Pa Chikondi: Pakati pa Kutengeka ndi Maganizo (Mzere 22)

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Mu gawo la Torah ya sabata ino (ndipo ndikupempha) parsha "Ndipo kondani Yehova Mulungu wanu" akuwonekera kuchokera ku mawu a Shema, omwe akukamba za lamulo la kukonda Yehova. Nditamva kuitana lero, ndinakumbukira malingaliro ena amene ndinali nawo m’mbuyomo okhudza chikondi mwachisawawa, makamaka chikondi cha Mulungu, ndipo ndinali ndi mfundo zoŵerengeka zonolera za izo.

Pakati pamalingaliro ndi malingaliro muzosankha

Pamene ndinkaphunzitsa pa yeshiva ku Yeruham, panali ophunzira amene anandifunsa za kusankha bwenzi, kaya kutsatira maganizo (mtima) kapena maganizo. Ndinawayankha kuti pambuyo pa malingaliro, koma kuti maganizo ayenera kuganizira zomwe mtima umamva (kulumikizana kwamaganizo, chemistry, ndi mnzanu) monga chimodzi mwa zifukwa zake. Zosankha m’mbali zonse ziyenera kupangidwa m’maganizo, ndipo ntchito ya mtima ndiyo kuikamo mfundo zimene ziyenera kuganiziridwa koma osasankha. Pali zifukwa ziwiri zotheka izi: chimodzi ndi luso. Kutsatira mtima kungabweretse zotsatira zolakwika. Kutengeka mtima si nthawi zonse kapena chinthu chofunika kwambiri pankhaniyi. Maganizo ndi okhazikika kuposa mtima. Chachiwiri ndi chachikulu. Mukapereka utsogoleri, simusankha kwenikweni. Chisankho mwa kutanthauzira ndikuchita m'maganizo (kapena kani: mwakufuna), osati kutengeka maganizo. Chigamulo chimapangidwa ndi chigamulo chodziwika, pamene kutengeka kumadza mwa iye yekha osati mwa kulingalira kwanga. Kunena zowona, kuyenda pambuyo pa mtima sichosankha nkomwe. Ndikukayikakayika koma kulola zomwe zikuchitika kuti zikukokereni pambuyo pawo kulikonse komwe kungakhale.

Kufikira pano lingaliro lili lakuti pamene kuli kwakuti chikondi chili nkhani yamumtima, kusankha wokwatirana naye si nkhani ya chikondi chabe. Monga tanenera, kutengeka mtima ndi chimodzi mwa zifukwa zake. Koma ine ndikuganiza kuti si chithunzi chonse. Ngakhale chikondi chenicheni sichimangotengeka chabe, ndipo mwina sichinthu chachikulu m'menemo.

Pa chikondi ndi chilakolako

Pamene Yakobo anakhala akugwira ntchito kwa Rakele kwa zaka zisanu ndi ziŵiri, lemba limati: “Ndipo padzakhala masiku oŵerengeka m’maso mwake m’chikondi chake kwa iye.” ( Genesis XNUMX:XNUMX ) Pamene Yakobo anagwira ntchito kwa Rakele kwa zaka zisanu ndi ziŵiri, Baibulo limati: Funso limadziwika kuti kulongosola uku kukuwoneka kuti sikusiyana ndi zomwe takumana nazo wamba. Nthawi zambiri munthu akamakonda munthu kapena chinachake n’kumuyembekezera, tsiku lililonse limaoneka ngati lamuyaya. Pamenepa vesilo limanena kuti zaka zake zisanu ndi ziŵiri za utumiki wake zinkawoneka kwa iye ngati masiku oŵerengeka. Ndizosiyana kwambiri ndi chidziwitso chathu. Kaŵirikaŵiri zimalongosoledwa kuti ichi chinali chifukwa chakuti Yakobo anakonda Rakele osati iye mwini. Munthu amene amakonda chinachake kapena munthu wina n’kudzifunira yekha ndiye amadziika yekha pamalo oyamba. Chidwi chake ndi chimene chimafuna kukwaniritsidwa, choncho zimakhala zovuta kuti adikire mpaka atapambana. Adzikonda yekha osati mnzake. Koma ngati mwamuna amakonda wokondedwa wake ndipo zochita zake zimachitidwa kwa iye osati kwa iye, ndiye kuti ngakhale zaka za ntchito zimawoneka ngati mtengo wochepa.

Don Yehuda Abarbanel m’buku lake lakuti Conversations on Love, komanso wafilosofi wa ku Spain, wandale komanso mtolankhani Jose Ortega i Gast, m’buku lake lakuti Five Essays on Love, amasiyanitsa pakati pa chikondi ndi chilakolako. Onse amafotokoza kuti chikondi ndi kutengeka pakati, kutanthauza kuti muvi wake wa mphamvu umayang'ana munthu kunja. Pamene chilakolako ndi kutengeka kwapakati, ndiko kuti, muvi wa mphamvu umatembenuka kuchokera kunja kupita kwa icho, mkati. M’chikondi iye amene ali pakati ali wokondedwa, pamene m’chilakolako iye amene ali pakati ali wokonda (kapena chilakolako, kapena chilakolako). Amafuna kugonjetsa kapena kudzipezera wokonda. Za izi azokauti athu adanena kale (kumeneko): Msodzi amakonda nsomba? Inde. Ndiye n'chifukwa chiyani akudya?!

M’mawu amenewa tinganene kuti Yakobo ankakonda Rakele ndipo sankasirira Rakele. Chilakolako chili ndi mphamvu, kutanthauza kuti chilakolakocho chimafuna kumupatsa chinthu china chimene amachilakalaka, choncho sangadikire kuti chichitike. Tsiku lililonse limawoneka ngati lamuyaya kwa iye. Koma wokonda akufuna kupatsa wina (wokondedwa), choncho sizimamuvutitsa kugwira ntchito kwa zaka ngati ndizofunikira kuti zichitike.

Mwinamwake gawo lina likhoza kuwonjezeredwa ku kusiyana kumeneku. Fanizo lanthano la kudzutsidwa kwa chikondi ndi mtanda wa Cupid wokhazikika mu mtima wa wokonda. Fanizoli likunena za chikondi monga kutengeka mtima komwe kumatuluka mu mtima wa okondana chifukwa cha chinthu china chakunja. Ichi sichosankha kapena chiweruzo chake. Koma kufotokoza kumeneku n’koyenera kwambiri ku chilakolako osati chikondi. M'chikondi muli china chake chokulirapo komanso chocheperako. Ngakhale zikuwoneka kuti zimachokera kwa iwo okha popanda malamulo ndi malamulo komanso popanda nzeru, zikhoza kukhala chidziwitso chobisika, kapena zotsatira za ntchito yamaganizo ndi yauzimu yomwe isanayambe nthawi ya kuwuka kwake. Malingaliro omangidwa ndi ine amadzutsidwa chifukwa cha momwe ndimawumbira. Motero m'chikondi, mosiyana ndi chilakolako, pali gawo la kulingalira ndi chikhumbo osati kutengeka kokha komwe kumadza mwachibadwa popanda ine.

Kukonda Mulungu: Kutengeka ndi Maganizo

Maimonides amachita za chikondi cha Mulungu m’malo aŵiri m’bukhu lake. M’malamulo oyambilira a Torah akufotokoza za malamulo a chikondi cha Mulungu ndi zotulukapo zawo zonse, komanso m’malamulo a kulapa amawabwerezanso mwachidule (monga mitu ina imene imabwerezedwanso m’malamulo a kulapa). Kumayambiriro kwa mutu wakhumi wa Teshuvah, iye akulankhula za ntchito ya Ambuye pa dzina lake, ndipo mwa zina akulemba:

A. Asanene kuti ine ndikuchita malamulo a Taurat ndikuchita munzeru zake kuti ndilandire madalitso onse olembedwa m’menemo kapena kuti ndikhale ndi moyo wa dziko likudzalo, ndi kusiya zolakwa zomwe zachenjezedwa ndi Taurat. kuti ndipulumuke Uyu, amene akugwira ntchito yotere, ndi wantchito wamantha osati ukoma wa aneneri, osati ukoma wa anzeru, ndipo Mulungu sagwira ntchito mwanjira imeneyi koma anthu a m’dziko ndi akazi. ndi ang'ono omwe amawaphunzitsa kugwira ntchito mwamantha mpaka atachulukana ndikugwira ntchito mwachikondi.

B. Wogwira ntchito zachikondi amachita ndi Taurat ndi Matzah ndikuyenda m’njira zanzeru osati pa chilichonse chapadziko lapansi komanso osati chifukwa choopa choipa komanso kuti asalandire zabwino koma amachita chowonadi chifukwa ndi chowonadi komanso mathero a zabwino zomwe zikubwera chifukwa. za izo, ndipo ukoma uwu ndi ukoma waukulu kwambiri Iye anakondedwa monga momwe anagwirira ntchito koma osati chifukwa cha chikondi ndipo ndi ukoma umene Wodalitsika anaitanidwa ndi Mose kuti kunanenedwa ndipo inu munakonda Yehova Mulungu wanu; ndipo pamene munthu amakonda Ambuye chikondi choyenera nthawi yomweyo chimapanga matzahs ​​onse chifukwa cha chikondi.

Maimonides m’mawu ake pano akuzindikiritsa pakati pa ntchito ya Mulungu ndi dzina lake (i.e. osati chifukwa cha chidwi chirichonse chakunja) ndi chikondi kaamba ka iye. Komanso, mu Halacha XNUMX akufotokoza chikondi cha Mulungu monga kuchita chowonadi chifukwa ndi chowonadi osati chifukwa china chilichonse. Ichi ndi tanthawuzo lafilosofi komanso lozizira kwambiri, ndipo ngakhale kupatukana. Palibe gawo lamalingaliro pano. Chikondi cha Mulungu ndicho kuchita chowonadi chifukwa iye ndiye chowonadi, ndipo ndi momwemo. Ndicho chifukwa chake Maimonides akulemba kuti chikondi chimenechi chiri ukoma wa anzeru (osati amalingaliro). Ichi ndi chimene nthawi zina chimatchedwa "chikondi chanzeru cha Mulungu."

Ndipo apa, nthawi yomweyo mu halakhah yotsatirayi akulemba zosiyana:

chachitatu. Ndipo chikondi choyenerera chili chotani kuti iye adzakonda Mulungu chikondi champhamvu kwambiri mpaka moyo wake utamangiriridwa ku chikondi cha Mulungu ndipo nthawi zonse amalakwitsa m’menemo monga odwala achikondi amene maganizo awo sali omasuka ku chikondi cha Mulungu. Mkazi ameneyo ndipo nthawi zonse amalakwitsa pa Sabata lake Chifukwa cha ichi chikondi cha Mulungu m'mitima ya okondedwa ake chidzalakwa nthawi zonse m'menemo monga analamulira ndi mtima wanu wonse ndi moyo wanu wonse; ndipo Solomo ananena fanizo. kuti ndadwala ndi chikondi, ndipo nyimbo iliyonse ya mafanizo ndi fanizo la nkhaniyi.

Pano chikondi chimakhala chotentha komanso chokhudza mtima ngati mmene mwamuna amakondera mkazi. Monga momwe tafotokozera m'mabuku abwino kwambiri, makamaka mu Nyimbo ya Nyimbo. Wokondedwa amadwala ndi chikondi ndipo nthawi zonse amalakwitsa. Sanathe kumusokoneza nthawi iliyonse.

Kodi zonsezi zikugwirizana bwanji ndi chithunzithunzi chozizira chaluntha chofotokozedwa mu halakhah yapitayi? Kodi Maimonides anasokonezeka, kapena anaiŵala zimene analemba pamenepo? Ndiwona kuti uku sikuli kutsutsa kumene tinapeza pakati pa malo aŵiri osiyana m’zolemba zake, kapena pakati pa Maimonides ndi zimene zanenedwa mu Talmud. Pali malamulo awiri oyandikana komanso otsatizana pano omwe amalankhula zilankhulo zosiyana kwa wina ndi mnzake.

Ndikuganiza kuti wina ayenera kusamala pano za kulephera kwa phindu pakulemba kowonjezera. Mukabweretsa fanizo kuti mufotokozere zinazake, fanizolo limakhala ndi mfundo zambiri ndipo sizigwirizana ndi uthenga ndi fanizolo. Munthu ayenera kupeza mfundo yaikulu imene fanizolo linadza kudzaphunzitsa, ndipo asatengere mochulukira tsatanetsatane wa fanizolo. Ndikuganiza kuti fanizo la mu Halacha XNUMX likufika ponena kuti ngakhale kuti chikondi cha Mulungu ndi chanzeru osati chamaganizo, chiyenera kulakwitsa nthawi zonse osati kusokonezedwa ndi mtima. Fanizoli likufika pophunzitsa kukhalitsa kwa chikondi monga momwe mwamuna amachitira ndi mkazi, koma osati kwenikweni mkhalidwe wamaganizo wa chikondi chachikondi.

Chitsanzo cha kulapa, chitetezero ndi chikhululukiro

Ndidzabweranso kwa kamphindi ku nyengo yosangalatsa ya Yeruhamu. Ndili kumeneko, ndinafikiridwa ndi sukulu ya sekondale ya chilengedwe ku Sde Boker ndipo ndinapemphedwa kulankhula ndi ophunzira ndi antchito pa Masiku Khumi a Kulapa pa Chitetezero, Chikhululukiro ndi Chikhululukiro, koma osati muzochitika zachipembedzo. Ndinayamba mawu anga ndi funso lomwe ndinawafunsa. Tiyerekeze kuti Rubeni wagunda Shimoni ndipo chikumbumtima chake chikumuvutitsa, choncho waganiza zopita kukam’khazika mtima pansi. Iye amapepesa kuchokera pansi pa mtima ndi kumupempha kuti amukhululukire. Levy, kumbali ina, adagundanso Shimon (Shimon mwinamwake anali mnyamata wamkulu wa kalasi), ndipo alibe chisoni chifukwa cha zimenezo. Mtima wake sumuvutitsa, alibe kutengeka pankhaniyi. Iye alibe nazo ntchito zimenezo. Ndipouli, wakamanya kuti wakacita uheni na kumupweteka Shimoni, ntheura nayo wakaghanaghana kuti walute kwa iyo kuti wamugowokere. Mngelo Gabirieli akudza kwa Simoni watsoka ndi kumuululira zakuzama za mitima ya Rubeni ndi Levi, kapena mwina Simoni iyemwini akuzindikira kuti izi ndi zomwe zikuchitika m’mitima ya Rubeni ndi Levi. Kodi ayenera kuchita chiyani? Kodi mumavomereza kupepesa kwa Rubeni? Nanga bwanji pempho la Levi? Ndi ziti mwa zopempha zomwe zili zoyenera kukhululukidwa?

Mosadabwitsa, zomwe omverawo anachita zinali zogwirizana kwambiri. Pempho la Reuven ndi loona komanso loyenera kukhululukidwa, komabe Levy ndi wachinyengo ndipo palibe chifukwa chomukhululukira. Kumbali ina, ndinatsutsa kuti m’malingaliro mwanga mkhalidwewo ndi wosiyana kwambiri. Kupepesa kwa Rubeni n’kumene kunali kuchititsa kuti chikumbumtima chake chimuwawa. Amadzigwirira ntchito yekha (centrifugally), mwa kufuna kwake (kuti atonthoze kuwawa kwake kwa m'mimba ndi kuwawa kwa chikumbumtima). Komabe, Levy amachita zinthu mwachilungamo. Ngakhale kuti alibe ululu wa m’mimba kapena wamtima, amazindikira kuti walakwa ndipo ndi udindo wake kusangalatsa Simoni wovulazidwayo, choncho anachita zimene ayenera kuchita n’kumupempha kuti amukhululukire. Ichi ndi centrifugal kanthu, monga zimachitikira wozunzidwa osati iye mwini.

Ngakhale mu mtima mwake Levy samamva kalikonse, koma nchifukwa ninji kuli kofunika? Inangomangidwa mosiyana ndi Rubeni. Amygdala yake (yomwe ili ndi udindo womvera chisoni) yawonongeka ndipo chifukwa chake malo ake okhudzidwa sakugwira ntchito bwino. Ndiye?! Ndipo kuti mpangidwe wachibadwa wa munthu uyenera kutengapo mbali m’kulemekeza kwathu kwa makhalidwe abwino kwa iye? M’malo mwake, kuvulazidwa kumeneku n’komwe kumam’pangitsa kuchita zinthu mwaukhondo, mopanda chifundo ndiponso mwangwiro, chifukwa cha Shimoni, choncho ayenera kukhululukidwa [1].

Kuchokera kumbali ina tinganene kuti Reuben akuchita zinthu mongotengeka mtima, pamene Levy akuchita zimenezi chifukwa cha chiweruzo ndi chiweruzo chake. Chiyamikiro cha makhalidwe abwino chimafika kwa munthu kaamba ka zosankha zake osati maganizo ndi chibadwa chimene chimatuluka kapena chimene sichimatuluka mwa iye.

Kutengeka ngati chifukwa kapena chotsatira

Sindikutanthauza kunena kuti kudziimba mlandu kapena kudzimvera chisoni kumalepheretsa chikhalidwe cha zochita kapena munthu. Ngati Levy amakondweretsa Shimon pazifukwa zolondola (centrifugal), koma panthawi imodzimodziyo ali ndi malingaliro olakwa potsatira kuvulazidwa kumene wamuchitira, mchitidwewo ndi wathunthu komanso wangwiro. Malingana ngati chifukwa chimene iye amachitira sikuli kutengeka, ndiko kuti, kuphimba moto mkati mwake, koma kubweretsa machiritso kwa Simoni wosautsika. Kukhalapo kwa kutengeka, ngati sikuli chifukwa cha chiyanjanitso, sichiyenera kusokoneza kuwunika kwa makhalidwe ndi kuvomereza pempho la chikhululukiro. Munthu wabwinobwino amakhala ndi malingaliro otere (amygdala ali ndi udindo), kaya akufuna kapena ayi. Choncho n’zoonekeratu kuti sizikulepheretsa kulandila pempholi. Koma ndendende chifukwa cha izi kutengeka uku sikofunikanso pano, chifukwa zimatuluka osati kutsatira lingaliro langa koma palokha (ndi mtundu wachibadwa). Chibadwa chachibadwa sichimasonyeza umphumphu wamakhalidwe kapena kuipa. Makhalidwe athu amatsimikiziridwa ndi zosankha zimene timapanga osati ndi malingaliro kapena chibadwa chimene chimatuluka mwa ife chosalamulirika. Kukula kwamalingaliro sikumasokoneza koma pazifukwa zomwezo sikulinso kofunikira pakuyamikiridwa kwamakhalidwe. Kukhalapo kwa kutengeka kuyenera kukhala kosalowerera ndale pazachiweruzo zamakhalidwe.

Ngati kutengekako kudapangidwa chifukwa chakumvetsetsa kwamavuto omwe ali mumchitidwewo, ndiye kuti ndi chisonyezo chamakhalidwe a Rubeni. Koma kachiwiri, Levy yemwe akuvutika ndi amygdala ndipo chifukwa chake sanakhale ndi maganizo oterowo, adapanga chisankho choyenera cha makhalidwe abwino, choncho amayenera kutamandidwa ndi kuyamikira kwa Ruben. Kusiyanitsa pakati pa iye ndi Rubeni kuli kokha mu kapangidwe ka ubongo wawo osati mu chiweruzo chawo cha makhalidwe ndi chisankho. Monga tanenera, kamangidwe ka maganizo ndi mfundo yosalowerera ndale ndipo ilibe kanthu kochita ndi kuyamikira khalidwe la munthu.

Mofananamo, mwiniwake wa Tal Agli analemba m’mawu ake oyamba mu chilembo C:

Ndipo kuchokera m’mene ndinanena m’menemo, kumbukirani zimene ndinamva anthu ena akunena kuchokera m’mitima mwanu pokhudzana ndi kuphunzira kwa Taurat yathu yopatulika, ndipo adanena kuti wophunzira amene akonzanso zinthu zatsopano ndikukhala wokondwa ndi kukondwera ndi phunziro lake, sakuphunzira Torah. , Koma amene amaphunzira ndi kusangalala ndi kuphunzira kwake, amalowerera m’maphunziro ake komanso zosangalatsa zomwezo.

Ndipo kwenikweni ndi kulakwitsa kotchuka. M'malo mwake, chifukwa ichi ndi chiyambi cha lamulo la kuphunzira Torah, kukhala sikisi ndi chimwemwe ndi kusangalala mu kuphunzira kwake, ndiyeno mawu a Torah amezedwa m'magazi ake. Ndipo popeza kuti anasangalala ndi mawu a Torah, iye anamamatira ku Torah [ndipo onani ndemanga ya Rashi Sanhedrin Noah. D.H. ndi guluu].

Amene "olakwika" amaganiza kuti aliyense amene ali wokondwa ndi kusangalala ndi phunziro, izi zimawononga phindu lachipembedzo la kuphunzira kwake, popeza kuti zimachitidwa chifukwa cha chisangalalo osati chifukwa cha kumwamba (= chifukwa chake). Koma uku ndikulakwitsa. Chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo sizimachotsa phindu lachipembedzo la mchitidwewo.

Koma iyi ndi mbali imodzi yokha ya ndalama. Kenako akuwonjezera mbali yake ina:

Ndipo Modina, kuti wophunzirayo sali chifukwa cha mitzvah yophunzira, kokha chifukwa chakuti amasangalala ndi kuphunzira kwake, chifukwa kumatchedwa kuphunzira osati chifukwa cha iye mwini, monga momwe amadyera matzah osati chifukwa cha mitzvah kokha chifukwa cha maphunziro. chifukwa cha kudya zosangalatsa; Ndipo adati: "Sadzachita chilichonse koma dzina lake Lomwe wapenga." Koma amaphunzira chifukwa cha mitzvah ndipo amasangalala kuphunzira kwake, chifukwa ndi phunziro la dzina lake, ndipo zonse ndi zopatulika, chifukwa chisangalalo ndi mitzvah.

Ndiko kuti, chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo sizimachotsa phindu la mchitidwewo malinga ngati iwo akuphatikizidwa kwa icho monga zotsatira zake. Koma ngati munthu aphunzira kaamba ka chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo, mwachitsanzo, zimenezo ndizo zisonkhezero za kuphunzira kwake, ndithudi ndi kuphunzira osati chifukwa cha iye mwini. Apa iwo anali olondola "olakwika." M'mawu athu akuti kulakwitsa kwawo sikuli kuganiza kuti phunzirolo siliyenera kuchitidwa mwachikatikati. M'malo mwake, iwo ali olondola kotheratu. Kulakwitsa kwawo ndikuti kukhalapo kwa chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo kukuwonetsa m'malingaliro awo kuti ichi ndi chochitika chapakati. Sikofunikira kwenikweni. Nthawi zina chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo ndi malingaliro omwe amabwera chifukwa cha kuphunzira ndipo samapanga zifukwa zake.

Bwererani ku chikondi cha Mulungu

Mapeto omwe amachokera kuzinthu mpaka pano ndi chakuti chithunzi chomwe ndafotokoza poyamba sichikwanira, ndipo mkhalidwewo ndi wovuta kwambiri. Ndinasiyanitsa chikondi (centrifugal) ndi lust (centrifugal). Kenaka ndinasiyanitsa pakati pa chikondi chamaganizo ndi chanzeru, ndipo tinawona kuti Maimonides amafuna kukhala waluntha ndi waluntha m’malo mwa chikondi chamaganizo cha Mulungu. Mafotokozedwe a m’ndime zomalizira angafotokoze chifukwa chake.

Pamene chikondi chili chotengeka mtima, nthawi zambiri chimakhala ndi gawo lapakati. Ndikamva chikondi champhamvu kwa munthu wina, ndiye kuti zomwe ndimachita kuti ndipambane zimakhala ndi gawo lomwe limandisangalatsa. Ndimathandizira kukhudzidwa kwanga ndipo ndikufuna kudzaza kusowa kwamalingaliro komwe ndikumva bola ngati sindinapindule. Ngakhale chitakhala chikondi osati chilakolako, malinga ngati chili ndi maganizo, chimaphatikizapo machitidwe awiri. Sindimagwira ntchito kwa okondedwa kapena okondedwa okha, komanso kwa ine ndekha. Mosiyana ndi izi, chikondi choyera chamalingaliro popanda kutengeka maganizo, ndi tanthauzo lachinthu chapakati. Ndilibe chosowa ndipo sindimalepheretsa zomverera mkati mwanga kuti ndiyenera kuwathandiza, koma ntchito kokha chifukwa cha wokondedwa. Chifukwa chake chikondi choyera ndi chikondi chanzeru. Ngati kutengeka kumapangidwa chifukwa chake, sikungapweteke, koma malinga ngati ndi zotsatira osati mbali ya chifukwa ndi zolimbikitsa zochita zanga.

Lamulo la chikondi

Izi zikhoza kufotokoza funso la momwe tingalamulire chikondi cha Mulungu, ndi chikondi chonse (palinso lamulo la kukonda kukondwa ndi chikondi cha mlendo). Ngati chikondi ndi kutengeka ndiye kuti zimangochitika mwachibadwa zomwe sizili kwa ine. Ndiye kodi lamulo la chikondi limatanthauza chiyani? Koma ngati chikondi chili chotulukapo cha kulingalira kwamaganizo osati kutengeka maganizo, ndiye kuti pali mpata wochigwirizanitsa.

M'nkhaniyi ndi ndemanga chabe yomwe ingasonyezedwe kuti malamulo onse omwe amakhudza malingaliro monga chikondi ndi chidani satembenukira ku malingaliro koma pa luntha lathu. [2] Monga chitsanzo, R. Yitzchak Hutner akubweretsa funso limene anafunsidwa kwa iye mmene Maimonides amaŵerengera lamulo la kukonda Hagara mu chiŵerengero chathu, popeza kuti likuphatikizidwa mu lamulo la kukonda chisangalalo. Hagara ndi Myuda ndipo motero ayenera kukondedwa chifukwa ndi Myuda, ndiye kodi lamulo la kukonda Hagara likuwonjezera chiyani? Chifukwa chake ngati ndikonda mlendo chifukwa ali Myuda, monganso ndikonda Myuda aliyense, sindinasunge lamulo la kukonda mlendo. Chifukwa chake, RIA ikufotokoza, palibe kubwereza apa, ndipo mitzvah iliyonse ili ndi zomwe zili ndi mawonekedwe ake.

Izi zikutanthauza kuti lamulo lokonda Hagara ndi lanzeru osati lamalingaliro. Kumaphatikizapo kusankha kwanga kumkonda pazifukwa izi. Ichi si chikondi chimene chiyenera kukhazikika mwa ine mwachibadwa chokha. Palibe kanthu kwa gulu pa izi, monga mitzvos amakopa zisankho zathu osati malingaliro athu.

Ulaliki wa Chazal wonena za chikondi cha chisangalalo umatchula zinthu zambiri zomwe tiyenera kuchita. Ndipo umu ndi momwe Maimonides akuziyika mu chiyambi cha ndime yachinayi ya Ambuye, koma:

Mitzvah anapanga za mawu awo kuchezera odwala, ndi kutonthoza olira, ndi kutulutsa akufa, ndi kubweretsa mkwatibwi, ndi kutsagana ndi oitanidwa, ndi kuchita ndi zosowa zonse za maliro, kunyamula pa phewa, ndi lilac pamaso pake ndi lirani ndi kukumba ndi kuyika, ndipo sangalalani mkwati ndi mkwatibwi, Shiur, ngakhale matzahs ​​onsewa amachokera ku mawu awo, iwo ali ambiri ndipo amakonda mnzako monga udzikonda iwe mwini, zonse zomwe mukufuna kuti ena akuchitireni, inu. Adawapanga kukhala m’bale wako m’Buku la Taurat ndi Matza.

Apanso zikuwoneka kuti mitzvah ya chikondi chachikondi sichikhudza kutengeka mtima koma zochita.

Izi zaonekeranso m’ndime ya m’parsha yathu imene ikunena:

Pambuyo pake, ndiyeno, ndipo komabe,

Chikondi chimamasulira kuchitapo kanthu. Ndi momwe zililinso ndi mavesi a Parashat Akev (wotchedwa sabata yamawa. Deuteronomo XNUMX: XNUMX):

Ndipo uzikonda Mulungu wa Mulungu wako, ndi kusunga udikiro wake, ndi malemba ake, ndi maweruzo ake, ndi maweruzo ake, masiku onse;

Kuphatikiza apo, Anzeru amafunikiranso ma vesi omwe ali muparsha yathu pazofunikira (Brachot SA AB):

Ndipo m’madera onse - Tanya, R. Eliezer akuti, ngati kwanenedwa mu moyo wanu wonse chifukwa chake akunenedwa m’dziko lanu lonse, ndipo ngati kwanenedwa m’dziko mwanu monse chifukwa chake akunenedwa m’moyo mwanu wonse, pokhapokha mutakhala nawo. munthu amene thupi lake liri lokondedwa kwa iye , Izi zikunenedwa mu madad onse.

Kodi chikondi chimakopa chinthu kapena mayina ake aulemu?

M'mabukhu anga awiri a ngolo ndi baluni pachipata chachiwiri ndinasiyanitsa chinthucho ndi makhalidwe ake kapena maudindo. Gome lomwe lili patsogolo panga lili ndi zinthu zambiri: lapangidwa ndi matabwa, lili ndi miyendo inayi, ndi lalitali, labwino, lofiirira, lozungulira ndi zina zambiri. Koma kodi tebulo lenilenilo ndi chiyani? Ena anganene kuti tebulo silili kanthu koma mndandanda wazinthu izi (ndiye mwina wafilosofi Leibniz akuganiza). M’buku langa mmenemo ndinatsutsa kuti izi sizowona. Gome ndi chinthu chinanso pambali pa kusonkhanitsa zinthu. M’pomveka kunena kuti ali ndi makhalidwe. Makhalidwe amenewa ndi makhalidwe ake [6].

Ngati chinthu sichinali china koma kusonkhanitsa katundu, ndiye kuti panalibe cholepheretsa kupanga chinthu kuchokera mgulu lililonse la katundu. Mwachitsanzo, masamba a mwala wa yade pa chala cha munthu wina wokhala ndi sikweya ya tebulo pafupi ndi ine ndi mpweya wa mitambo ya cumulonimbus pamwamba pathu idzakhalanso chinthu chovomerezeka. kulekeranji? Chifukwa palibe chinthu chomwe chili ndi zinthu zonsezi. Iwo ali a zinthu zosiyanasiyana. Koma ngati chinthu sichina koma kusonkhanitsa katundu, ndiye kuti nzosatheka kunena choncho. Mapeto ake ndi kuti chinthu si mndandanda wa katundu. Pali mndandanda wa zinthu zomwe zimadziwika.

Pafupifupi zonse zomwe zimanenedwa za chinthu, monga tebulo, zimapanga chiganizo chokhudza katundu wake. Tikamanena kuti ndi bulauni kapena matabwa kapena wamtali kapena womasuka, zonsezi ndi mbali zake. Kodi ndizothekanso kuti ziganizo zigwirizane ndi tebulo lokha (mafupa ake)? Ndikuganiza kuti pali mawu otero. Mwachitsanzo, mawu akuti tebulo alipo. Kukhalapo si mbali ya tebulo koma mkangano pa tebulo lenilenilo. [8] Ndipotu, mawu anga ochokera pamwamba kuti pali chinthu chonga tebulo kupyola mawonekedwe ake ndi mawu akuti tebulo lilipo, ndipo zikuwonekeratu kuti limagwiranso ntchito osati ndi mawonekedwe ake okha. Ndikuganiza kuti ngakhale mawu akuti tebulo ndi chinthu chimodzi osati ziwiri ndi mawu okhudza okha osati kufotokoza kapena mawonekedwe ake.

Pamene ndinachita ndi kusiyana kumeneku zaka zapitazo mmodzi wa ophunzira anga adanena kuti m'malingaliro ake kukonda munthu kumatembenukira ku mafupa a wokondedwayo osati ku makhalidwe ake. Makhalidwe ndi njira yokumana naye, koma kenako chikondi chimatembenukira kwa yemwe ali ndi mikhalidweyo osati ku mikhalidweyo, kotero kuti chikhoza kupulumuka ngakhale makhalidwewo atasintha mwanjira ina. Mwina izi ndi zomwe anzeru anena ku Pirkei Avot: Ndipo chikondi chonse chomwe sichidalira kalikonse - sichimasokoneza chilichonse ndikuthetsa chikondi. "

Kufotokozera kwina kwa kuletsa ntchito yakunja

Chithunzichi chikhoza kuwunikiranso za kuletsedwa kwa ntchito zakunja. Mu parsha yathu (ndipo ndidzapempha) Torah imatalikitsa kuletsa ntchito zakunja. The Haftarah (Yesaya chaputala M) ilinso pafupi mbali yake yosiyana, kusakwaniritsidwa kwa Mulungu:

Nhmo Nhmo Ami Iamr Gd wanu: Dbro on hearted Iroslm and Krao Alih Ci forth Tzbah Ci Nrtzh Aonh Ci Lkhh Mid Ikok Cflim Bcl Htatih: S. Cole owerenga mchipululu Fno Drc Ikok Isro Barbh Mslh Lalhino: Cl Gia Mount Insa ndi Isflo ndi Cl. ndi Hih Hakb Lmisor ndi Hrcsim Lbkah : Virtzer Majeker: Nadshading kuti amuphe pa chipinda chogona Irah Bzrao Ikbtz Tlaim and Bhiko Isa Alot Inhl: S. Who Mdd Bsalo water and Smim Bzrt Tcn and Cl Bsls Afr earth and Skl Bfls Hrim and Gbaot Bmaznim: Who Tcn At wind Ikok ndi Ais Atzto Ilmodiano: Yemwe Nowatz ndi Ibinho Barrinho ndi Ibinho Msft ndi Ilmdho nzeru ndi Drc Tbonot Iodiano: ay Goim Cmr Mdli ndi Cshk Maznim Nhsbo ay Aiim Cdk Itol: ndi Lbnon palibe Di Bar ndi Hito palibe Di Aolh: S Cl Hgoim Kaini Ngdo Mafs ndi Tho Nhsbo kwa iye: ndi Al Who Tdmion mulungu ndi Mh Dmot Tarco kwa iye: Hfsl Nsc craftsman ndi Tzrf Bzhb Irkano ndi Rtkot siliva wosula golide: Hmscn Nthawi yabwino yopita kudziko Th Cdk kumwamba ndi Imthm Cahl Lsbt: Hnotn Roznim Lain Sfti dziko Ctho Ash: mkwiyo Bl Ntao mkwiyo Bl Zrao mkwiyo Bl Srs Bartz Gzam Zofanana kwa Nsf Bhm ndi Ibso ndi Sarh Cks Tsam: S. Al Who Tdmioni ndi Asoh Sao Iamr poyera: Anicm ndi Rao Amene Bra Awa ndi Hmotzia Mu chiwerengero cha ankhondo awo kwa onse m'dzina la Ambuye iye adzaitana ambiri a iwo ndi kulimba mphamvu ya munthu palibe kulibe:

Mutu uwu ukukamba za mfundo yakuti Mulungu alibe chifaniziro cha thupi. Sizingatheke kusintha khalidwe lake ndikumufanizira ndi chinthu china chomwe timachidziwa bwino. Ndiye mumalumikizana naye bwanji? Kodi mumachipeza bwanji kapena mumazindikira kuti chilipo? Mavesi apa akuyankha izi: mwaluntha basi. Timaona zochita zake ndipo timaona kuti iye aliko komanso kuti ndi wamphamvu. Amalenga mabungwe a dziko (analenga dziko) ndipo amakhala pabwalo la dziko (kuliyendetsa). "Taonani amene adalenga amene adapereka ndalama mu chiwerengero cha asilikali awo m'dzina la Yikra."

Malinga ndi gawo lapitalo tinganene kuti Gd alibe mawonekedwe, ndiko kuti, alibe mawonekedwe omwe timawaona. Sitichiwona ndipo sitikhala ndi chidziwitso chilichonse chokhudzana nacho. Titha kuganiza za zochita zake (mu mawu akuti filosofi yolowerera, ili ndi maudindo ochitapo kanthu osati mitu yazinthu).

Chikondi chamalingaliro chikhoza kupangidwa ku chinthu chomwe chimagulitsidwa kwa ife mwachindunji, chimene timachiwona kapena kukumana nacho. Pambuyo pazochitikazo ndi kukumana kwachindunji kwachidziwitso, chikondi chomwe chimatuluka chikhoza kutembenukira ku mafupa, koma izi zimafuna kuyanjana kwa maudindo ndi makhalidwe a wokondedwa. Kupyolera mwa iwo timakumana naye. Chifukwa chake ndizovuta kunena kuti pali chikondi chamalingaliro ku bungwe lomwe timafikira kokha kudzera mkangano ndi malingaliro anzeru okha, ndipo tilibe njira yolumikizirana nawo mwachindunji. Ndikuganiza kuti njira ya chikondi chanzeru ndi yotseguka kwa ife pano makamaka.

Ngati ndi choncho, n’zosadabwitsa kuti parsha ndi haftarah zimagwirizana ndi kuchotsedwa kwa Mulungu, ngati parsha abweretsa lamulo la kumukonda. Pamene mukulowetsa kumasulira kwa Mulungu, mfundo yodziwika bwino ndi yakuti chikondi pa Iye chiyenera ndipo chikhoza kukhala pamalingaliro anzeru osati pamaganizo. Monga tanenera, izi sizoyipa chifukwa monga tawonera ndi chikondi choyera komanso chokwanira kuposa onse. N’zotheka kuti chikondi chimenechi chidzachititsanso kuti azikondana kwambiri, koma zimenezi n’zakumapeto. Chigawo chochepa cha chikondi chaluntha cha Mulungu. Kutengeka maganizo koteroko sikungakhale koyambitsa chifukwa palibe chomwe ungagwire. Monga ndanenera, kutengeka kwa chikondi kumawonedwa m'chifaniziro cha wokondedwa, ndipo kulibe mwa Mulungu.

Mwina mbali ina ikuwoneka pano pa kuletsa ntchito zakunja. Ngati munthu apanga chithunzi cha Mulungu, amayesa kuchisintha kukhala chinthu chodziwikiratu chomwe angapangire kulumikizana kwachidziwitso, ndiye kuti chikondi pa iye chikhoza kukhala chamalingaliro, chomwe chimakhala ndi chikhalidwe chapakati chomwe chimayika wokondedwayo m'malo mwa wokondedwa. pakati. Choncho Mulungu amafuna kuti mu haftarah yathu tilowetse mkati mwathu kuti palibe njira yoti tingaitsanzire (kuipanga kukhala chikhalidwe chilichonse), ndipo njira yofikirako ndi nzeru ndi luntha, kupyolera mu zongoyerekeza. Choncho, chikondi pa iye, chimene nkhaniyo ikuchita, chidzakhalanso ndi khalidwe lotere.

Mwachidule

Ndikuganiza kuti pali zochepa chabe za ntchito zakunja m'malingaliro achipembedzo a ambiri a ife. Anthu amaganiza kuti ntchito yachipembedzo yozizira ndi yopanda pake, koma apa ndayesera kusonyeza kuti ili ndi gawo lokwanira komanso loyera. Chikondi chotengeka maganizo nthawi zambiri chimamatirira ku chithunzi china cha Mulungu, kotero kuti chikhoza kuvutika ndi zipangizo zake ndi kupembedza kwachilendo. Ndayesera kutsutsa pano mokomera chiphunzitso chakuti chikondi cha Mulungu chiyenera kukhala chosiyana kwambiri ndi platonic, luntha komanso maganizo.

[1] Ndizowona kuti ngati amygdala ya Levy yawonongeka, zidzakhala zovuta kwambiri, ndipo mwinamwake zosatheka, kuti amvetse zomwe anachita. Sakumvetsa kuti kuvulala m'maganizo ndi chiyani komanso chifukwa chake Simon amamupweteka. Choncho kuvulala kwa amygdala sikungamulole kuti amvetse tanthauzo la zochita zake, ndipo sangaganize kuti ayenera kupepesa. Koma ndikofunikira kumvetsetsa kuti iyi ndi ntchito yosiyana ya amygdala, yomwe ilibe yofunika kwambiri kwa ife. Mtsutso wanga ndikuti ngati amvetsetsa kuti wamupweteka Simon ngakhale sizikumuzunza, pempho la chikhululukiro ndilokwanira komanso loyera. Malingaliro ake sali ofunika kwenikweni. Ndizowona kuti mwaukadaulo popanda kukhala ndi malingaliro otere sakanatero chifukwa sakanamvetsetsa kuopsa kwa mchitidwewo ndi tanthauzo lake. Koma iyi ndi nkhani mwaukadaulo. Zitha kukhala zokhudzana ndi kutsegulira kwanga kuti ndi malingaliro omwe amapanga zisankho, ndipo zimatengera malingaliro ngati chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe ziyenera kuganiziridwa.

Zimandikumbutsa za nkhani yomwe ndinamvapo ku TED kuchokera kwa katswiri wa zaubongo yemwe anali wovulala muubongo ndipo sanathe kukhudzidwa. Anaphunzira kutengera zochita zamaganizo izi mwaukadaulo. Monga John Nash (wodziŵika ndi bukhu la Sylvia Nasser, Wonders of Reason, ndi filimu imene inatsatira), amene anakumana ndi malo ongoyerekezera a anthu ndipo anaphunzira kunyalanyaza m’njira yaukadaulo kotheratu. Iye anali wotsimikiza kuti panalidi anthu omuzungulira, koma anaphunzira kuti zimenezi zinali zongopeka ndipo anayenera kuzinyalanyaza ngakhale kuti chokumana nachocho chinalipobe mwa iye mwamphamvu. Pa cholinga cha zokambirana zathu, tidzaganiza za Levy ngati amygdala wopanda mphamvu zachifundo zamaganizo, yemwe waphunzira kumvetsetsa mwanzeru komanso mozizira (popanda kutengeka) kuti zochita zoterezi kapena zina zimavulaza anthu, ndipo chikhululukiro chiyenera kufunidwa kuti chiwasangalatse. Tangoganizaninso kuti pempho la chikhululukiro limakhala lovuta kwa iye monganso kwa munthu amene akumva, apo ayi kunganenedwe kuti mchitidwe wotero suyenera kuyamikiridwa ngati salipiritsa ndalama zamaganizo kuchokera kwa amene wazichita.

[2] Onani izi mwatsatanetsatane m'buku lakhumi ndi limodzi mu Talmudic Logic Series, The Platonic Character of the Talmud, Michael Avraham, Israel Belfer, Dov Gabay ndi Uri Shield, London 2014, mu gawo lachiwiri. 

[3] Maimonides m’mizu yake amanena kuti mitzvot iwiri yomwe sipanganso chinthu china choposa mitzvah ya wolembetsa wina sayenera kuikidwa.

[4] Ndipo silifanana ndi lamulo la kukonda kukula msinkhu. Onani ndemanga zathu pamenepo.

[5] Ngakhale kuti awa ndi malamulo ochokera m’mawu a alembi, ndipo mwachionekere kuti lamulo la Dauriyta ndi inde pa kutengeka mtima, koma amene achita izi chifukwa cha chikondi kwa mnzake akukwaniritsanso mu mitzvah Dauriyta imeneyi. Koma palibe chopinga m’chinenero cha Maimonides pano kumvetsetsa kuti ngakhale Dauriyta mitzvah imene imachitadi ndi unansi wotamanda ingakhale yamaganizo osati yamaganizo monga tafotokozera pano.

[6] Monga ndafotokozera pamenepo, kusiyana kumeneku kumagwirizana ndi kusiyana kwa Aristotelian pakati pa chinthu ndi nkhani kapena chinthu ndi mawonekedwe, ndipo mu filosofi ya Kant kusiyanitsa pakati pa chinthu chokhacho ( nuumana ) kulankhula monga momwe zimawonekera m'maso mwathu. zochitika).

[7] Onani pamenepo zitsanzo zomwe ndidapereka kuchokera ku nthano yanzeru ya wolemba waku Argentina Borges, "Ochber, Telen, Artius", m'matuwa otembenuzidwa ndi Yoram Bronowski.

[8] Ndasonyeza pamenepo kuti umboni ukhoza kubweretsedwa ku izi kuchokera ku mfundo ya sayansi ya kukhalapo kwa Mulungu. Ngati kukhalapo kwa chinthu ndi chikhalidwe chake, chifukwa ndiye kuti kukhalapo kwa Mulungu kungatsimikizidwe kuchokera ku lingaliro lake, lomwe silingatheke. Ngakhale onani tsatanetsatane wa mkangano uwu m'buku loyamba latsambali. Kumeneko ndinayesera kusonyeza kuti mkanganowo siwopanda maziko (ngakhale sikofunikira).

Malingaliro 16 pa “Pa Chikondi: Pakati pa Kutengeka ndi Maganizo (Mzere 22)”

  1. Isaki:
    Kodi 'chikondi chanzeru' chimatanthauza chiyani, popeza chikondi ndi malingaliro?
    Kapena kodi uku ndi kulakwitsa ndipo kukutanthauza kutchulidwa ndi kulumikizana ndi wina - ndipo mu 'maganizo' cholinga sichiri kumvetsetsa koma chidziwitso chomwe ndi choyenera kuchita?
    Ndipo ponena za fanizo la chikondi, sizitanthauza kuti chikondi ndi chotengera, koma tanthauzo la fanizoli ndikuti munthu 'sakhoza' kulakwitsa nthawi zonse .. Mwina ndichifukwa choti chidziwitsochi 'chimagonjetsa' munthu yense Kodi iye amawalitsa ...
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Mtsutso wanga ndikuti ayi. Kutengeka mtima kwenikweni ndi chizindikiro cha chikondi osati chikondi chokha. Chikondi chokha ndi chisankho chanzeru, kupatula kuti ngati kutengeka kumabwera ndiye kuti ndasankha.
    Sindikuwona tanthauzo la kusanthula. Ichi ndi chosankha chimene chiri choyenera kuchita, monga momwe Maimonides analembera m’vesi lachiŵiri.
    Ngati fanizolo silinabwere kuti limveke bwino za ntchito yanga, ndi chiyani? Amandiuza zomwe zidzandichitikire kuchokera kwa iyemwini? N’kutheka kuti anabwera kudzandifotokozera ntchito yanga.

  2. Isaki:
    Zikuoneka kuti pali kusiyana pakati pa 'ntchito yochokera ku chikondi' momwe rabbi ankachitira ndi positi, ndi 'mitzvot ahavat ha' (momwe Maimonides amachita ndi malamulo a Yeshuat)….
    Mu Halachot Teshuvah Maimonides akufotokoza zomwe zimabweretsa Edeni kuti alambire dzinali - ndipo mawu a rabi ndi okhutiritsa ...
    Koma chifukwa chokhala mitzvah, mitzvah ya chikondi cha Mulungu sichita ndi zomwe zimabweretsa munthu kugwira ntchito, koma ili ndi udindo pa iye kukula (monga mawu a Hagli Tal - chisangalalo chomwe chimakulitsa theka la ntchito)… Kuyang’ana chilengedwe
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Ndivomereza kwathunthu. Uwu ndiyedi mgwirizano pakati pa malamulo ofunikira a Torah ndi Teshuvah. Ndipo komabe mu H. Teshuvah amazindikiritsa chikondi ndi kuchita chowonadi chifukwa ndi chowonadi. Ndi chiyani pakati pa izo ndi kutengeka? N’kutheka kuti chikondi chimene malo onsewa amachitirako n’chimodzimodzi. Mu Basic Torah akulemba kuti chikondi chimapezedwa mwa kuyang'ana chilengedwe (ichi ndi chiganizo chomwe ndakhala ndikuchikamba), ndipo mu Teshuvah akufotokoza kuti tanthauzo lake pa nkhani yogwira ntchito kuchokera ku chikondi ndiko kuchita choonadi chifukwa ndi choonadi. . Ndipo iwo ndi mawu anga.
    —————————————————————————————
    Isaki:
    Lingaliro la mantha ndilosiyana kwambiri pakati pa Yeshiva ndi Halachot Teshuvah
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Izi ndi zomveka zachilendo. Tikamakamba za kugwira ntchito kuti tipeze ndalama komanso pogula zinthu kudzera mwa ndalama, kodi mawu akuti “ndalama” amaoneka mosiyanasiyana? Nanga n’cifukwa ciani mukamva cikondi kapena mukamacita zinthu cifukwa ca cikondi, liu lakuti “cikondi” limapezeka m’matanthauzo aŵili osiyana?
    Pankhani ya mantha, mgwirizano pakati pa mantha a kukwezedwa ndi mantha a chilango uyenera kukambidwanso. Ngati lingaliro lomwelo likugwiritsidwa ntchito liyenera kukhala ndi tanthauzo lofanana, kapena locheperapo ndi kulumikizana kokwanira pakati pa matanthauzo. M’mbali zonse ziwiri mantha ndi ofanana, ndipo kusiyana kuli pa nkhani ya chimene chimadzutsa mantha, chilango kapena kukwezeka.

  3. Yosefe:
    Kutanthauzira mu Halacha C kumamveka mocheperapo kwa ine.
    Nkovuta kusiyanitsa chokumana nacho cha mawu a Maimonides ndi kunena kuti amangochenjeza za “kuchotsedwa kwa Torah.” Zikuonekadi kulongosola chokumana nacho chozama cha wokonda Mulungu kuti chinthu chokha m’dziko chimene chimamdera nkhaŵa ndicho chikondi cha Mulungu. Sindimagwirizana konse ndi lingaliro la nkhaniyi kuti chokumana nacho chamalingaliro chimayika wokonda pakati ndipo chikondi chokhacho chosiyana chimayika wokondedwayo pakati. Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti pali mlingo pamwamba pa kulekanitsidwa kozizira ndipo ndi pamene chifuniro cha wokonda chikugwirizana ndi chifuniro cha wokondedwa ndipo kukwaniritsidwa kwa chifuniro cha wokondedwa kumakhala kukwaniritsidwa kwa chifuniro cha wokonda ndi mosemphanitsa. mu “chita chifuniro chanu monga afuna”. M’chikondi chimenechi, sikutheka kulankhula za wokondana kapena wokondedwa pakati koma za chikhumbo chimodzi cha onse aŵiri. M’lingaliro langa, Maimonides amalankhula za zimenezi pamene akulankhula za chikhumbo cha wokonda Mulungu. Simatsutsana ndi kuchita choonadi chifukwa ndi choonadi chimene chimayamba chifukwa chofuna choonadi.
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Hello Joseph.
    1. Kwa ine sizikuwoneka zovuta. Ndinapereka ndemanga pa makonzedwe olondola a mafanizo.
    2. Lingaliro lomwe lili m'nkhaniyi siloti zochitika zamaganizo zimayika wokondedwa pakati, koma kuti nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi gawo loterolo (likukhudzidwa).
    Nkhani ya chiyanjano chachinsinsichi ndi yovuta kwambiri kwa ine ndipo sindikuganiza kuti ndi yothandiza, makamaka osati ku chinthu chosadziwika ndi chosaoneka ngati Mulungu, monga ndalembera.
    4. Ngakhale sichikusemphana ndi kuchita Choonadi chifukwa ndi choona, koma ndithu sichili chimodzimodzi kwa iye. Maimonides amadziŵikitsa zimenezi ndi chikondi.

  4. Mordekai:
    Monga mwachizolowezi, zosangalatsa komanso zopatsa chidwi.

    Panthaŵi imodzimodziyo, tanthauzo mu Maimonides siliri chabe ‘kupsinjika pang’ono’, ndipo osati kufulumira kwakukulu, liri chabe kupotoza (m’kukhululuka). Maimonides anachita chothekera kufotokoza mkhalidwe wamaganizo, ndipo mumam’kakamiza kunena kuti icho chikadali chinachake chomveka ndi chopatukana (monga mukuchilongosolera) [ndipo ndemanga ya ‘kulephera’ m’chigwirizano ndi mafanizo sali okhutiritsa nkomwe m’mafanizo athu. nkhani, chifukwa apa sikungonyalanyaza mafanizo ].

    Ponena za funso lodziwika bwino lachidziwitso chamalingaliro, ziyenera kudziwidwa kuti kutengeka kulikonse ndi chifukwa cha kuzindikira kwina kwamalingaliro. Kuopa njoka kumabwera chifukwa chodziwa kuti ndi yoopsa. Mwana wamng'ono sadzachita mantha kusewera ndi njoka.
    Chotero sikulakwa kunena kuti kutengeka mtima ndi chibadwa chabe. Ndi chibadwa chomwe chimayambitsidwa chifukwa cha malingaliro ena. Choncho, munthu amene si ubongo kuonongeka, ndipo palibe kutengeka kumatuluka mwa iye kutsatira kuvulazidwa kwa munthu wina, zikuoneka kuti maganizo ake makhalidwe ndi cholakwika.

    Malingaliro anga, ichinso ndicho cholinga cha Maimonides. Pamene kuzindikira kwa munthu choonadi kumakula, chikondi mumtima mwake chimakula. Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti zinthu zimveka bwino pambuyo pake mumutu (Halacha XNUMX):
    Ndi chinthu chodziwika ndi chomveka bwino kuti chikondi cha Mulungu sichimangika mu mtima wa munthu - mpaka nthawi zonse atakwaniritsa bwino ndikusiya zonse zapadziko lapansi kupatula iye, monga adalamulira ndipo anati 'ndi mtima wako wonse ndi moyo wako wonse. ' - koma ndi lingaliro adadziwa. Ndipo malinga ndi lingaliro, padzakhala chikondi, ngati pang'ono komanso ngati kwambiri. "
    Tafotokozani apa: a. Chikondi ndi maganizo amene amamanga mumtima mwa munthu.
    B. Lamulo la mu Tora likunena za kutengeka mtima.
    chachitatu. Chifukwa kutengeka uku ndi chifukwa cha malingaliro,
    Tanthauzo la lamulo lokonda Mulungu ndi kuchulukitsa mu malingaliro a Mulungu.
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Moni Mordekai.
    Sindinaone m’mawu a Maimonides pano kuti ndi kutengeka mtima. Ndi chidziwitso koma osati kutengeka. Mukunyalanyazanso ubale wapakati pa B ndi C womwe ndidayimira m'mawu anga.
    Koma kupitirira zonsezi, ine ndiribe vuto mu mfundo ndi mawu anu, pakuti ngakhale mu njira yanu ntchito akadali pa ife ndi ntchito chidziwitso, kudziwa ndi kudziwa, osati kutengeka. Kumverera ngati kupangidwa chifukwa chake - kudzapangidwa, ndipo ngati sichoncho - ndiye ayi. Chifukwa chake kutengeka kumachitika pamapeto popanda kuwongolera kwathu. Chidziwitso ndi kuphunzira zili m'manja mwathu, ndipo kutengeka ndi zotsatira zake. Ndiye pali kusiyana kotani pakati pa zomwe mumapereka ndi zomwe ndalemba?
    CPM kwa munthu yemwe ubongo wake wawonongeka ndipo sangathe kukonda. Kodi mukuganiza kuti munthu woteroyo sangathe kusunga lamulo la chikondi cha Mulungu? M'malingaliro anga inde.

    Pomaliza, ngati mudatchulapo kale halakhah yomwe ikufunsidwa ku Rambam, bwanji mwaidula? Nachi chilankhulo chonse:

    Ndizodziwika ndi zoonekeratu kuti chikondi cha Wodalitsika sichimangika mu mtima wa munthu mpaka atachikwaniritsa moyenerera ndikusiya zonse zapadziko lapansi kupatulapo, monga momwe adalamulira ndi kunena ndi mtima wanu wonse ndi moyo wanu wonse. sakonda Pang’ono ndi kwambiri, choncho munthu ayenera pamodzi yekha kumvetsetsa ndi kuphunzitsidwa nzeru ndi luntha zimene zimamudziŵitsa za cono yake monga mphamvu imene munthu ali nayo kuti amvetse ndi kupeza monga momwe taonera m’malamulo ofunikira a Torah.

    Zikuwonekeratu kuti izi ndi maganizo osati maganizo. Ndipo makamaka kutengeka mtima kumachokera m'maganizo. Udindo wokonda Mulungu suli pamalingaliro koma pamalingaliro. Ndipo NPM ya owonongeka ubongo.
    Ndipo zingatheke bwanji kusamalizitsa ndi mawu a Rabbi powakwaniritsa pamenepo:

    Zomwe zimadziwika komanso zomveka, ndi zina. AA ndi kupusa komwe sitidali kudziwa chifukwa chake chili chinthu choongoka, ndipo tikuumasulira m’zinthu ziwiri chilankhulo cha ndakatulo ngati chopusa kwa Davide, ndi chinthu chinanso chifukwa chikondi chake chidzakwaniritsa pa zinthu zanu zomwe simulipira. chisamaliro kwa iwo

    Mpaka pano ndizabwino kwambiri madzulo ano.
    —————————————————————————————
    Mordekai:
    1. M’lingaliro langa mawu akuti ‘womangidwa mu mtima wa munthu’ ali oyenerera kutengeka maganizo kuposa kuzindikira.
    2. Ubale pakati pa B ndi C ndi woyambitsa ndi zotsatira zake. Ndiko kuti: maganizo amatsogolera ku chikondi. Chikondi chimabweretsa ntchito ku dzina lake (si chikondi koma 'ntchito yochokera ku chikondi', mwachitsanzo: ntchito yochokera ku chikondi).
    Seder m'mawu a Maimonides amagwirizana ndi mutuwo - mutu wake suli lamulo la chikondi cha Mulungu (iyi ndi phunziro mu maziko a Torah) koma ntchito ya Mulungu, ndipo akadza kufotokoza ntchito yabwino kwambiri. akufotokoza khalidwe lake (dzina lake - II) ndi gwero lake ), Ndipo kenako akufotokoza momwe angafikire chikondi ichi (Da'at - HV).
    Zimenezi zalongosoledwa m’mawu a Maimonides kumapeto kwa Halacha XNUMX : “Ndipo pamene akonda Mulungu, pomwepo apanga malamulo onse mwa chikondi; Kenako mu Halacha C akufotokoza kuti chikondi choyenera ndi chiyani.
    3. Kusiyana pakati pa mawu athu ndi kwakukulu. M'malingaliro anga, kusunga kwa mitzvah kuli mumalingaliro, ndiko kuti: kutengeka kumakhala pakati komanso osati mankhwala ena a m'mphepete ndi osafunika. Iye amene amayang'ana' chikondi cha Plato ndi chosiyana ndi 'chikondi cha Mulungu' samasunga mitzvah. Ngati avulala mu amygdala amangogwiriridwa.
    4. Sindinamvetse chimene mawu ogwidwa mawu a kupitiriza kwa chinenero cha Maimonides anawonjezera
    (Mawu akuti “sakonda Wodalitsidwayo [koma m’lingaliro…]” sapezeka m’kope la Frenkel, chotero sindinawagwire mawu, koma tanthauzo lake nlofanana. zinali zongofuna kumveketsa bwino, ndipo apanso tanthauzo lake ndilofanana)
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    1. Zabwino. Sindikutsimikiza za zimenezo.2. Ndikugwirizana nazo zonsezi. Ndipo chitanibe chowonadi chifukwa ndi chowonadi sichikuwoneka kwa ine kukhala chokhudzana ndi kutengeka kwa chikondi koma ku lingaliro lachidziwitso (mwinamwake kutengeka kwa chikondi kumatsagana nacho, ngakhale sichoncho. Onani positi yanga yapitayi).
    3. Ndiye ndimafunsabe chifukwa chiyani kuti tiphatikizepo chinthu chomwe chimangochitika chokha? Koposa zonse mitzvah ndi kuzamitsa chidziwitso ndi ntchito zanzeru, ndipo chikondi chomwe chimadza mwachibadwa pambuyo pake (wodala ndi wokhulupirira) ndicho chisonyezero chakuti mwachichita. Chifukwa chake amene malingaliro ake awonongeka sagwiriridwa, koma amamvera mitzvah kwathunthu. Ife tiribe chizindikiro pazimenezi, koma Mulungu akudziwa, ndipo ndiye Wabwino.
    4. Mawu ogwidwa kuchokera ku kupitiriza kwa chinenero cha Maimonides amalankhula za chizindikiritso pakati pa chikondi ndi kudziŵa, kapena makamaka kuti chikondi chiri chiyambukiro chakumbali cha kudziŵa.
    —————————————————————————————
    Mordekai:
    Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti tafotokoza mokwanira momwe tingakhalire.
    Za funso lanu lobwerezabwereza: zinthu ndizosavuta.
    Mulungu amatilamula kuti tizimva. Inde!
    Koma njira yochitira izo ndi yotani? Kuchulukitsa malingaliro.
    Kalembedwe kaakatswiri: kusunga mitzvah - emotion, act of mitzvah - kuchuluka kwa malingaliro.
    (Mawu a Rabbi Solovitchik okhudza mitzvos ena ndi otchuka: pemphero,
    Koma ndi kuyankha, kuti kusunga mitzvah kuli mu mtima).
    Ngati muli wokonzeka kuvomereza kuthekera kwake kongoganizirako 'kusamala zamalingaliro
    Zathu osati kuchokera ku zochita ndi malingaliro athu okha, kotero kuti zinthu ndizomveka bwino komanso zosadodometsa konse.
    Ndiye kutengeka sikuli chabe kosafunika 'mwa-chinthu', koma thupi la mitzvah.
    (Ndipo m’menemo muli mawu odziwika a Rab’a okhudza kusasirira.
    Kumeneko amagwiritsa ntchito mfundo yofanana: Ngati chidziwitso chanu chiri chowongoka,
    Mulimonse mmene zingakhalire, kusirira kwa nsanje sikudzabuka)

  5. B':
    Mukunenadi kuti munthu amene amachita zinthu motsatira nzeru osati malinga ndi mmene akumvera ndi munthu waufulu chabe, mwachitsanzo, chikondi cha Mulungu ndi chanzeru osati chamaganizo, koma zikuoneka kuti tinganene kuti monga munthu. amene amaletsa kukhudzika kwake amamangidwa kwa iwo osati munthu waufulu momwemonso munthu amene amachita zinthu molingana ndi Amalingaliro omwe amamangidwa kumalingaliro ake osati aulere, mumanenanso mwachindunji za chikondi kuti chikondi chapamwamba kwambiri chimakhala chamalingaliro chifukwa ndi luntha lomwe limatembenukira kwa winayo kuti asachirikize malingaliro (inu) koma luntha ili limadzichirikiza nokha mumasiyana bwanji mu egocentrism pakati pa milandu iwiriyi?
    Ndikukukumbutsani kuti titakambirana mudasangalala ndi zokambiranazo ndipo mudandiuza kuti muyenera kulemba za nkhaniyi kuti munthu yekhayo amene amayendetsa moyo wake molingana ndi Halacha ndi munthu woganiza bwino, komanso zapadera za Talmud ndi Halacha kuti atenge malingaliro osamveka. ndi kuwagwiritsa ntchito.
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Tinganene kuti maganizo ndi maganizo ndi ntchito ziwiri zosiyana ndi udindo wofanana. Koma mu lingaliro lamalingaliro chifuniro chimakhudzidwa pamene kutengeka ndi chibadwa chomwe chimakakamizika pa ine. Ndawonjezera izi m'mabuku anga a Sayansi ya Ufulu. zikomo chifukwa cha chikumbutso. Mwina ndilemba positi za izo patsamba.
    —————————————————————————————
    B':
    Ndikuganiza kuti zingakusangalatseni http://davidson.weizmann.ac.il/online/askexpert/med_and_physiol/%D7%94%D7%A4%D7%A8%D7%93%D7%94-%D7%91%D7%99%D7%9F-%D7%A8%D7%92%D7%A9-%D7%9C%D7%94%D7%99%D7%92%D7%99%D7%95%D7%9F
    —————————————————————————————
    Rabbi:
    Pali zokambirana zambiri ngati izi, ndipo ambiri a iwo amavutika ndi kusamveka bwino kwamalingaliro (osatanthauzira kutengeka ndi malingaliro. Komabe, palibe chochita ndi mawu anga chifukwa amakamba za ntchito ya ubongo ndipo ndimalankhula za kuganiza. Kuganiza kumachitidwa mkati maganizo osati ubongo.Saganiza chifukwa sasankha kutero ndipo "saganizira." Neuroscience imaganiza kuti ntchito ya ubongo = kuganiza, ndipo izi ndi zomwe ndinalemba kuti molingana ndi izi nawonso madzi othamanga amayamba kuganiza. ntchito.

  6. Ndemanga ziwiri:

    Mu gawo lotsatira la nkhani akuti, TS anagwa. Ndikuwonetsa m'mabulaketi masikweya:

    "Ndiko kuti, chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo sizimachotsa phindu la mchitidwewo bola ngati zikugwirizana nazo monga zotsatira zake. Koma ngati munthu aphunzira kaamba ka chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo, mwachitsanzo, zimenezo ndizo zisonkhezero za kuphunzira kwake, ndithudi ndi kuphunzira osati chifukwa cha iye mwini. Apa iwo anali olondola "olakwika." M'mawu athu akuti kulakwitsa kwawo sikunali kuganiza kuti kafukufukuyu sayenera kuchitidwa motsatira njira ya centrifugal [= centrifugal cell]. M'malo mwake, iwo ali olondola kotheratu. Kulakwitsa kwawo ndikuti kupezeka kwa chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo kukuwonetsa m'malingaliro awo kuti ichi ndi chochita cha centrifugal [= cell centrifugal]. Sikofunikira kwenikweni. Nthawi zina chisangalalo ndi chisangalalo ndi malingaliro omwe amabwera chifukwa cha kuphunzira ndipo samapanga zifukwa zake.

    2. "Zotsutsana" m'malamulo awiri oyandikana nawo ku Rambam okhudza chikondi, zikuwoneka kuti zakhazikika monga mawu a mame a mkanda omwe munabweretsa nokha pambuyo pake ndi kuwafotokozera mu TotoD. Izi ndizo ndendende zimene Maimonides ananena pano ponena za chikondi cha Mulungu. Zili ndi chifukwa chamaganizo, ndi zotsatira zamaganizo. Akufotokozanso za chikondi chimene amachikamba m’Malamulo Oyamba a Torah PB [pomwe akufotokozanso za kutengeka mtima ndi kuyamikiridwa, ndi pamene sichinaperekedwe ngati fanizo nkomwe, koma kufotokoza chimene chikondi n’choti kufotokozera gwiritsani ntchito pamenepo]. Kuona chilengedwe ndi kuzindikira nzeru za Mulungu ndi makhalidwe ake abwino. Chowonadi-chidziwitso / chamalingaliro - chimatulutsa [komanso] zotsatira zamalingaliro. Ndipo ndizo ndendende zomwe ananena panonso.

  7. 'Chikondi chaulere' - kumbali ya chinthu osati pamutu wamutu

    BSD XNUMX Tamuzi XNUMX

    Poganizira za kusiyana komwe kukuperekedwa pano pakati pa chikondi pa mbali ya fupa ndi chikondi kumbali ya maudindo - ndizotheka kumvetsetsa lingaliro la 'chikondi chaulere' chopangidwa ndi Rabbi Kook.

    Pali mkhalidwe umene khalidwe la munthu kapena utsogoleri wake uli woipitsitsa kotero kuti palibe mkhalidwe wabwino wa iye umene ungamveke umene ungadzutse kumverera kwachibadwa kwa chikondi kwa iye.

    Zikatero, pangakhale 'chikondi pa fupa', kukonda munthu kokha chifukwa chokhala 'wokondedwa wa munthu wolengedwa ku B'Tselem' kapena 'wokondedwa wa Israeli wotchedwa anyamata kumalo'. amene ngakhale pa ntchito yotsika ya 'anyamata achinyengo' amatchedwabe 'anyamata', 'Chisoni cha atate' chambiri chimakhala kwa ana ake.

    Komabe, ziyenera kudziŵika kuti chikondi cha atate kwa ana ake ngakhale pamene ali m’mikhalidwe yaumphaŵi sichiri ‘chikondi chaulere’ chabe. Zimalimbikitsidwanso ndi chiyembekezo chakuti zabwino zobisika mwa anyamata mokakamiza - zidzakwaniritsidwanso. Chikhulupiriro cholimba cha atate mwa ana ake ndi cha Mlengi mwa anthu ake—chingasonyeze chisonkhezero chake chabwino, ndipo chotero ‘nabweza mtima wa atate’ kwa ana ‘chingabweretsenso mitima ya ana kwa atate awo.

    Wodzipereka, Shatz

    Ndikoyenera kudziwa apa kufotokoza kwatsopano komwe Bat-Galim Sha'ar (amayi a Gil-ad XNUMX) adapereka ku lingaliro la 'chikondi chaulere'. Malingana ndi iye, 'chikondi chaulere' ndi 'chikondi chawo cha chisomo'. Kupeza mfundo yabwino mwa ena - kumatha kudzutsa chikondi chomwe chinazilala ndikupumira moyo muubwenzi.

    Ndipo ndithudi zinthu zimagwirizana ndi mawu a Rabbi Nachman wa Breslav mu Torah Rafev pa 'Kuyimba kwa Elki pamene ine', pamene ndikusangalala ndi 'zowonjezera pang'ono', mu kuwala pang'ono kwa zabwino, kapena molondola: pang'ono chikhalabe mwa munthu - ndipo 'kuwunika pang'ono - kumachotsa mdima wambiri'.

    1. Sindinamvetse funsolo. Kusiyanitsa pakati pa malingaliro awiriwa sikukhudzana ndi mawu anga. Aliyense amavomereza kuti sizili zofanana. Izi ndi malingaliro awiri osiyana. Chilakolako ndi kufuna kulanda chinachake, kukhala changa. Chikondi ndi kutengeka komwe pakati ndi ena osati ine (centrifugal osati centrifugal). Pano ndinasiyanitsa pakati pa kutengeka mtima ndi kuzindikira (chikondi chamaganizo ndi nzeru).

  8. “Koma ngati chikondi chili chotulukapo cha kulingalira kwamaganizo osati kungotengeka maganizo, ndiye kuti pali mpata wochilamula.
    Komabe, ndingalangizidwe bwanji kuti ndimvetsetse china chake ??? Mukandifotokozera koma sindikumvetsetsa kapena kutsutsa sikulakwa kwanga!
    Zili ngati kugwirizana pa munthu amene ankakhala m'zaka za m'ma 10 kuti amvetse chitsanzo cha heliocentric, ngati amamvetsa thanzi koma ngati sichoyenera kuchita!
    Pokhapokha mutanena kuti mitzvah kuti mumvetse Mulungu kumatanthauza kuyesa kumvetsetsa ndipo ngati simunamvetse moyipa mukugwiriridwa.

  9. Ndikunena ntchito ya chinthucho patsogolo pake ndi mawu okhudza mafupa ake? Mwachitsanzo, kunena kuti tebulo ndi “chinthu chimene chimalola kuikidwapo” ndi mbali yake kapena ndi mafupa ake?

Siyani ndemanga