    1. Sindinamvetse zomwe ananena. Ndingopereka ndemanga pamfundo ziwiri m'mawu anu (omwe ndikuyembekeza kuti ndamvetsetsa):
      1. Malamulo sagwira ntchito. Tanthauzo la chabwino ndi choipa siliri kwenikweni pamenepo koma mwinamwake chowonadi. Choncho palibe chonena za funso lakuti ngati iwo ali apamwamba kuposa Mulungu kapena ayi.
      2. Ngakhale malamulo a makhalidwe abwino ndi malamulo m'dziko lathu lokha. Ngati dziko lina likanalengedwa lomwe linali losiyana kotheratu ndi zolengedwa zomangidwa mosiyana (zinalibe chisoni ndi kuzunzika), ndiye kuti malamulo ena akadagwiritsidwa ntchito kwa ilo. Koma ngati anali malamulo amakhalidwe abwino ndiye kuti awa anali kugwiritsa ntchito malamulo athu amakhalidwe abwino pamikhalidwe imeneyo. Izi ndi zomwe mudafotokoza za halakhah, choncho zikuwoneka kuti palibe kusiyana.

  4. "Chidziwitso chilichonse chamtundu: a ndi b. Kungoganiza kuti izi ndi zolondola, ndiye kuti zikutanthauza: a is a, kutanthauza tautology yopanda kanthu. ” -Ndimavutika kupeza vuto pano. Poganiza kuti izi ndi zolondola, ndizofanana kunena kuti A = A, komanso kunena kuti 1 + 1 = 2 ndi zina zilizonse zolondola. Ngati tanthawuzo la chiganizo ndilo chidziwitso chomwe chikuwonjezera, ndiye kuti palibe chiganizo chomwe chili ndi "tanthauzo loganiza kuti ndi zoona." Ngati tiganiza / tikudziwa kuti ndi zoona, kunenanso kuti ndi zoona sikumawonjezera zambiri kwa ife, motero sizofunikira.

  5. B.S.D.

    Vuto lokongola la Uthron ndi la mafano, omwe sadziŵika bwino kuti amadziŵika bwanji ndi makhalidwe abwino. M'malo mwake, malinga ndi nthano zanthano zikuwonekeratu kuti ali odzaza ndi kaduka ndi mphamvu.

    Mosiyana ndi zimenezo, Mulungu wa Israyeli ndiye gwero la choonadi ndi gwero la ubwino. Iye ‘samvera’ makhalidwe abwino ndi choonadi. Iye ndiye choonadi ndi makhalidwe mu chiyero chawo changwiro. Ife monga olenga kuti chidziwitso chathu ndi nyenyeswa yaing'ono. Timadziŵa pang’ono ndi mphamvu zathu, mphamvu zathu ndi phunziro lathu, koma chimene timadziŵa ndi kaduka kakang’ono kochokera pa chithunzi chonse, chimene Mlengi wa dziko lapansi yekha ndiye amachidziŵa ndi kudziŵa chifuno chake.

    Mavuto athu a makhalidwe abwino okhudza njira za Mlengi ali ngati mavuto a mwana amene samvetsa chifukwa chimene bambo ake amamenyera dzanja lake pamene ankangofuna kumata nyundo m’chibowo chamagetsi, ndipo samvetsa chifukwa chake bambo ake anaperekedwa m’manja mwawo. gulu lankhanza la timiyala toyera likutulutsa mipeni ndikung'amba mnofu wa mnyamata watsoka.

    Ponena za makolo aumunthu, takhala ndi mwayi kale kumvetsetsa kuti kuwomba kwa dzanja kunabwera kudzapulumutsa mwanayo ku mphamvu yamagetsi, ndipo 'osolola mipeni mu malaya oyera' amachitira mwanayo ntchito yopulumutsa moyo. Koposa zonse, monga zochita za Mlengi wa dziko lapansi, amene anafufuza anthu zaka mazanamazana kuti amvetse kuzama kwake—kuti timaloledwa kupereka ‘tamanda’ kwa Mlengi wathu, kuti kuzunzika ndi kuzunzika kwa iye. amatibweretsanso ndi zabwino kwa ife, kutikonzekeretsa mu khola 'Lounge', ndipo tidziwitse ndi mitima yathu kuti pamene bambo azunza mwana wake 'Elkich akuzunza iwe'

    Zikomo, Othipron Nefshatim Halevi

    1. 'Makhalidwe a atate wako' ndi 'chiphunzitso cha amako' - kuvomereza goli kapena kumvetsetsa ndi kuzindikirika?

      Ngati Mlengi ali ndi chizindikiritso chotheratu pakati pa chifuno chake ndi cholinga chabwino, munthu angakhale ndi mpata pakati pa lingaliro lake la chimene chiri chabwino ndi choyenera ndi malangizo amene amalandira kwa Mlengi wake. Ndipo kusiyana kumeneku sikungotheka kokha koma kofunikira, koma kumachepetsedwa malinga ngati munthuyo akuzama ndikumvetsetsa bwino chifuniro cha Kono.

      Pamaso pake, munthu angakhale wokhutira ndi kuvomereza goli chifukwa chotsimikizirika kuti Mlengi wa dziko lapansi akupereka chiweruzo ngakhale ngati munthu sakumvetsa, koma zimenezo si zokwanira. Pakuti munthuyo sayenera kungokhala ‘kapolo’ wokhulupirika kwa Kono, komanso ‘wophunzira’ amene amadziwa kumasulira chifuniro cha Kono ngakhale pamene sanalandire malangizo omveka bwino.

      Kwa 'kapolo' ndikokwanira kulamula 'kuchita' kapena 'kuchita chomwecho'. Iye sadzachitapo kanthu popanda kulandira malangizo omveka bwino, koma kuti akhale 'wophunzira' wodziwa kuwongolera chifuniro cha rabi wake ngakhale pamene kuli koyenera 'kumvetsetsa chinachake kuchokera ku chinachake', payenera kukhala kumvetsetsa kwa arabi. tanthauzo la zinthu, zimene angagwiritsire ntchito mfundozo.

      Kuti izi zitheke, Torah yolembedwa idaperekedwa yomwe idanenedwa kuchokera kumwamba ndi liwu loti 'lolembedwa pamagome', komanso liyenera kukhala 'Torah yapakamwa' yomwe imafuna kumvetsetsa tanthauzo ndi malingaliro a malamulo a Torah, komanso kumvetsetsa kuzama kwa malamulo a Torah. Malamulo a Torah - munthu amatha kuyamwa mzimu wa zinthu.

      Ndi Torah yapakamwa yomwe imamveketsa bwino lamulo laufulu - munthu akudzimasula yekha ku 'vuto la' Yifron ', popeza chifuniro cha Mlengi chomwe chinayamba monga' kuvomereza goli lakunja' - chimakula kwambiri 'Torah Delia' ndi zomwe amazimvetsa ndikuzizindikira.

      Mowona mtima, Enoch Hanach Feinschmeker-Felti

      1. “Koma pamene uchimo [munthu mumtengo wa chidziwitso] ulangidwa mwa kulandidwa nzeru zomwezo… ndipo chifukwa chake zimanenedwa ‘ndipo munali ngati Mulungu wodziwa zabwino ndi zoipa’ osanena ‘odziwa mabodza ndi choonadi’ kapena 'opeza mabodza ndi choonadi'.
        Ndipo pa zinthu zofunika palibe chabwino kapena choipa konse koma mabodza ndi chowonadi ”(Mon., Part I, P.B.)
        Mwina Maimonides pano akulankhulanso za mfundo zamakhalidwe abwino ndikuchotsa vuto la Eitipron?

          1. Zikomo kaamba ka umboniwo, ndinaŵerenga, mwina sindinamvetse, koma sindinawone vuto ndi mawu a Maimonides.
            Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti chiganizocho chiyenera kugawidwa m'magulu awiri:

            "Ndipo mudali ngati Mulungu wodziwa zabwino ndi zoipa" - izi ndi za kuzindikira komwe kwakula mwa inu kwa anthu otchuka, okongola ndi onyansa, abwino kapena oyipa. Kotero tsopano makhalidwe amawonekeranso kwa inu abwino ndi oipa.

            “Ndipo [ndimeyo] sananene bodza ndi chowonadi kapena amene apeza bodza ndi choonadi, ndipo m’zofunikira palibe chabwino ndi choipa konse koma bodza ndi chowonadi” - apa Maimonides amatanthauza makhalidwe abwino. Ndiko kuti, m’lingaliro limeneli mwachoka kwa Mulungu ndi kutaya luntha laluntha limene munali nalo m’mbuyomo kuti muzindikire makhalidwe abwino m’gulu loona ndi laumulungu lomwe ndi choonadi ndi bodza.

            Iyenera kuwerengedwa ngati funso ndi yankho - ndipo chifukwa chiyani vesilo silinanene "bodza ndi choonadi"? Yankhani - chifukwa mudataya. Koma mudzadziwa kuti kwenikweni, ndi Mulungu, zinthu zofunika (makhalidwe) si zabwino ndi zoipa koma zabodza ndi zoona. Ndipo apa vuto la Eitipron ndilofunika kwambiri.

            1. Sindikukumbukiranso mawu enieniwo, koma ndinazindikira kuti zinali zaulemu osati makhalidwe. Mulimonse momwe zingakhalire, ngakhale mukunena zowona kuti pali mawu ena mu Maimonides omwe samachotsa vuto la Eitipron. Koposa zonse mungatsutse kuti Maimonides anali ndi kaimidwe kake pa vutolo.

      2. Makhalidwe - chifundo kapena kulepheretsa makhalidwe?

        Mu SD ACH Tov mu Adash XNUMX

        Kusiyanitsa sikuli pakati pa 'chipembedzo' ndi 'makhalidwe' koma pakati pa 'khalidwe lachifundo' ndi 'moral of deterrence'. Detersh, kumbali ina, ali ndi khalidwe loletsa kubweretsa kwa wochimwa kubwezera kwankhanza kumene kudzachotsa mwa wochimwa wamtsogolo 'o ameni' onse a kubwereranso kwa upandu.

        Pano tikufunikira 'dongosolo laumulungu' lomwe lidzapereke mlingo woyenera umene udzabweretse kulinganiza pakati pa kufunikira kolepheretsa kwakukulu ndi chikhumbo chaumulungu cha chifundo ndi kulola kuwongolera.

        Motero, mwachitsanzo, kuletsa kumafuna kuchotseratu muzu anthu amene anakulitsa lingaliro la udani ndi kuipa—Amaleki ndi anthu a ku Kanani—ndipo kumbali ina chifundo chimafuna kuwaitanira iwo choyamba ku mtendere ndi kuwalola kuthaŵa mwa ‘kusintha njira’. povomereza zoyambira za chikhulupiriro ndi makhalidwe abwino.

        Zikomo, Hasdai Bezalel Kirshan-Kwas Cherries

  6. Kukwezetsa makona atatu a nsangalabwi. Ndi chinthu chomwe chimasunga zinthu zonse za makona atatu komanso zinthu zonse za bwalo.
    Chinachake chomwe chili makona atatu ozungulira ndi chozungulira komanso chopangidwa ndi mizere itatu yowongoka.

    Ngakhale izi zikusemphana ndi malingaliro atsiku ndi tsiku, mwamwayi zenizeni sizimavina momveka bwino pamalingaliro athu. Apo ayi, sitikanakhalako.

  7. Sindikuganiza kuti chithunzi chomwe mwafotokozacho chikuwonetsa kuti zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo zimakakamizidwa kwa Mulungu. Chifukwa chokhala chomwe iye ali, iye mwiniyo ali ndi ulamuliro womwe ungathe kudziwa kuti zikhulupiliro zina zachipembedzo (zomwe adalenga) ndizofunikira kwambiri kukana makhalidwe abwino. Mfundo yakuti mfundo za makhalidwe abwino zimamangiriza sikutanthauza kuti iwo ali oyamba pamndandanda wa zinthu zofunika kwambiri.

    1. Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti simunamvetse mkangano wanga (kapena wa Tirgitz). Pongoganiza kuti mfundo zachipembedzo zili m'manja mwake kutanthauza kuti akhoza kuzizindikira momwe angafunire, palibe chifukwa padziko lapansi chodziwira kufunika kwachipembedzo komwe kumatsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino. Kodi nchifukwa ninji angachite zimenezi ngati angadziŵe phindu lachipembedzo m’njira yogwirizana ndi makhalidwe abwino? Izi zikutanthauza kuti mfundo zachipembedzo sizili m'manja mwake.

      1. Ngati ndi choncho sindinamvetsetse kale, koma ngakhale izi sizibwera m'maganizo mwanga, pazifukwa ziwiri:

        1. Sizingatheke kupanga dongosolo lachipembedzo lomwe limagwirizana kotheratu ndi makhalidwe abwino (monga momwe mumanenera za kulengedwa kwa dziko lopanda zoipa). Izi sizikutanthauza kuti akukakamizika pa iye, popeza akhoza kusiya kwathunthu, mosiyana ndi mkhalidwe wa makhalidwe abwino. Koma pongoganiza kuti akufuna imodzi pazifukwa zina, iyenera kutsutsana ndi mfundo za makhalidwe abwino. Ayenera kuti adasankha zomwe zimakwaniritsidwa pang'ono, ndipo izi zikufotokozeranso kulumikizana kwakukulu pakati pa mfundo za Torah ndi makhalidwe abwino.

        2. Mulungu akhoza kubwezera, m'dziko lino kapena lotsatira, aliyense amene wavulazidwa chifukwa cha kupezeka kwa Torah. Iye angatsimikize kuti m’chidule chake chonse mlingo wake wachimwemwe udzakhala monga momwe unayenera kukhalira popanda mtengo wa Torah.

        1. 1. Choncho zikutanthauza kuti nkukakamizika kwa iye. Ngati akhazikitsa dongosolo momwe angafunire palibe choletsa ndiye nchiyani chimalepheretsa kugwirizana ndi makhalidwe abwino?
          2. Kuti apereke malipiro pakusintha kungakhale koona. Koma palibe chifukwa padziko lapansi chochitira zimenezi. Amatha kukhazikitsa mfundo izi kuti zigwirizane ndi makhalidwe abwino.

          1. 1. Amayika dongosolo momwe angafunire, koma izi sizikutanthauza kuti pali mpata wa zotheka dongosolo la zikhulupiliro zachipembedzo ndi 0 kuphwanya makhalidwe. Sangakhazikitse dongosolo lililonse lachipembedzo, kapena kusankha zomwe zimawononga makhalidwe abwino.

            Monga akadasankha kusalenga dziko, koma (mwina) sakanalenga dziko lokhala ndi zabwino zonse zapadziko lapansi koma ndi 0 zoipa. Izi sizikutanthauza kuti kulengedwa kwa dziko kukukakamizika kwa iye, koma kuti ngati akufuna (!) Kulenga dziko lokhala ndi ufulu wosankha ndiye kuti mudzakhalanso zoipa.

            1. Osamvetsetsa kukakamira uku.
              Ngati palibe chiletso chomwe sichidalira pa iye, nchiyani chimamulepheretsa kutsimikiza kuti mkazi wa Cohen yemwe adagwiriridwa ayenera kupatulidwa ndi mwamuna wake? Akadatsimikiza zotsutsana (tipatseni Torah popanda tsatanetsatane wotere). Kodi n’chiyani chimamulepheretsa kutero? Pankhani ya zoipa, ndinafotokoza kuti malamulo okhwima a chilengedwe sangakhalepo popanda mavuto ndi zoipa. Palibe dongosolo lina. Koma machitidwe a malamulo achipembedzo alibe zopinga pa iwo. Iwo amangokhalira kuchita zinthu mopondereza. Ndiye ndi chiyani pachipembedzo chomwe chimamulepheretsa kusankha malamulo khumi ndi anayi okha popanda mkazi wa Cohen?

  8. [Mudachita zomwe sizili wopambana ngati wopambana. Ndidangomva china chake chosamveka (ndipo chidatulukanso m'mawu anu kwa ine) osati momwe mudafotokozera]

    Chithunzichi chikuwonetsa kuti palibe kusiyana pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe abwino pankhani ya mikangano, koma pambuyo pake, anthu onse amazindikira kusiyana kumeneku ndipo ndikoyenera kutenga chidziwitso chawo pakati. Ngakhale wina anganong'oneze bondo chifukwa cha kutayika komwe adachita kuti sanapeze mitzvah kapena malingaliro apadera omwe amatsagana ndi kukhalapo kwake, sindinamvepo munthu akunong'oneza bondo chifukwa chodutsa mu lao chifukwa chokanidwa Pankhani ya Madin, pali kukana kwakukulu. , ndipo izi zikuoneka kuti Tza'a), ndipo m'makhalidwe abwino, anthu abwino amanong'oneza bondo kuti aphwanya lamulo la makhalidwe abwino, monga kupeŵa kupulumutsa anthu amtundu wa kosher pa Shabbat.

    Tsono mudafotokoza ndi chiphunzitso chakuti mu halakhah Mulungu akukonza zoonongeka zauzimu ndipo mu makhalidwe sikukonza zoonongeka zakuthupi. Koma imayankha bwanji, ndiye ngati palibe chikhalidwe choyenera, ndiye kuti anthu amasamala chiyani pakuvulazidwa kwakuthupi? Kodi iwo (ndi ine mwachiwopsezo) amangolakwitsa ndipo palibe kukangana kokhazikika pano koma kungomva kusazindikira?
    Kufotokozera munthu ayenera kuwonjezera kuti mpaka malamulowo akhalebe ndipo ngakhale atakanidwa ndiye kuti lamulo lililonse limakhalabe. Ndiko kunena kuti lamulo si malangizo othandiza "Tsopano chitani" koma malangizo okhazikika, ndipo m'malo mwa mkangano palidi lamulo pano ndi lamulo pano choncho komanso m'malo motsutsana ndi chisankho chomveka pali vuto. . (Kupatula kuti mwachiwonekere palibe chifukwa chofikira mfundo zauzimu zilizonse).
    Ndipo izi ndi zomwe Raqa akunena (ndithu zalembedwa mofunikira ndi kukonzanso mu kampeni yachikondwerero monga momwe munanditchulira. Sindinaphunzire kampeniyi koma ndinangowona kuti akunena kuti ngati wina alimbe shofar pa Rosh Hashanah yomwe imagwa. pa Shabbat Ndipotu koma mfundo. Ine * kwenikweni sindikumvetsa chinthu ichi, mungathe kundifotokozera? (Mu yankho mmenemo mudalemba kuti mukuganiza choncho). Lamuloli ndi malangizo othandiza, sindikuona tanthauzo lililonse ponena kuti mbali imodzi ndimalamula A ndipo mbali ina ndikulamulira B ndipo kwenikweni ndimalamulira B.

    1. Simukumvetsa chifukwa chake simukuwona chisoni chifukwa cha kutayika kwa mitzvah. Inde ndi yake. Monga munthu amene si apongozi chifukwa akudwala. Ndipo nkhanizi zimadziwika za arabi amene amamulimbikitsa ndi kumuuza kuti ndi udindo wake pazochitika zake. Kupitilira apo, pochita zinthu zonyansa ndi zachilendo ndipo anthu azolowereka. Mwachitsanzo mu ngayaye ya ubweya ndi bafuta, palibe amene amakumbukira kuti pali shatnaz. Koma odwala mu USSR ndi osowa chikhalidwe ndi chisoni kwambiri.
      Ndithudi anthu amasamala za kuvulazidwa kwakuthupi ndi chisoni cha ena. Ndi chiyani chomwe ndidachita bwino. Ndipo kuti ngati munthu akuvutika chifukwa cha masoka achilengedwe sindinong'oneza bondo. Chifukwa chake ndikakhala ndi mlandu (ngakhale zili zolondola) ndikutsimikiza ndikupepesa. Fuck Hezi anthu pangozi omwe alibe mlandu, ndipo ngakhale kuwonongeka komweko kuli ndi mlandu, chisoni chotani chomwe ali nacho chifukwa cha kuwonongeka komwe adayambitsa.
      Sindikukumbukiranso mawu anga omwe mumatchula kuti lamuloli liripo, koma ndidalemba zambiri m'buku lachitatu muzolemba za Talmudic. Buku lonse lokha la bukhuli laperekedwa pakusiyanitsa pakati pa lamulo ndi chiphunzitso chothandiza. Lamulo ndilofanana ndi zenizeni, ndipo malangizo othandiza amangochokera kwa ilo. Chowonadi cha halakhic kwambiri. Mwangondikumbutsa zimenezo.

      1. "Mawu" ochokera m'mawu anu anali mu yankho mu ulusi apo pomwe ndidayesa kunena kuchokera ku RAKA kuti lamulo silimangokhala mawu a Mulungu (ngati mawu a Mulungu ndiye kuti sali a mitzvah munthawi yomwe Mulungu amalamuliradi. kusachita ngakhalenso kuletsa) Ndipo mudayankha kuti: “Ndimagwirizana ndi kusanthula komwe kumawona maziko a malingaliro a mitzvos ngati mtundu wa zenizeni osati kukhalapo kwa mawu a Mulungu basi. Mwina sindidamvetsetse cholinga chanu pamenepo, koma m'maso mwanga mawu a RAA akadali osamvetsetseka. Ngati mungandithandize kumvetsetsa lingaliro ili ndikuthokoza kwambiri.
        Pankhani yachisoni, zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti pali kusiyana pakati pa kulakwitsa kwa anthu omwe alibe chizoloŵezi (chikhalidwe chotsutsana ndi halakhic kuchokera m'mabuku) ndi maziko enieni, chifukwa amadandaula chifukwa chosaponda zidendene zawo komanso osati chisoni ndi ngayaye. ndi nyani ngakhale atakumbutsidwa. Koma ndikunena zimenezo.
        Ndipo chinthu chachikulu - ngati makhalidwe amamangiriza kokha chifukwa cha zofunikira ndiye pamene pali zotsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino palibe shred of normative vuto ngakhale kuvulaza chikwi chiwonongeko. Yankho lotani pa mfundo yoti anthu amamva kusamvana komanso kuyitembenuza pamaso pa Mulungu monga momwe mwafotokozera mgawoli? Yankho lanu liri momwe ndikudziwira kuti ndikulakwitsa ndipo palibe vuto lililonse kuvulaza pamene Mulungu wachotsa lamulo lake la makhalidwe abwino kuti asavulaze. Ndipo chiphunzitso cha kukonzanso chiwonongeko chauzimu ndi kusakonza chiwonongeko chakuthupi chili ndi cholinga chongofotokoza malingaliro a anthu osati kuwalungamitsa. Kodi ndi choncho?

        1. Izi zitha kumveka kudzera mu lingaliro langa pa mapindu auzimu. Izi zimaonekera ngakhale ndilibe udindo wochita zomwe zimawabweretsera. Koma ndithudi phindu lokha silikwanira kufotokozera mitzvah. Mophiphiritsa ndinganene kuti lamuloli limakhalapo mpaka kalekale. Koma nthawi zina iyenera kuperekedwa chifukwa cha lamulo lina.
          Chitsanzo cha chinthu chimene anachita chinali chakuti nthawi anayambitsa akazi. Chilolezo cha pafupifupi arbitrators onse kuti pali phindu pochita, ndipo ambiri a iwo amaona kuti kukhalapo kwa mitzvah (Rabbi Brish amatanthauza kuti Safra akulemba kuti amakana ayi). Koma malinga ndi malamulo a Mulungu akazi ali omasuka. Osasowa kuchita izi, ndiye mitzvah ilipo ngati atatero?

          Ndikuganiza kuti pali vuto la Normative la kuvulaza ndipo chisoni ndi chenicheni osati chamaganizo. Kuwonongeka kwa Makhalidwe Mosiyana ndi Wauzimu Mulungu samachotsa ngakhale mutachita zimene munafunikira.

          1. Fanizo loti lamulo limakhalapo kwanthawizonse koma liyenera kudutsidwa likuwonetsa zovuta. Izi zimatheka pamene gwero la kuukirako likuchokera kuzinthu zauzimu zopanda phokoso pakona ndipo sizikuwoneka ngati zotheka pamene mitzvah ndi munthu wanzeru yemwe ayenera kundiuza zomwe akufuna kuti ndichite. Potero, mukufanizira lamulo laulamuliro ndi kulira kwa Mulungu pa Sabata, kumene Mulungu amandiletsa kugwedeza (amandilamula kuti ndimvere anzeru). Ndikuvomereza kuti ndizovuta kufotokozera kugawanika, koma mwinamwake zikuwoneka kuti zilipo. Kunena kuti ine ndikuchita malamulo a Mulungu uku ndikumupandukira ndi kumuomba lipenga ngakhale maso ake aulemerero ali ndi chiletso ndi chinthu chachilendo. MM Ngati ndi choncho adzasinkhasinkha (mwa njira yosangalatsa kufananiza ndi mitzvah yotsatira mu cholakwa ndi zokambirana zomwe mudabweretsa pa R. Asher Weiss, inenso ndisinkhasinkha pa izi. Ndipo kukoma kwa nkhumba kumamezedwa mmenemo. m'njira yoletsa ku Dauriyta mwinanso Raqa amavomereza kuti palibe lamulo la kudya)

            Sindinamvetsetse kuti ndi vuto lanji lomwe liyenera kuvulazidwa ngati pankhaniyi palibe lamulo lochokera kwa Mulungu loletsa kuvulaza. Mwa kuyankhula kwina, mukutanthauza kuti ngakhale mu chikhalidwe cha lamulo loti tisavulaze limakhalapo koma liyenera kupititsidwa. Ngati lamuloli ndi gulu lanzeru lomwe limadziwa zonse ndikusankha chochita ndi gulu ndiye kuti nkhaniyi sindimayiwona ngati pamwambapa. Monga tanenera kuti ndisinkhasinkha izi, mwina ndavutika ndi square analytism.

            1. Pankhani ya kuletsedwa kwa Dauriyta ndi mitzvah, chitsanzo chabwino cha nsembe yopangidwa ndi nyama (kaya chakudya choletsedwa monga chakudya chimakhalabe ndipo palibe mitzvah kapena palinso mitzvah komanso wolakwa) ndilo vuto la mwana wamkazi. kwa abale. Beit Hillel amaletsa ndi mwana wachiwerewere. Kodi n’kutheka kuti m’maganizo mwawo, ngakhale amene akulira m’mavuto a mwana wamkaziyo amakwaniritsa mitzvah ya maliro? (N'zotheka kugawa malamulo mkati mwa mitzvah ndi pakati pa malamulo a mitzvos osiyana. Koma mfundo yonse ndi yakuti izo zikuwoneka kwa ine chimodzimodzi)

            2. Pali zowona zauzimu, monga ndidalemba mgawoli. Koma alibe chovomerezeka pokhapokha pali bungwe lomwe limawakhazikitsa malamulo ndi / kapena kuwalamula.
              Palibe kusiyana pa nkhani yathu pakati pa kuletsa ndi kupanda udindo. Inu nokha mumavomereza, ndiye kuti simungapange zovuta. Ndine wodabwa!

              1. Mukuganiza kuti chimachita chiyani poyamba, kuti mawu a Raqa alinso mu lau Dauriyta iliyonse yomwe sakanidwa chifukwa cha ntchito ina ngati pali ntchito ndi kupyola malire lao anapambana mitzvah natuluka ntchito, kapena mawu ake. kokha mu chiletso cha ku Durban chomwe chimathetsa Dauriyta mitzvah?

  9. Palibe chifukwa cha malingaliro ndi anzeru poyamba. Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti pali umboni wa izi kuchokera ku mfundo yakuti mitzvah yotsatira mu cholakwacho ndi yoletsedwa. Ndipo kale woyamba anaumirira kusiyana pakati pa lamuloli ndipo anapanga chonyansa ayi. Mulimonsemo, nthawi zambiri, pamene lamulo silinakanidwe pazifukwa zina (mwachitsanzo, siziri nthawi imodzi), ndizochitika za Khoti Lalikulu.
    M'malingaliro anu, palibe chifukwa cha vesi la izi, popeza momwe zinthu ziliri zilibe phindu pa mitzvah yotere. Koma a Gemara amaphunzira zimenezi kwa “iye amene amadana ndi wachifwamba amene akwerapo.” Komanso, malinga ndi Thos.

    1. Ndinathirirapo ndemanga pamwamba pa mitzvah yotsatira mu cholakwacho koma ndinangoganizira chitsanzo cha sukkah yofunkhidwa kumene mchitidwe wa mitzvah suli cholakwa (ndipo pali zokambirana zanu pa mawu a R. Asher Weiss ndi Ezal). Tsopano ndinawona mu Wikipedia chitsanzo cha kudya matzah woviikidwa mu Pesach ndikunena pamenepo (sindinayang'ane gwero) kuti sapita kukachita matzah komanso samasunga matzah matzah. Ndipo izi zikutsimikiziradi monga mukunenera (mwina ngati zilipo pamene alibe matzah ena choncho nzoonekeratu kuti Mulungu akumuletsa kudya matzah a ubatizo).
      Popanda vesi sitingadziwe chimene chikuwonjezeka, ndiko kuti, chimene Mulungu amalamuladi, mwinamwake mu matzah woviikidwa amalamula inde kudya ngati palibe matzah ena. Sindikudziwa za nkhaniyi koma kuba kwa munthu yemwe amamuganizira kuti ndi wochokera kudziko lina. Zachilendozi ndi pamene wachifwamba wagula ndi wosamukira kudziko lina chifukwa cha zolinga zonse ndipo amaloledwa kudya chifukwa cha chilakolako akadali osayenera kuguwa. [Kupatula apo, lingaliro lotsimikizira kuti mwanjira ina "palibe chifukwa cha vesi" ndilokayikitsa kwambiri makamaka poyang'ana ndime ya ndime yomwe imaphunzitsa zosiyana, chifukwa tili ndi malingaliro apa ndi apo ndipo ndikuvomereza. kuti RAKA ananena mawu ake ndipo mukuona kuti mawu ake ndi ovomelezeka ndili ndi vuto kuganiza kuti mukufunika vesi kuti mutulukemo]

      Mulimonse momwe zingakhalire, tiyerekeze momwe mukunenera zapezeka kuti aliyense wadya matzah woviikidwa sasunga konse lamulo la matzah ndipo waphwanya lamulo loletsa kuviika. Koma aliyense amene analiza lipenga mu Bar pa Sabata pa Ra'akah anali ndi lamulo kuti alize ndipo anadutsa pa Shabbat Durban.
      Izi zikutanthauza kuti m'malamulo okanidwa mkati mwa Torah mitzvah "iwoeni" amatanthauzidwa pazochitika zomwe sizimakanidwa. Koma mu malamulo okanidwa kuchokera ku Durban mitzvah Dauriyta "imakhalabe" kupatula kuti kwenikweni ndi yoletsedwa kuisunga ndi monga fanizo loti lamulo liripo kwamuyaya koma nthawi zina liyenera kuthyoledwa.

  10. Ponena za lingaliro lanu lakuti lamulo lachipembedzo, kapena mfundo zake zoyambira, zimachokera ku mfundo zodziyimira pawokha zoperekedwa kwa Mulungu - zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti m'malo mokonzanso gawo lina lomwe limamangiriza Mulungu, zovuta zamulungu zomwe zabwera, izi zitha kuyikidwa pa lingaliro la kufunikira kwakukulu kwa maphunziro aumunthu. Pofuna kukulitsa maphunziro ndi kusankha kwa munthu, "Mulungu ali ndi Torah ndi mitzvos zambiri" kwa iwo, ngakhale omwe akutsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino. Ndikukumbukira ndikulemba m'mizere imodzi kuti ndizochulukirachulukira zomwe zimapereka tanthauzo lalikulu pakusankha, popeza pali kuphatikiza kowonjezereka pakati pazikhalidwe.

    1. Chimene ndimachitcha phindu lachipembedzo inu mumatcha maphunziro aumunthu. Ndiye zikusiyana bwanji? Kodi mukutanthauza kunena kuti palibe zolinga zilizonse m'chinthucho kupatula kukwaniritsidwa kwa munthu? Izi zikutsatira kuti malamulo onse ndi osagwirizana (akanatha kusankha malamulo ena komanso otsutsana nawo). Koma mkangano wa Tirgitz ukubwereranso, chifukwa chiyani pali milandu yomwe adawayika motsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino.

  11. Mumalemba kuti zipembedzo zimakakamizika kwa Mulungu, komabe pakagwa mkangano pakati pa zikhulupiliro zachipembedzo zimakhala zodabwitsa ndikuletsa kuwonongeka kwachipembedzo komwe kumachitika chifukwa chochita zakale. Ngati sindimamvetsetsa momwe zikhalidwe zachipembedzo zimakakamizidwira pa iye - ndiye kuti akhoza kuzichotsa nthawi iliyonse yomwe akufuna. Ndipo ngati safuna kusokoneza chilengedwe (ngakhale chikhalidwe chachipembedzo), n’chifukwa chiyani amaloŵerera m’nkhani za mkangano pakati pa mikhalidwe yachipembedzo?

  12. Pa zomwe mwalemba apa "
    "Ngakhale poganizira mopitilira, tinganene kuti m'malingaliro ngati ndidachita china chake chololeza ndiye kuti kuwonongeka kwauzimu kunapewedwanso. Tinganene kuti Mulungu amachita chozizwitsa ndikuletsa kuwonongeka kotero kuti pasakhale choyipa cha munthu wolungama ngati ine amene ali wokhulupirika ku chilamulo. ”
    Ngati ndi choncho, n’chifukwa chiyani nthawi zonse sangachite zozizwitsa pofuna kulepheretsa anthu kuwononga zinthu zauzimu, kaya azichita zinthu zololedwa kapena ayi?

      1. Dziko lidzadaliradi zochita zathu, kokha kuwonongeka kwauzimu sikudalira zochita zathu, chifukwa kumeneko malinga ndi zomwe mwalemba zimakonda kulowererapo. Ndipo kupitirira pamenepo, ngati Mulungu amafunanso kuti chiwonongeko chauzimu chidalire pa zochita zathu, ndiye n’chifukwa chiyani munthu amene wachita chinachake amaloledwa kuloŵererapo kuti atetezeke mwauzimu? Ndi iko komwe, ndi chovala cha malamulo ake kuti dziko lidzadalira zochita zathu.

  13. Ponena za zomwe mudalemba m'ndime iyi:
    “Ndimufotokozera funso lake. Malinga ndi njira yanga, Mulungu amatilamula kukhala ndi malamulo oletsa makhalidwe abwino kuti tilimbikitse makhalidwe achipembedzo. Ngati ndi choncho, Tirgitz akutsutsa, zikuwoneka kuti zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo zimakakamizika kwa iye ndipo siziri chifukwa cha chifuniro chake chokhazikika (malamulo ake olamulira). Malamulowo akadakhala kuti sadali “mfundo zomveka” zoperekedwa kwa Mulungu koma zidalengedwa ndi malamulo ake, ndiye kuti akadawakhazikitsa mosiyana. Zikatero ndingayembekezere kuti ngati akufuna (ndi kutengera) kuchita zabwino sangakhazikitse malamulo otsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino. Kukhalapo kwa mikangano kumasonyeza kuti malamulo a halakhah (kapena mfundo zachipembedzo, zomwe malamulo omwewo a halakhah amalimbikitsa) amakakamizidwanso kwa Mulungu, choncho amagwidwa (kapena kutizunza) chifukwa chofunikira pa mikanganoyi. "

    Zimatanthawuza kuchokera m'mawu anu kuti mitzvos ndi malamulo onse a Halacha amakakamizika kwa Mulungu, koma kuchokera mtsutso wanu izi zikhoza kuzindikirika kokha ponena za malamulo ndi mitzvos zomwe ziri zosemphana ndi makhalidwe abwino. Lamulo monga kubwereza Shema silimatsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino ndipo kotero sikoyenera kuti likakamizidwe kwa Mulungu kapena kuti ndi zoona zenizeni.

    Kuonjezela apo, n’zotheka kuti ngakhale pamene Mulungu walamula kuti cinthu cimene cioneka kuti n’caciwelewele n’cabwino, n’kutheka kuti amaletsa kupanda cilungamo kwakukulu. Mwachitsanzo, nkhani ya ozunzidwa. Mwachionekere Mulungu amalamula kupha nyama mosayenera. Koma n’zotheka kuti popanda lamulo limeneli, anthu akanakana kotheratu chipembedzo chifukwa chakuti sichikanakhala ndi mbali yofunika kwambiri ya moyo wachipembedzo imene isanaperekedwe Torah. Ndiko kuti, kusintha kwa chipembedzo chachiyuda kunali koopsa kwambiri ndipo kukanaika pachiswe kusinthaku kuti kuchitike.

    Kuphatikiza apo, ndizotheka kuti nthawi zina Mulungu amaika chifuniro Chake patsogolo (chimene sichimakakamizidwa pa Iye) monga chinthu chofunika kwambiri kuposa kuwononga makhalidwe kwa zolengedwa Zake. Mwachitsanzo, tiyeni titenge chikhumbo cha Mulungu chofuna kutifupa. Ngati kaamba ka zimenezi nthaŵi zina angafunikire kuvulaza winawake kuchokera ku zolengedwa zake, angakhale wofunitsitsa kutero kuti apititse patsogolo chikhumbo chimenecho, ndipo ngakhale kuti angachisiye chikhumbocho panthaŵi ina, amachiikabe patsogolo monga chinthu chofunika kwambiri kuposa kuwononga makhalidwe. . Ndiko kuti n’kutheka kuti ngakhale malamulo otsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino sakakamizidwa kwa iye ndipo sali mfundo za halakhic, komabe amasankha kuwalamula chifukwa ndi ofunika kwambiri kwa iye kuposa kuvulaza makhalidwe. Ndipo ngati mukunena kuti ichi ndi kusankha kosayenera ndipo n’kosemphana ndi lingaliro lakuti Mulungu ali ndi makhalidwe abwino nthaŵi zonse, ndidzayankha kuti Mulungu ayeneranso kukhala ndi makhalidwe abwino kwa iyemwini. Ndiko kuti, akasiya chifuniro chake, pali kudzivulaza yekha (mtundu wa kulingalira za moyo wanu wakale).

    1. Zowonadi, mkanganowo umangokhudza malamulo odana ndi makhalidwe abwino.
      Ponena za ozunzidwawo, funsolo sindinalimvetse. Inu mumapereka kwathunthu kufotokoza kwa malamulo a nsembe. Chabwino. Ndipo ngati mukutanthauza kuti izi ndizofotokozera za makhalidwe abwino, m'malingaliro mwanga sizingatheke.
      Pamene mukunena kuti chinachake chili chabwino m’maso mwake, ndiye kuti ali ndi cholinga china chimene sichili chotulukapo cha chifuniro cha Mulungu.

      1. Ponena za nsembe, ndikutanthauza kuti pali malamulo omwe amawoneka ngati otsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino, koma kwenikweni mwakuya kwawo amalimbikitsa makhalidwe abwino. Sitikumvetsa momwe kapena chifukwa chake koma pangakhale kufotokozera kwakukulu kumbuyo kwawo komwe kumathandizira kupititsa patsogolo makhalidwe abwino (osati malamulo onse odana ndi makhalidwe omwe ali otero, koma ena a iwo angakhale).

        Ponena za kuika patsogolo m’maso mwake, ndikutanthauza “zikhumbo zaumwini” ndi zokhumba za Mulungu. Ndiko kuti, si chinthu chokakamizidwa kwa iye kuchokera kunja, koma chifuniro chake chamkati. Sindikutsimikiza kuti mawu oti kusakhazikika ndi oyenera pano okhudzana ndi chifuniro cha Mulungu. Monga momwe chikhumbo cha munthu kukhala wosewera chess wovomerezeka sichimatchedwa chikhumbo chokhazikika (komanso sichimakakamizidwa pa iye kuchokera kunja). Ndi khumbo la munthu. Mwina Mulungu akufuna kukhala “wosewera wa chess wovomerezeka” m’gawo linalake, ndipo chifukwa cha zimenezo ali wololera kuwononga makhalidwe oipa kwa anthu ena nthawi zina.

          1. Sindikunena za umunthu woopsezedwawo. Ndikunena kuti pangakhale chifuniro china cha Mulungu, kuti ngakhale sichikakamizika kwa iye kuchokera kunja (chowonadi cha halakhic), chimakhala chofunika kwambiri kwa iye kuposa kuvulaza makhalidwe kwa zolengedwa zake, choncho akulamula.

            1. Ngati sizikukakamizidwa kwa iye ndipo palibe cholinga chomulamula, ndiye kuti ndi chisankho chake chosakhazikika, ndi draa kushya kwa duchy. Mwina zimangochitika mwachisawawa kapena mokakamizidwa (m'lingaliro lakuti makhalidwe abwino amakakamizika pa ife. Kuvomerezeka kwawo kumakakamizika, osati khalidwe lawo). Sindikuwona kuthekera kwachitatu.

                  1. Pali nkhani ya chinsinsi cha ntchito chosowa chachikulu ndi chikhumbo cha Mulungu kulipira. Mu zonse ziwiri, Mulungu amafuna kuti tikwaniritse zolingazi. N’zotheka kuti pofuna kukwaniritsa zolinga zimenezi n’kosathawira kuvulaza munthu. Monga momwe anthu amachitira zoyesera za zinyama kaamba ka zifuno zachipatala, n’zotheka kuti Mulungu amatigwiritsira ntchito ngakhale kuti nthaŵi zina zimatipweteka, kaamba ka zosoŵa zake.

                    1. Chifukwa chake zidzakakamizika pa iye. Iye akhoza kuchisankha icho. Ndi iko komwe, kufunikira konse kwa kunena kuti kukakamizidwa pa iye kumachokera ku malongosoledwe akuti Mulungu sadzasankha chinthu chachiwerewere. Koma ndapereka chitsanzo kuti pamene kuli kofunikira, anthu amasankhanso chinthu chachiwerewere kaamba ka iwo eni ndipo moyenerera (kuyesa kwamankhwala anyama)

        1. Nanga bwanji munthu abwere ku mfundo za halakhic zomwe zimakakamizika kwa Mulungu? Tinganene kuti pali mfundo ya makhalidwe abwino imene imanena kuti m’malo mwa mkangano pakati pa zimene Mulungu amafuna ndi kuvulaza makhalidwe abwino kwa anthu, pali mfundo ya makhalidwe abwino imene imanena kuti nkwabwino kuvulaza anthu kusiyana ndi kunyozera zimene Mulungu amafuna.

          1. Chosowa cha Mulungu chimakakamizikanso pa iye, kapena sikofunikira ndipo sichilungamitsa kukana makhalidwe abwino.
            M'malingaliro anga palibe njira yotulukira izi: mokakamizidwa kapena mopanda malire. Ndipo mosasamala sikumakana makhalidwe abwino. Nthawi zonse mumachokera njira yosiyana koma yankho ndilofanana. Chofundacho ndi chachifupi, mutha kuphimba miyendo kapena mutu koma osati zonse ziwiri.

              1. Palibe kanthu. Palinso zinthu zomukakamiza. Koma kupitilira apo, chosowa ichi ndi chowona chomwe chimapanga OUGHT. Mtsutso ndi wakuti malamulo amakakamizidwa pa iye monga makhalidwe abwino. Sikuwoneka ngati chofunikira kwa ine kaya ndi kukakamiza kudzera pazowona ndi zosowa kapena mwachindunji. Ndimaganizabe kuti izi ndizofunika, koma chifukwa chiyani zili zofunika?!

                1. Izi ndi zomwe ndidatsutsa poyankhapo kale. Kuti chowonadi cha chosowa ichi chimapanga choyenera, koma chiyenera kuchokera kumalo a makhalidwe abwino osati kuchokera kumalo a halakhic kapena ayi. Monga momwe zoyesera pa nyama osati pa anthu zimayenera kukhala ndi makhalidwe abwino ndipo ine sindinapite.

                  1. Osati makhalidwe abwino. Ena amafunikira kapena amafunikira, amakhalidwe abwino kapena ayi. Mwachitsanzo, kuphunzitsidwa ndi Mulungu si nkhani ya makhalidwe abwino monga mmene wamba. Ngakhale kuletsa kudya nkhumba sikuwoneka ngati chisonyezero cha makhalidwe abwino.

                    1. Chomwe ndimatanthawuza chinali chakuti Mulungu amalamula malamulo odana ndi makhalidwe abwino kuchokera muzosowa zina zomwe zilipo mwa Iye. Koma asanalamulire ali pavuto loti akhazikitse zosowa zake patsogolo, kapena kupewa kuwononga makhalidwe kwa anthu. Vutoli lagona pa makhalidwe abwino. Monga momwe vuto loti achite zoyesera pa anthu kapena nyama lili m'gawo lamakhalidwe.

  14. Kotero pali phindu lachipembedzo (lomwe mumasankha kulitcha kuti ndilofunika) lomwe limakakamizika pa izo, ndipo chisankho chokhacho pavuto pakati pa icho ndi makhalidwe abwino ndi chisankho choyenera. Tiyerekeze kuti mukulondola, ndiye chiyani? Mkangano uli kuti? Kupitirira apo, m’lingaliro langa chigamulo pakati pa mtengo wachipembedzo kapena chosoŵa ndi mkhalidwe wamakhalidwe pachokha sichili pamlingo wa makhalidwe.

    1. Monga momwe ndikudziwira, Rabbi Michi akunena izi:
      A. Mulungu amafuna zabwino chifukwa ndi wabwino
      B. Dongosolo lachipembedzo silifanana ndi dongosolo lamakhalidwe
      chachitatu. M’kukangana pakati pa dongosolo lachipembedzo ndi dongosolo la makhalidwe, dongosolo la makhalidwe liyenera kusankhidwa nthaŵi zina
      Bwanji osanena kuti mkanganowu ndi wongopeka chabe (monga momwe Rabbi Lichtenstein amafikira komanso mogwirizana ndi malingaliro omwe ali m'zigawo zachipembedzo)?
      D. Ndikumvetsetsa kwanga kuti zimatsatiradi kuti dongosolo lachipembedzo limakakamizika kwa Mulungu, apo ayi chifukwa chiyani amalamula zosemphana ndi makhalidwe?
      Chotsalira chimene chiyenera kumvetsetsedwa ndicho chifukwa chake timaloledwa kusankha dongosolo la makhalidwe pamene kuli mkangano, popeza kuti Mulungu anasankha dongosolo lachipembedzo pa mkangano umenewo?
      Yankho lothekera ndilokuti dongosolo lachipembedzo linaperekedwa ndi Mulungu, koma kuyambira pamenepo wazizira, ndipo tikuganiza kuti mu zenizeni zomwe anapatsidwa sanali mitzvah, choncho sankhani dongosolo la makhalidwe.
      Zonsezi molingana ndi njira ya luso la mwana wathu, Ramad Shlita, ndi wokhulupirika ku njira yake yomwe sadziwa kusankha kwa chifuniro cha Mulungu (ndi kuwona sayansi ya ufulu). Ndipo doc ndi il.

        1. Izi zikutanthauza kuti palibe kudziwika pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe abwino [1]. Awa ndi magulu awiri omwe ali odziyimira pawokha (ngakhale palibe kutsutsana nthawi zonse pakati pawo). Kuweruza ngati chochita chili chabwino kapena ayi, ndikuweruza ngati nchololedwa kapena choletsedwa mwadala ndi zigamulo ziwiri zosiyana pafupifupi zodziyimira pawokha. Gulu la halakhic ndi makhalidwe ndi magulu awiri osiyana. Zoonadi pakakhala mkangano pakati pa chiphunzitso cha chikhalidwe ndi halakhic ndiye kuti chiyenera kugamulidwa mwanjira ina (ndipo izi siziri nthawi zonse zomwe zimagwirizana ndi halakhic), koma kukhalapo kwa mkangano sikuli kovuta mwa iko kokha. Palinso mikangano yotere pakati pa makhalidwe awiri (monga chitsanzo cha kupulumutsa moyo mwa kuchititsa ululu), ndipo palibe kutsutsa kuti padzakhalanso phindu la halakhic ndi khalidwe labwino.

          Mawu ochokera pagawo 15. ndi ndemanga zanu pa gays poyankhulana ndi London. Kodi si aphunzitsi amene nthaŵi zina sasunga dongosolo lachipembedzo? Kodi mungandifotokozere kusiyana kwake?

          1. Ndinachita nazo izi kumayambiriro kwa buku lachitatu mu trilogy. Mwachidule, pamene pali kusamvana kwakukulu, lamulo limakhalapo nthawi zonse. Mwachitsanzo, kwa Aamaleki. Torahyo inkaganiziranso mtengo wamakhalidwe abwino koma inaulamula. Koma pamene mkangano uli mwangozi, monga kulamulira maganizo ndi Shabbat, kumeneko sikutheka kuchotsa lamulo lomwelo la Shabbat lomwe limakana Pikun kapena mosemphanitsa. Zikatere muyenera kudzipangira nokha chosankha.
            Ndipo zonsezi pamene lamulo lili lomveka m’Buku la Taurat. Ngati ndi zotsatira za kumasulira kapena ulaliki ndiye kuti chikaiko chimalowa apa kuti lamuloli ndi lolakwika.

  15. Ndinkakonda kutchula m'makambirano otsutsana ndi Chiyuda, kuti maganizo anu ndi akuti pamenepa makhalidwe ayenera kusankhidwa pa Torah, mosiyana ndi Rabbi Riskin yemwe amachita okimata mu Torah, ndi arabi achikhalidwe omwe amachita okimata m'makhalidwe. Ndi mwambo wa Torah ya Israeli.
    Basi, ndine wokondwa kwambiri kuti mwafotokoza malingaliro anga momveka bwino. Pankhani ya Daurite halakhah yomveka bwino yomwe ikutsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino, kodi pali malo oti tisankhe makhalidwe abwino? Nanga bwanji Halacha Durban? Kodi Okimata wapangidwa kukhala Dauriyta halakhah m'njira yosatsutsana ndi makhalidwe abwino, ngakhale mosiyana ndi miyambo ya halakhic?

  16. Funso losalakwa. Mfundo yakuti pali makhalidwe abwino (aumulungu, mwachitsanzo) - makhalidwe awa amalembedwa kuti? Kodi timatengera malingaliro athu kuti kupha ndi kuba siziyenera kuloledwa? Ndiko kuti, ngati ndi chinthu chophunziridwa kuchokera ku chidziwitso chaumunthu kapena kuchokera ku miyambo ya chikhalidwe cha anthu, ndiye kuti sichiyeneranso kukakamiza munthu yemwe sanavomereze chidziwitso chimenecho. Ndipo ngati ili mwanjira ina yake yokhudzana ndi Taurat, ndiye kuti ndi lamulo la Mulungu lolembedwa, ndipo pali kusiyana pati pakati pa Taurat ndi makhalidwe abwino?

    1. Zalembedwa pa cholembapo cha mitima yathu. Buku la Taurat limatiphunzitsa, ndipo inu mwachita zabwino ndi zabwino, koma silifotokoza kwa ife tanthauzo lake. Akuganiza kuti aliyense akumvetsa zomwe dongosolo la makhalidwe limatanthauza (zinalembedwa pamtima pake). Zomwe zili m’makhalidwe abwino zimaphunziridwa m’chidziŵitso cha makhalidwe abwino, koma thayo la kulitsatira lili mwa chifuniro chaumulungu. Monga ndidafotokozera mgawoli. Ngati pali munthu amene alibe chidziwitso ichi ndi munthu wodwala ndipo palibe chochita nazo. Monga ngati palibe chochita ndi munthu wakhungu amene saona.
      Kusiyana pakati pa halakhah ndi makhalidwe kuli mu lamulo. Malamulo a mu Tora amangonena za Halacha, ndipo makhalidwe sali pansi pa lamulo. Ndi chifuniro cha umulungu popanda lamulo ndipo chifukwa chake chimakhala kunja kwa lamulo. Chifukwa chakenso zomwe zili mkati mwake sizikuwoneka mu Torah koma mwa ife. Kumbali ina, mu Halacha zomwe zili mkatizo zinalembedwanso mu Torah. Chotero, “ndipo munachita choyenera ndi chabwino” sichinaphatikizidwe m’chiŵerengero cha mitzvos mu unyinji uliwonse.

      1. Ndiko kuti, pali lingaliro lakuti "kukhulupirika ndi ubwino" ndi chinthu chimene munthu aliyense amamvetsetsa m'malingaliro ake oyambirira, ndiko kuti, zinthu zomwe timavomereza monga kupha ndi kugwiriridwa, koma funso lomwelo lomwe munafunsa osakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu - munganene chiyani za wankhondo yemwe amaganiza kuti ntchito yake ndi yakupha. Umboni wakuti pali machitidwe akunja a makhalidwe abwino kwa munthu, waumulungu, koma kachiwiri, dongosolo ili silimatanthauzira zomwe zikuphatikizidwa mu "chilungamo ndi ubwino" wake, ndipo kachiwiri tidzakufunsani zomwe munganene ponena za mercenary amene amakhulupirira kuti kupha ndiko. chilungamo ndi ubwino. Mwachidule, ndingakonde kuwongolera vuto lomwe mukuthetsa poganiza kuti makhalidwe amafunikira Mulungu.

        1. Mukusakaniza ndege. Ndinafunsa funso osati la munthu amene samamvetsetsa kuti kupha ndikoletsedwa koma munthu amene amamvetsetsa kuti ndikoletsedwa koma sakumva kudzipereka. Ili ndi funso losiyana kotheratu. Amene samvetsa ndi wakhungu. Ndiyenera kumuuza chiyani? Zomwe zikutanthauza kwa akhungu omwe sawona zenizeni ndikukana kukhalapo kwa mitundu mwachitsanzo.
          Zomwe ndidawafunsa ndizomwe zili kwa iwo gwero lovomerezeka pazakhalidwe labwino osati zomwe malamulo amakhalidwe abwino amanena.
          Popanda Mulungu inenso, chifukwa chomva kuti malamulo amakhalidwe abwino ndi olondola, sindikadamangidwa nawo. Ndikanasiya kumverera uku ngati chinyengo chomvetsetsa mwa ine kuti chilibe chowonadi chenicheni. Ndi Mulungu yekha amene angachitsimikizire.

          1. Ndinazindikira. Mukunena kuti zomwe zili m'makhalidwe abwino - zimadziwika kwa munthu aliyense, ndizobadwa mwa ife kuti kupha ndi kugwiririra ndi zachiwerewere. Ndipo mukutsutsanso kuti chikhalidwe ichi pachimake chiyenera kukhala chovomerezeka kwa aliyense, ngakhale kusintha kwa zikhalidwe ndi nthawi. Kusiyana kwa munthu wosakhulupirira kuti kuli Mulungu ndi wokhulupirira n’chakuti wokhulupirira amafotokozanso chifukwa chake makhalidwe amenewa amamukakamiza. Ndikumvetsa bwino?

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