Ukujongwa kwiNgxaki ye-Othipron kuKhanya lweNgxoxo (uKholamu 457)

בסדד

Kwikholamu engaphambili ndibonise impikiswano phakathi kwam noDavid Enoki (bona Apha Ukurekhoda) kumbuzo wokuba ingaba uThixo uyafuneka njengesiseko sokulunga kokuziphatha (okanye: Ngaba ngaphandle koThixo zonke izinto zivumelekile). Ngethuba lengxoxo, umongameli (uJeremy Fogel) waphakamisa ingxaki ye-Othipron, owathi ebusweni kubonakala engahambelani nengxoxo. Emva kwexesha ndakhunjuzwa ngenkunzi yenkomo 278 Sele ndijongene nengxaki kunye neziphumo zayo kubungqina obuvela kwisimilo (ukuxhoma isimilo kuThixo). Kule ngxoxo ingentla ndiwuphendule ngokufutshane lo mbuzo, kwaye apha ndiya kubuyela kulo mbandela ukuze ndicacise ukuxhamla kwayo kwingxoxo kunye no-Enoki kunye nokulola ulwahlulo endilwenzile apho nakwikholamu yangaphambili.

Kubalulekile kum ukuba ndiqale ngokuqaphela ukuba ingcamango kaThixo apho ndisebenzisana nayo le kholamu ayifani ngokufanayo noThixo "onqabileyo" endijongene naye kwikholamu yangaphambili. Ezinye zeengcebiso endizenzayo apha zisongezo ezingeyonxalenye ye "ingqimba" kaThixo efunekayo ukunika ubungqina kwimithetho yokuziphatha. Ndiza kubuyela kweli nqaku ekupheleni kwekholamu.

Ingxaki yeOthipron

Kwingxoxo kaPlato A. Eitifron Kubuzwa lo mbuzo ulandelayo: Ngaba olungileyo ulungile ngenxa yokuba izithixo ezifunayo, okanye ngaba izithixo zifuna okulungileyo ngenxa yokuba zilungile? Ngamanye amazwi, umbuzo ngowokuba ngaba kukho intsingiselo enenjongo yokulungileyo, okanye enoba oko kwenza ukuba kulunge sisigqibo soothixo, kodwa ngokomlinganiselo ofanayo banokugqiba kwelokuba nayiphi na enye indlela yokuziphatha ilungile okanye imbi. Yonke into inikezelwe kwintando yabo engafanelekanga. Umbuzo ofanayo unokuphakanyiswa ngokunxulumene noThixo, kunye no-Avi Sagi noDaniel Statman, kwincwadi yabo. Unqulo nokuziphatha, Bamba ingxoxo eneenkcukacha kakhulu ngalo mba. Isigqibo sabo apho sesokuba phantse zonke iinkcuba-buchopho zamaYuda zithethelela ukhetho lwamva. Andiyi kungena kuwo onke ama-nuances kunye neengxabano ezivela kule ncwadi ingentla ngokubanzi (ndicinga ukuba kukho ukungachaneki kuyo), kwaye ndiya kuzibophelela kumbono omfutshane wengqiqo esisiseko kumacala omabini.

Kwelinye icala, ngokwezakwalizwi sicinga ukuba uThixo unamandla onke kwaye akathotyelwa nto. akukho bani ingenguye. Wadala ihlabathi waza wamisela imithetho ekhoyo kulo. Intsingiselo yeyokuba ngewayezimisele ngayo nayiphi na enye indlela awayecinga ngayo. Kungoko akukho ntsingiselo ilungileyo nokubi. Kwelinye icala, ukuba ubani uyamkela le mbono, isigqibo sikukuba akunakwenzeka ukuthi uThixo ulungile. Ingxelo ethi uThixo ulungile ithatha ukuba kukho okulungileyo okuchazwayo nokuba ungubani na, kwaye ingxoxo kukuba kukho ukulingana phakathi kokuziphatha kwakhe kunye neemfuno kunye neenjongo ezifanayo zenjongo yokulungileyo. Kodwa ukuba sisigqibo sakhe esichaza ingcamango yokulungileyo, ngoko ingxelo yokuba uThixo ulungile akukho nto ngaphandle kwenkcazo ye-tautological (okanye i-theorem yohlalutyo) kwaye kungekhona ingxabano. Ngokusisiseko lithetha ukuthi: UThixo ufuna oko akufunayo. Kodwa oku kuyinyaniso kuthi sonke.

Abafundi bezakwalizwi abaninzi (kwaye noyena mncinane uzingcayo ubadibanisa nabo) badla ngokucinga ukuba le yingxaki. UThixo ulungile ngokwenene yaye ngewayengekho ngenye indlela. Oku ngokuqinisekileyo kuthatha ukuba okulungileyo kuchazwe ngokufanelekileyo kwaye uThixo ngokwakhe uxhomekeke kule nkcazo. Ngokuqinisekileyo wayenokusibhidanisa aze awamfamekise amehlo ethu ukuze angakwazi ukwahlula phakathi kokulungileyo nokubi, kodwa wayengenakukwazi ukumisela okulungileyo nokubi. Njengoko benditshilo, ngaphandle kobunzima bezakwalizwi, kubonakala ngathi uninzi lweengcinga zamaJuda zibambe indlela yesibini.

Ukuqonda nokufundisa

Umbono wokuqala unokucocwa kancinane, kwaye uqulunqwe ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: Sinengcamango yokulungileyo nokubi. Ingxoxo yeyokuba ukuthanda kukaThixo kuhambelana nengqiqo efanayo. Kodwa le intuition ityalwe kuthi kuye, ngoko akukho mbono wenjongo yokulungileyo nokubi. Ngaloo ndlela kunokuthiwa le nkcazo ngokwenene ibango (kwaye kungekhona inkcazo), kodwa kwangaxeshanye ibango elijongene neengcamango zethu kwaye kungekhona ihlabathi ngokwalo. Ngokuphathelele ihlabathi ngokwalo, intetho ethi “uThixo ulungile” ayithethi nto (yinto engenanto, i tautology).

Le yimeko ethile yengxaki yobudlelwane phakathi kwentsingiselo kunye nokufundisa. Ukuthatha umzekelo odla ngokusetyenziswa ziingcali zohlalutyo (bona umz. Apha), Ibango: Inkwenkwezi yesifingo yinkwenkwezi yangokuhlwa. Oku koko kuye kwaqwalaselwa ixesha elithile njengeenkwenkwezi ezimbini ezahlukeneyo (enye ibonwa ngokuhlwa kwaye enye ekuseni), kodwa ekugqibeleni safumanisa ukuba yinkwenkwezi efanayo ngokwayo. Ngoku siyabuzwa: Ngaba eli bango libango elingenanto okanye inkcazo (ithiyori yohlalutyo)? Ngaba inomxholo okanye i-tautology engenanto? Kuyacaca ukuba isivakalisi esinjalo asithethi nto, kuba sisazisi phakathi kwento nayo ngokwayo. Kodwa ingqiqo yethu kukuba kukho into entsha kwesi sivakalisi. Isifundisa okuthile ngeengcamango zethu. Iinkwenkwezi ezimbini ebesicinga ukuba zahlukile ziyinkwenkwezi enye ngokwayo. Esi sivakalisi sitshintsha ulwazi lwethu lwehlabathi, nangona ngokwemixholo yenjongo yalo ibonakala ngathi isazisi esingenanto.

Qaphela ukuba oku kuyimeko yalo naliphi na ibango lesazisi lodidi: a ngu b. Ukucinga ukuba eli bango lichanekile, ngoko ngokwenene lithetha: a is a, i.e. i tautology engenanto. Isisombululo sohlalutyo kwingxaki yentsingiselo yamabango esazisi ngumahluko phakathi kwentsingiselo nokufundisa. Iintanda-bulumko ezihlalutyayo (ezilandela uFrege) zithi ngokwesazisi esinjalo kukho intsingiselo kodwa kungekhona umyalelo (okanye umbala). Inentsingiselo engeyonto okanye engenamsebenzi kuthi, kodwa ukuba ujonga oko isalatha kuyo ehlabathini, libango lesazisi esingenamsebenzi.

Ngoku sinokubuyela kwingxaki ye-Othipron. Ngokuphathelele ukuba uThixo uchaza okulungileyo nokubi, kunokutshiwo ukuba amazwi athi ulungile anentsingiselo kodwa kungekhona umyalelo. Ngokwemfundiso yayo (umbala) ayinanto kuba ilungile ngengcaciso yokulungileyo. Yonke into eya kuyenza yayiza kumshiya phantsi kwenkcazo yokulungileyo, ngoko u-Amira olungileyo ungenanto yomxholo (uhlalutyo).

isiphelo

Kodwa kunzima kum ukwamkela nala magama athambileyo. Imvakalelo elula yeyokuba ngokwenene uThixo ufanele ukuba ulungile, nto leyo ethetha ukuba ibango lokuba ulungile asiyonkcazelo engento kodwa libango. Ukuba oku bekungenjalo, bekungayi kubakho sizathu sokubandakanyeka ekulungeni kukaThixo, kwaye bekungayi kubakho mathandabuzo ngako kwizenzo ezibonakala zingafanelekanga kuthi (ezifana nokubotshwa kukaIsake, ukutshatyalaliswa kuka-Amaleki, nokubulawa kuka-Amaleki. njengaye). Ifanele iqondwe into yokuba ukuba oko uThixo akufunayo kuchazwa njengelungileyo ngoko akukho ndawo yamathandabuzo ngokokuziphatha. Wayalela ukuba kulandele uIsake kwaye ke ngoko ukubotshwa kukaIsake yinto elungileyo. Imvakalelo engathi kukho ukungavisisani apha phakathi komyalelo wobuthixo nokuziphatha yalatha kwindawo yethu yokuqala ukuba uThixo ulungile. Kanye njengokuba ubukho bengxoxo-mpikiswano yeenqobo zokuziphatha bubonisa injongo yeenqobo zokuziphatha (kungenjalo bekungayi kubakho nto inokuphikisana ngayo) kwaye ubukho bokugxeka ngokuziphatha bubonisa ukulunga kweenyaniso zokuziphatha (kungenjalo akukho ndawo yokugxekwa kwezimo zengqondo ezingekho mgangathweni kwaye ukuziphatha).

Isiphelo kukuba intuition yenkolo elula isifundisa njengelinye icala le-Othipron dilemma ukuba okulungileyo kuchazwe ngokufanelekileyo nangokunyanzeliswa nguThixo. Oko kukuthi, uThixo ufuna izinto ngenxa yokuba zilungile kungekhona ngenye indlela. Kungale ndlela kuphela enokuthi ixoxwe ngayo ukuba ilungile, kwaye iphinde igxeke (okanye ifune iinkcazo) kwiimeko zokuziphatha kakubi. Kodwa njengoko sibonile le ndlela iphakamisa ubunzima obuchasayo, kwaye ngoku ndiza kuqhubeka ukuyilungisa.

Phakathi kwemithetho yefiziksi kunye "nemithetho" yengqiqo

Le ndlela iphakamisa ubunzima obuchasayo bezakwalizwi. Kunokwenzeka njani ukuba uThixo, owadala yonke into nayo yonke into eyenziwe ngamandla akhe, usephantsi koluhlu lwemithetho yangaphandle angayimisanga? Ukuqonda oku, kufuneka sibuyele kulwahlulo endilwenzileyo apha kwixesha elidlulileyo phakathi kweentlobo ezimbini zemithetho (jonga umzekelo umhlathi 278). Kambe ke, uThixo akakho phantsi kwemithetho yefiziksi, kuba wayidala, kwaye umlomo owalelayo ngumlomo ovumayo. Kananjalo akakho phantsi kwemithetho yelizwe ngokuqinisekileyo (ukuba kuphela ngenxa yokuba engengommi walo). Kodwa kwelinye icala ngokuqinisekileyo "iphantsi" kwimithetho yengqiqo. Imithetho yengqiqo "inyanzeliswa" kuThixo. Akanakwenza unxantathu ongqukuva okanye aphambuke kwingqiqo, ngenxa nje yokuba akukho nto injengonxantathu ongqukuva kwaye akukho silwanyana sitenxayo kwingqiqo. Unxantathu ngokwenkcazo ayingqukuva. Oku akubangelwa nawuphi na umthetho obekwe kunxantathu ngaphandle kwemfuneko, kodwa ngokobume bayo. Ngokuchazwa kwayo njengonxantathu ilandela ukuba ayijikelezi kwaye ayikwazi ukujikeleza. Ngoko ke, ukungakwazi ukwenza unxantathu ongqukuva akubangelwa ngumqobo wangaphandle obekwe phezu kwe-Gd, kwaye ke ngoko ayisosithintelo kubo bonke ubuchule bawo, okanye isiphene kuwo.

Isidalwa esinamandla onke siyakwazi ukwenza yonke into ecingayo nakwintelekelelo. Kodwa unxantathu ongqukuva ngumbono ongenanto. Ayikho into enjalo kwaye ayinakucingelwa. Ngoko ke ukungakwazi kukaThixo ukuyidala into enjalo akuyongxaki kumandla akhe. Khawufane ucinge umntu ekubuza ukuba uThixo unokwenza unxantathu ongqukuva. Bendithi makaqale andicacisele lo mbono mhlawumbi ndingawuphendula. Ngokuqinisekileyo akayi kukwazi ukuyichaza (ingaba inama-engile abukhali okanye ayinayo? Ithini isibalo see-engile zayo? Ngaba zonke iingongoma ezikuyo zinomgama olinganayo ukusuka kuloo ngongoma?), Ngoko umbuzo uzibonakalisa.

Njengoko ndicacisa apho, into esisiseko sokubhideka ligama elithi “umthetho,” elisetyenziswe kwezi meko zimbini ngendlela eyahlukileyo. Imithetho yefiziksi yimithetho eyamiselwa nguThixo kubume bendalo. Lo mthetho sisigqibo sakhe sokudala indalo ethile yehlabathi awayidalayo ukusuka kwizinto ezininzi ezahlukeneyo ezinokwenzeka. Kwakhona ngewayedale neminye imithetho yendalo. Ngokwahlukileyo koko, imithetho yengqiqo ayiyomithetho ngendlela efanayo. Ukusetyenziswa kwegama elithi "umthetho" kumxholo onengqondo kubolekiwe. Yinkcazelo nje yezinto kungekhona into yangaphandle enyanzeliswayo kuzo. [1]Unxantathu awungqukuva okanye ngenxa yokuba kukho umntu owalelayo okanye ngenxa yokuba akwalelwe. Ngenxa yokuba ngunxantathu awungqukuva nje. Ke ngoko akulunganga ukutsho apha ukuba uThixo wanyula inkqubo enye enengqiqo kwiinkqubo ezininzi ezinokubakho. Ayikho enye inkqubo esengqiqweni.[2] Ukusukela ngoku kumxholo ofanayo nalowo wemithetho yengqiqo ndiya kusebenzisa igama elithi "umthetho" kumanqaku okucaphula.

Ubume bemithetho yokuziphatha

Umbuzo ovelayo ngoku ubume bemithetho yokuziphatha: Ngaba le mithetho ngokwengqiqo yemithetho yefiziksi, okanye ngaba "imithetho" ngokwengqiqo "yemithetho" yengqiqo? Abo baxhasa icala lokuqala le-Othipron dilemma bakholelwa ukuba imithetho yokuziphatha ifana nemithetho ye-physics, ngoko ke nguThixo omiselayo kwaye uchaza. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, elinye icala lengxaki, lithatha ukuba "imithetho" yokuziphatha ifana "nemithetho" yengqiqo (le "yimithetho" kungekhona imithetho), ngoko ke inyanzelekile kuThixo. Wayengenakuyila inkqubo eyahlukileyo yemithetho yokuziphatha. Ngokomzekelo, akakwazi ukudala ihlabathi apho kuya kubakho enye indlela yokuziphatha (ukuba ukubulala okanye ukungcungcuthekisa abantu kuya kuba nezenzo ezilungileyo). Ukuziphatha ngokwenkcazo kuyakwalela ukubulala.

Ngokuqinisekileyo unokudala ihlabathi apho abantu baya kunandipha ukuthuthunjiswa ( ngaba bekuya kulunga kwihlabathi elinjalo ukubabiza ngokuthi “intuthumbo”?), Yaye kusenokungabikho ingxaki yokuziphatha ekubangeleni ukubandezeleka. Kodwa apho kubangela ukubandezeleka akuloshwa. Ukupeyinta abantu yinto embi kulo naliphi na ihlabathi elinokwenzeka. Lithetha ngehlabathi elahluke ngokoqobo, oko kukuthi, ihlabathi apho ukubandezeleka kungabangeli lusizi. Ubani unokucinga nangehlabathi apho ukugculelwa kwabantu kuchazwa njengelungileyo, kodwa ayilohlabathi elinemilinganiselo yokuziphatha eyahlukileyo kodwa lilizwe apho abantu bangayiboni imilinganiselo yokuziphatha (kwaye noThixo owayidalayo akanasimilo. ). Unokutshintsha nayiphi na iparameter kwindalo yehlabathi kwaye wenze ihlabathi elahlukileyo apho liya kwahluka. Kodwa ngenxa yemo yelo hlabathi lithile, imigaqo yokuziphatha iphuma kuyo ngokungathandabuzekiyo (inyanzeliswa kuthi). Kubonakala kum ukuba le nto iphantsi kwentetho eyaziwayo kaRamchal, "Kuyinto enhle ukwenza okulungileyo." U-Thixo ngendalo kufuneka enze okulungileyo. Akanayo enye indlela (kunyanzeliswa kuye).

Oku kuthetha ukuba ibango elithi "ukubulala kubi" lucazululo, kanye njengomthetho wokuchasana. Ngelixa oku kuyinyani yokuziphatha, ayihambelani (kodwa iyimfuneko). Ngoko ke akukho mqobo ukubanga ukuba kunyanzelekile (okanye kunoko: "kunyanzeliswa") kuThixo, kanye njengokuba ingqiqo "inyanzeliswa" kuye. Oku kwahlukile kwimithetho yendalo umzekelo. Thatha njengomzekelo ibango lomthetho womxhuzulane: naziphi na izinto ezimbini ezinobunzima zitsala enye kwenye ngamandla alungelelanisa imveliso yobunzima kwaye ngokuphambanayo ngokomlinganiselo kwisikwere somgama ophakathi kwazo. Oku akusiyo ibango lohlalutyo, kwaye kunokuba bubuxoki. Kwakunokubakho ihlabathi apho umthetho womxhuzulane ubuya kwahluka (umzekelo, amandla alingana nomgama kwisithathu). Ngoko ke umthetho onjalo unikelwe kuThixo, yaye sisigqibo sakhe kuphela esigqiba umxholo wawo.

Ingena njani kwikholamu yangaphambili

Kwikholamu yangaphambili bendixoxa ukuba akunakubakho ukuziphatha okufanelekileyo ngaphandle koThixo. Ngaba oku akuphikisani nebango lam apha lokuba ukuziphatha kunyanzeliswa kuThixo naphambi kwakhe, kwaye ke ngoko ayisomveliso yentando yakhe? Ngokucacileyo kukho ukuphikisana okuphambili apha. Ngoku ndiyaqonda ukuba oku mhlawumbi oko kwakuthethwa nguJeremy Fogel, umququzeleli, owaphakamisa ingxaki ye-Othipron kwingxoxo yethu waza wandibuza uluvo lwam malunga nalo.

Kwingxoxo ngokwayo ndichaze ngokufutshane ukuba ndohlula phakathi kwenkcazo yokulungileyo nokubi kunye nokuzinikela kwethu kubo. Inkcazo yokulungileyo nokubi inyanzeliswa kuThixo kwaye ayinakuba ngenye indlela. Nkqu akanako ukugqiba kwelokuba ukubulala kulungile, okanye ukunceda abanye kubi. Kodwa ukuzinikela ekwenzeni okulungileyo nokuphepha okubi akukho ngaphandle koThixo. Ngamanye amazwi, ibango eliqhelekileyo lokuba ukubulala akuvumelekanga, oku kuthetha ukuba kukho ubungqina obubophelelayo kwinyaniso yokuziphatha yesithintelo sokubulala, akunyanzelwanga kuThixo. Ithatyathwe kumyalelo wakhe kwaye isetyenzwa nguye.

Xa sibuyela kwingqikelelo 'yeethical facts', singayibeka ngolu hlobo: zinokubakho ngokwazo, njengoko u-David uEnoki esitsho (oko kukuthi ayingoThixo owadalayo), kodwa njengoko ndiphikisana naye nokuba zikhona kwaye zibekwe ngaphakathi. enye ikona yelizwe lezimvo (yi), Ayinakundibophelela (kufuneka). Ndiza kukhankanya ukuba kwikholamu yangaphambili ndahlula phakathi kombuzo wokuba ngubani owadala iinyani zokuziphatha (apho u-Enoki wasebenza khona) kunye nombuzo wokuba ngubani owanika ubungqina (apho ndisebenza khona). Into endiyichazile apha kukuba, nangona uThixo engazidalanga iinyaniso zokuziphatha (zinyanzeliswa kuYe), ngumthetho waKhe kuphela onokubanika amandla okubopha.

Ngoku ubani usenokubuza ukuba yintoni ebophelela uThixo ngokwakhe ngokuziphatha? Ukuba ulungile ngoko naye kufuneka azinikele ekuziphatheni kakuhle (kumyalelo wakhe wecandelo). Ngaba ubotshelelwe ngumthetho wakhe? Oku kumangalisa kakhulu, kwaye ngokwenene iphinda iphikisana nebango lam kwikholamu yangaphambili ukuba into yangaphandle iyadingeka eya kunika u-de Dicto ukuqinisekiswa komthetho.

Ndicinga ukuba kuya kuba kuhle ukuthi uThixo ngokwenene akazibophelelekanga ekuziphatheni, kodwa ukhetha oko. Akakhethi ukuba yintoni na imilinganiselo yokuziphatha (kuba lubalo olupheleleyo nolungqongqo olungekho ezandleni zakhe) kodwa ukhetha ukukholisa nokunyanzelisa imilinganiselo yokuziphatha kwizidalwa zakhe. Oku kufana nebango lam kwikholamu yangaphambili ngokubhekiselele ku-Ari Alon, ukuba umntu unokuzenzela umthetho ukuba uziphathe kakuhle okanye akunjalo, kodwa akanako ukumisela imithetho yokuziphatha ngokwazo (ichaza okulungileyo nokubi). Ukuba kunjalo, indoda noThixo babotshelelwe yimithetho yokuziphatha. Inkcazo yokulungileyo nokubi iyanyanzeliswa kubo kwaye ayinikwanga kubo. Kodwa uThixo unokuyalela ukuziphatha kakuhle aze anike ezi nkcazelo zisibophezelayo, kwaye umntu akanakuyenza loo nto naye.[3]

Ngoku ndiza kongeza elinye inqanaba kumfanekiso. Kunzima ukuthetha ngokuhambela phambili okwexeshana kweenyaniso zokuziphatha (iinkcazelo zokulungileyo nokubi) kuThixo, ekubeni esoloko ekho. Ngaphambi kwakhe kwakungekho nto kuba akukho xesha phambi kwakhe. Alikho kwaye alinakubakho ihlabathi, kwanalelo lentelekelelo, apho angekhoyo uThixo. Kodwa ngokwethiyori kusenokubakho ihlabathi apho uThixo angayaleliyo ukuziphatha (ngaphandle kokuba sicingela ukuba ukulunga kwakhe kuyamnyanzela ukuba enze okulungileyo kwaye afune inzuzo). Phawula ukuba ngoku siye safunda ukuba ukuziphatha kakuhle kwandulela umyalelo wobuthixo, kodwa kungekhona uThixo. Imalunga nenkqubela phambili yethutyana. Kodwa kwinqanaba elifanayo kukwakho ukuqhubela phambili okubonakalayo.

Izibakala zokuziphatha azixhomekekanga kumyalelo wobuthixo, zingengomsebenzi kaThixo. Kodwa akukabikho ntsingiselo kwibango lokuba ukuziphatha okuhle kukho nangaphandle koThixo. Ukucinga ukuba uThixo nguye ubukho bakhe buyimfuneko (kwaye apha ndithetha ngoThixo wenkolo, kwaye kungekhona "obhityileyo" ovela kwikholamu yangaphambili), ngoko akunakwenzeka ukuthetha ngenyani apho kukho ubukho obuyimfuneko. ayikho leyo. Ke ngoko nokuba ukuziphatha (okanye iinyani zokuziphatha) zikhona ngaphandle komyalelo akunakutshiwo ukuba zikhona ngaphandle koThixo. Nangona zombini zikho ngaxeshanye, izibakala zokuziphatha azikathembeli kuThixo.

Kodwa ngoku singakwazi ukufikelela kwingcaciso eyahluke kancinane: izibakala zokuziphatha zilithambo lobuqu bukaThixo (ngokoqobo “yindalo elungileyo ukwenza okulungileyo” ngokoqobo), zikho njengoko ekho, nanjengoko ekho ngokuyimfuneko yaye zisoloko zikhona kwaye zihlala zikhona. Ukanti ukusebenza kwawo akuyomfuneko ngokusisigxina okanye akuyomfuneko. Abanawo amandla okubabopha bengayalelwanga ukuba benjenjalo.

Phakathi kokukhonza uThixo noAshere akuzange kusebenze

Ekuvuleni kwekholamu ndagxininisa ukuba ingcamango kaThixo exutyushwa kule kholamu ayiyena uThixo "oxhomekeke" kwikholamu yangaphambili (uThixo ofunekayo ukunika ubungqina kwimithetho yokuziphatha kunye neenyaniso zokuziphatha). Uya kukuqonda oku xa uphonononga kwakhona iingcebiso ezahlukeneyo ezithe zeza apha malunga nenyani yokuba kukho imfuneko ehlala ikho, kwaye malunga nesibakala sokuba iinyani zokuziphatha ziyinxalenye yamandla ayo kwaye kuyindalo ukwenza okulungileyo. kunye nokuninzi. Ezi zizo zonke ezongezelelo "ezenza" encinci "ityebile" "incinci" kunye neyona nto encinci endijongene nayo kwikholamu yangaphambili.

Oku kungenxa yokuba ingxoxo kwikholamu yangoku yenzeka ngokupheleleyo kwi-theology sphere, kwaye hayi nje i-meta-ethical. Enyanisweni, ingxaki ye-Othipron ngokwayo iyinxalenye yezakwalizwi. Ngaphandle kwezakwalizwi bekungayi kuba yingxaki ukubanga ukuba uThixo uchaza imithetho yokuziphatha (kuba kwakungekho mfuneko yokucinga ukuba intetho ethi ulungile yimpikiswano ngaye kungekhona inkcazo), ngoko ingxaki ayinakuba nayo. yenziwe. Ukongeza, kubalo lwefilosofi kwakungekho kuphikisana namazwi am kwikholamu yangaphambili. Ukuba uThixo uchaza okulungileyo nokubi (izibakala zokuziphatha) ngoko ihambelana ngokugqibeleleyo nento endiyiphikisayo kwikholamu yangaphambili, kwaye kwakungekho mfuneko yale kholamu yonke. Injongo yam apha yayikukuxolelanisa ibango lam le-meta-ethical kwikholamu yangaphambili noThixo wenqwelomoya yezakwalizwi (umYuda-ubuKristu) ekucingelwa ukuba ulungile. Le yingxoxo ecacileyo yezakwalizwi (kwaye ingeyiyo eyokuziphatha).

Ingxaki yeOthipron malunga nemilinganiselo yonqulo

Amaxesha amaninzi kwixesha elidlulileyo ndiye ndabonisa umahluko phakathi kwemilinganiselo yonqulo kunye nemilinganiselo yokuziphatha (jonga umzekelo umhlathi 15, Ukuqala kwencwadi yam Uhamba phakathi kokuma Kwaye okuninzi). Isisombululo endisicebisayo kwiingxabano phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha kulele kwinto yokuba ezi zimbini iinkqubo zexabiso ezizimeleyo. Umthetho X unokuzibophelela ngokusemthethweni (kuba ukhuthaza ixabiso lenkolo A), kodwa kwangaxeshanye ungavumelekanga ngokuziphatha (kuba ukhubekisa ixabiso lokuziphatha B). Imilinganiselo yenkolo iziphatha kakubi, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha inokuma ngokungafaniyo nemilinganiselo yokuziphatha kwaye ngamanye amaxesha kuphela kwimeko yongquzulwano (xa ingxabano ivela kuphela kwiimeko ezithile). Ingxabano yam kukuba akukho mqobo kwiingxabano ezinjalo, kwaye eneneni kuchaneka ngakumbi ukuthetha ukuba ezi azikho ukuchasana (akukho bunzima kwinqanaba lethiyori kwiimeko ezinjalo), kodwa iingxabano (kunzima ukugqiba ukuba yintoni omele uyenze. yenza kwinqanaba lepraktikhali).

Emva koku, uTirgitz wabuza lo mbuzo ulandelayo (bThetha Umva Kuluhlu lwangaphambili):

Oku kuthetha ukuba kwikholamu elandelayo uya kujongana ne-euphron malunga nemilinganiselo yonqulo kunye nezinye izinto ezixabisekileyo, ngokoluvo lwakho ezizixabiso ngokokuthi u-Gd azivumele ukuba azikhulule kuyo nayiphi na imbopheleleko yokuziphatha. Kwaye oku kuthetha ukuba noThixo akazange azenzele ngokwakhe.

Ndizawucacisa umbuzo wakhe. Ngokwendlela yam, uThixo usiyalela ukuba sibe nemithetho echasene nemilinganiselo yokuziphatha ukuze sikhuthaze imilinganiselo yonqulo. Ukuba kunjalo, uTirgitz uthi, kubonakala ngathi imilinganiselo yenkolo iyanyanzeliswa kuye kwaye ayisiyiyo isiphumo sentando yakhe (umthetho olawulayo). Ukuba imiyalelo yayingeyiyo “inyaniso yehalakhic” ebekwe kuThixo kodwa yayidalwe ngumthetho waKhe, ngoko wayenokuwenza ngokwahlukileyo. Kwimeko enjalo ndingalindela ukuba xa efuna (kwaye azuze ilifa) ukwenza okulungileyo akayi kuwisa imithetho echasene nokuziphatha. Ubukho bongquzulwano bubonisa ukuba imithetho ye-halakhah (okanye imilinganiselo yonqulo, ekhuthazwa kwaloo mithetho ye-halakhah) nayo iyanyanzeliswa ku-Thixo, ngoko ke uyabanjwa (okanye uyasixhaphaza) ngenxa yemfuneko yolu ngquzulwano.

Lo ngumbuzo omkhulu, kwaye ndicinga ukuba ulungile. Kanye njengoko kukho iinyani zokuziphatha kukwakho neenyani ze-halakhic. Ezi kunye nezo azixhomekekanga kuThixo kwaye zinyanzeliswa kuYe.[4] Ekuqaleni kwencwadi yesithathu kwi-trilogy ndandiza kuthelekisa umfanekiso we-Kantian wokuziphatha kokuziphatha njengokuhlonipha i-categorical order kunye nomfanekiso we-halakhic endiyinikezelayo yokwenza i-mitzvah njengokuhlonipha ukuzinikela kumyalelo. Apha sibona ukuba lo mzekeliso uyaqhubeka.[5]

Oku kundizisa komnye umbuzo kaTirgitz, owawubuzwa kwiintsuku ezimbalwa ngaphambili (jonga ingxoxo eqengqelekayo kumsonto. Apha). Kwimeko yokuziphatha kuqhelekile ukucinga ukuba kwiimeko zongquzulwano phakathi kwamaxabiso, ngoko ke nokuba ndinesizathu sokwenza u-X kwaye ndidlule ku-Y, kusekho ingxaki endiye ndadlula kuyo. ukwenzakalisa umntu okanye ukwenza into embi, nokuba kufuneka ndenze oku. UTirgitz ubuze ukuba usizi olunjalo kufuneka lubonakale na kumxholo we-halakhic (Q.)thethwa:"Intlungu yakho nosizi kum"). Oko kukuthi, xa ndizisola ukuba ngenxa yokuba ndandibandakanyeke kwi-mitzvah andizange ndishukumise lulav (okanye ngenxa yokuba ndandigula andizange ndizile ukutya eYom Kippur), kanye njengokuba ndizisola ngokuba ngenxa yokuba ndaya emfazweni kwafuneka ndibulale. abantu (kwaye ngamanye amaxesha abahlali ngokunjalo). Ngamafutshane, umbuzo wakhe kukuba ngaba kukho umahluko phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha kulo mbandela.

Ndamphendula apho ukuba ndicinga ukuba kukho umahluko phakathi kwemixholo: kwimeko yokuziphatha nokuba ixabiso elithile liyaliwa phambi kwelinye ixabiso, kufuneka ndihlale ndibuhlungu okanye ndidideke ngenxa yokunyuka kwexabiso elikhatywayo (ndilimaza umntu) . Kwelinye icala, kwi-halakhah ukuba akukho sinyanzeliso kwaye ndenze oko kunyanzelekileyo kum asikho isizathu sokuzisola ngento endingayizalisekisi. Kuvumeleke ngokugqibeleleyo kwaye akukho mntu wonzakalayo.

Kodwa lo mahluko ucinga ukuba kwi-halakhah kukho umyalelo kuphela kwaye xa kungekho myalelo akukho nto eyenzekayo. Kodwa ngenxa yomfanekiso ovela apha kubonakala ngathi kufuneka ndibuyele kum kulo mahluko. Ukuba sicinga ukuba umyalelo we-halakhic weza ukukhuthaza imilinganiselo yonqulo, ngoko nangona ndaphule i-halakhah ngokufanelekileyo (ngenxa ye-halakhah eyalandulayo), kukho into ethile kwihlabathi lomoya yonzakaliswa yiyo (ndenza ngokuchasene nenyaniso ye-halakhic kwaye yeza umonakalo womoya). Kubonakala ngathi umfanekiso endiwubonisileyo apha ubonisa ukuba ngokwenene akukho mahluko phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha kulo mbandela.[6]

Nangona kwingcinga eyongezelelweyo kunokuxoxwa ukuba kwithiyori ukuba ndenze into evunyelweyo ke umonakalo wokomoya wawuphetshwa (bona Amanqaku Kwi-citric acid ngePasika, apho ndazisa khona imithombo ebhala njalo). Kunokuthiwa uThixo wenza ummangaliso, athintele umonakalo, ukuze kungabikho bubi kumntu olilungisa njengam othembekileyo emthethweni. Oku ngokuqinisekileyo akwenzeki kwindiza yokuziphatha. Apho nokuba bekufuneka ndonakalise imilinganiselo yokuziphatha, umonakalo awuphepheki. Umahluko uvela kwinto yokuba kumxholo wokuziphatha ezi ziinyani ezibonakalayo kwaye kwimeko ye-halakhic ezi ziinyani zokomoya. UThixo akatshintshi physics kuba akangeneleli ekuziphatheni komhlaba wenyama, kodwa uyazitshintsha iinyani zasemoyeni (kuba kwihlabathi lakwamoya uyangenelela. There is not mechanically conduct)[7]. Kubalulekile ukuqaphela ukuba ngelixa sibonile iinyaniso zeenqobo ezisesikweni azikho iinyani ezibonakalayo, zixhomekeke kwizinto eziphathekayo (ukwenzakala okanye ukubandezeleka emntwini ngokomzekelo). Umzekelo, ukuba ndibe imali kumntu ukuze ndisindise ubomi, ngoko ke nokuba kuvunyelwe kwaye mhlawumbi nokuba mitzvah, umonakalo kwisela kwenzekile kwaye akukho sizathu sokuzisola (apha akuyi kwenzeka ummangaliso uThixo uya kuyibuyisela kuye imali).

Intsingiselo iya kuba yeyamatyala njengoko bendichazile kwikholamu engaphambili, apho ulandelelwano loluhlu lundixelela ukuba mandingenzi u-X nangona ingenaziphumo zibi. Kwiimeko ezinjalo kubonakala ngathi ukuba into yaliwe ngenxa yelinye ixabiso akukho nto iya kuzisola ngayo. Oku kufana nemeko kwi-halakhic sphere. Umzekelo, masithi ndinyusa iwaka lerhafu ye-NIS ukusindisa ubomi bomntu. Kwimeko enjalo andinayo into yokuzisola malunga nokuphepha irhafu njengoko ingenayo isiphumo esibi (ndichaze oku kwikholamu yangaphambili). Ngaphandle kwesiphumo esiyingxaki esingekhoyo, into ekhoyo apha kukugqithiswa komyalelo wocategorical, kodwa oku ngokuqinisekileyo kwathethelelwa kwezi meko. Ngapha koko, kuchaneke ngakumbi ukuthetha ukuba andizange ndiphule ulandelelwano lwecategorical kwaphela kwimeko enjalo. Umthetho jikelele uthi wonke umntu kufuneka ayiphephe irhafu ukuze asindise ubomi.

[1] Kwikholamu yangaphambili ndichaze ukuba kutheni umthetho wokuchasana njengebango lohlalutyo olusengqiqweni awufuni kugwetyelwa. Lo ngumbono ofanayo kwi-engile eyahluke kancinane.

[2] Khawucinge ngombuzo wokuba ngaba uThixo unako na ukwenza udonga olukwaziyo ukuxhathisa zonke iimbumbulu kwanembumbulu engena kuzo zonke iindonga. Impendulo kule nto imbi ngokuqinisekileyo, kuba ukuba ibhola awayidalayo ingena kuzo zonke iindonga ngoko akukho ludonga oluxhathisayo, kwaye ngoko ke akukho ludonga olunokumelana nazo zonke iibhola, kwaye ngokuphambene noko. Ukungakwazi kukaThixo ukudala izinto ezimbini ezinjalo ngaxeshanye akuphazamisi amandla akhe. Ngokulula kwinqanaba elinengqiqo akukho nyani enjalo. 'Yabona Apha Iimpembelelo kumbuzo wamatye ukuba uThixo akanako ukuwuphakamisa, kwayeApha Kumbuzo wobubi bendalo (jonga kwakhona incwadi yesibini kwitrilogy yam kwisahluko seshumi).

[3] Isiphelo sesokuba ukulunga kwakhe (umlozi) kwahlukile kokwethu. Akanayo imithetho ebophelelayo ayithobelayo, kodwa nguye oyenza ibe semthethweni. Umntu ubophelelwe ngumyalelo wecandelo onikwe ubungqina kuye, kwaye ngoko ke isigqibo kufuneka senziwe ukuba senze ngokuhambelana nayo. UThixo, kwelinye icala, akazibophelelanga, kodwa ukhetha ukunika ukuba semthethweni. URamchal uya kuthi indalo yakhe kukwenza okulungileyo.

[4] Ekuqaleni kwekholamu 278  Ndiye ndaxoxa ngombono we-nehma dhakisufa, kwaye kubonakala kum ukuba ingxoxo apho nayo iyawuphendula lo mbuzo.

[5] Jonga amanqaku malunga nomyalelo we-categorical kwi-halakhah, ebonisa ukuqhubeka komlinganiso phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha, kodwa ngeli xesha lichaphazela umxholo kungekhona isakhiwo esinengqiqo. Apho ndixela ukuba umyalelo wecandelo unesimo se-halakhic.

[6] Ndiza kuzisa apha ingcamango yokuqala esafuna incandescence. Ndicinga ukuba kukho umahluko emva koko. Kwimeko yokuziphatha kukho ukuzinikela kwimilinganiselo yokuziphatha, kodwa kwi-halakhah kukho kokubili ukuzinikela kwimilinganiselo yonqulo kunye nesibophelelo sokuthobela umyalelo ngenxa yokuba ngumyalelo wobuthixo (kungakhathaliseki ukuba ikwakhuthaza imilinganiselo yonqulo. ). Ingqikelelo apha yeyokuba ekuziphatheni akukho myalelo waphezulu kodwa yintando kaThixo ukuba senze ngolu hlobo. Ulandelelwano loluhlu alunawo ubume be-mitzvah ngaphakathi kwesakhelo se-halakhah (nangona ndibanga ukuba inesimo se-halakhic. Bona amanqaku am Apha).

Kwaye kulandela ukuba xa ndingazila ukudla eYom Kippur ngenxa yokuba ndiyagula, umlinganiselo womyalelo awukho ngokwenene, ekubeni umyalelo kwimeko enjalo kukutya kwaye ungazilahli. Ngoko ke ukusuka koku ukutya akukho bungozi buye kwenzeka kwaye akukho nto yokuzisola. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kwimeko yokuziphatha, nokuba ixabiso elithile linqatshelwe ngokufanelekileyo, imbopheleleko yokuziphatha ukuyigcina ihlala ifana (ngaphandle kokuba ayinakuthotyelwa. Enyanisweni, ndixela ukuba kwingxabano yokuziphatha ihlala 'inqatshelwe. ' kwaye 'ayivumelekanga'). Kodwa kwi-halakhah kukho kwakhona umlinganiselo ohambelanayo (ukulungiswa okudalwe kwi-mitzvah kunye nokutshatyalaliswa kwisenzo sobubi), kwaye malunga noku kubonakala ngathi kukho ukufana noko sikubonileyo kwimeko yokuziphatha. Inento yokwenza nomahluko phakathi kobukho be de dicto kunye nobukho be de re, njalo njalo.

[7] Jonga inqaku ku-bAmanqaku Kwisohlwayo sikaHalacha kwiSahluko D, apho ndaphuma ngokuchasene neendlela zoomatshini kwizohlwayo zezulu.

Iingcamango ezingama-80 “kuJonga kwiNgxaki ye-Othipron ekuKhanya kweNgxoxo (uKholamu 457)”

  1. Umbelekisi uyazisola ngokuba wayethintelwe ekuzileni ukutya eYom Kippur. Ngokwemigaqo yomyalelo igutyungelwe ngokupheleleyo - ikhululiwe. Ngokuchasene noko, umyalelo wokongamela umphefumlo nomphefumlo udlula ngakumbi. Kodwa uyaxolisa, nangona esazi kakuhle ukuba umyalelo wakhe okwangoku uthi makatye, kuba akazange azilwe. Akanayo imini yokuzila ukutya, ukuhlanjululwa kunye nokucamagushela. Ngaba uya kuzigxotha ezi mvakalelo njenge-Afra Daraa, kwaye uyigxothe ngesizathu 'sengqondo' - iingxoxo ongaziqwalaselayo? Okanye ngaba kukho enye into apha ethi ngandlel’ ithile ifane nentlungu yokuphoswa kokuziphatha?

    1. Ndiyayiqonda ngokupheleleyo le ntlungu, kwaye ndicinga ukuba ngokuqinisekileyo inendawo. Into endiyixoxileyo ngumbuzo wokuba ngaba kukho umdla / isibophelelo (kungekhona i-halakhic) sokuzisola. Ngamafutshane, ndijongene ne-normative kunenqanaba lengqondo. Ukuba abantu baphulukene nomdlalo webhola ekhatywayo bayaxolisa, ngaba awungekhe ube ngumfundisikazi njengomgcini wendlu yabahambi?!

        1. Hayi ngomkhamo ofanayo, ukuba kunjalo. Ngokwento endiyibhalileyo kwikholamu, ndicinga ukuba i-Gd ithintela umonakalo wokomoya ukuba umntu wenza ngokusemthethweni, akukho nto yenzekayo. Kwaye ukuba uyazisola ngelahleko yakhe (ukulahlekelwa ngamava) - eli lilungelo lakhe ngokuqinisekileyo kodwa akunyanzelekanga ukuba libe nexabiso. Mhlawumbi iveza uhlobo lweYarosh ekubeni usizi lubonisa ukuba izinto zibalulekile kuye. Kodwa intlungu yokuziphatha yinto engaphaya kokubonisa ukuba ixabiso libalulekile kuye. Ibango lokuba kukho ingxaki ngokwenene eyenzekayo apha, ngaphandle kokuba andinatyala. Kwimeko ye-halakhic akukho ngxaki eyenzekayo. Ubukhulu becala ulahlekelwe ngamava.

  2. Ndicinga ukuba akukho bungqina bokuba kukho imibuzo yokuziphatha ngoThixo ukuba ukuziphatha kunyanzeliswa kuye.
    Le mibuzo ithatha kuphela ukuba uThixo ukhethe umyalelo wokuziphatha njengomgaqo ophakamileyo, kwaye ke ubuze ukuba angaziphikisa njani.

    1. Ubukhali - umbuzo uyacacisa kwaye awungqubani. Oko kukuthi, kuyacaca kuye ukuba kukho ukulungelelaniswa kokuziphatha oku, ekubeni ecinga ukuba ukuziphatha ngumgaqo obalaseleyo okhethwe yisisu.

      1. Khange ndiyicinge ukuba ingqubene. Ngaphandle koko, ukuba ulungile, ke inkuthazo ayibalulekanga. Kodwa ndicinga ukuba uyalikhumbula ilizwi lale mibuzo: uyiveza njengemibuzo enengqiqo (malunga nokuyondelelana kwayo), kodwa le mibuzo ineenqobo ezisesikweni. Kufana nokuba u-Abraham owayalela ukuba athobele unyana wakhe uya kumangaliswa kuphela kukungaguquguquki kukaThixo owathembisa ukuba uIsake uya kumbiza ngembewu, aze angawuhoyi umbuzo wokuba uThixo angayiyalela njani into enjalo. Kuwe le mibini ifana nemibuzo esengqiqweni. Asiyonto ethethwa ziimbongi.

  3. Ngokuphathelele umbuzo kaTirgitz - lo ngumbuzo olungileyo ngokwenene, kuba imvakalelo kukuba iHalacha yahlukile kwimisebenzi yokuziphatha (kanye njengokuba uMaimonides esahlula phakathi kwemithetho yengqondo kunye neyokuvayo, njl. njl.). Enye indlela yokucacisa oku kukuba uThixo uphantsi kweseti yomoya epheleleyo esingafikeleliyo kuyo- kwaye ke umbuzo uya kubuzwa ngokwemvelo - ukuba u-Gd uphantsi koluhlu olunjalo lwemithetho ehleliweyo, ngokuqinisekileyo olu seti yemithetho. yinto ephakamileyo, uhlobo luka-Spinoza kaThixo Hayi umntu kunye nokungakhathali, kodwa kwihlabathi "lendalo" elingeyolomzimba. Kubonakala kum ukuba umbuzo wokuthotyelwa kwemithetho kaThixo ubuthathaka kakhulu ukuba ungabikho kumbandela wemithetho enengqiqo, njengoko ucacisile (ukuba "ayiyimithetho"), kwaye unamandla kancinane kumbandela wemithetho yokuziphatha. , ngenxa yokuba uye waphikisana - kancinane kancinci kodwa ibango ndingayamkela - ukuba ziyimfuneko ngendlela efanayo. Kodwa xa kufikwa kwimithetho ye-halakhic kunzima ukuyamkela, ngokombono wam. Ngenxa yokuba imfuneko yabo ibandakanya ukudala ihlabathi apho kuyimfuneko, kubonakala, kwaye ebusweni kubonakala kungenasidingo (ingxabano kukuba bayimfuneko kwinqanaba eliphezulu kakhulu, kodwa kusenzima ukuyiqonda - eyona nto ingxamisekileyo enkulu; ngaphandle kokuba ihlabathi ladalwa kunye nale mithetho Ubunzima bokucinezela). Oku kukwayinyaniso nemithetho yokuziphatha ("" Isizathu intlungu imbi "libango elichaphazelekayo kuphela kwihlabathi apho kukho intlungu - kwaye umbuzo omkhulu kukuba kutheni uThixo wadala intlungu emhlabeni kwaye kungekhona ukuba wathi akufunekanga ibangele iintlungu), kwaye kodwa ngandlel 'ithile ibonakala yomelele kwihlabathi ndiye ndahamba apho imithetho ibonakala ingqongqo. Enoba kuyintoni na, ibeka uThixo kwihlabathi elandulelayo nelingenakumlawula. Hi ndlela leyi, kukho enye ithiyori enokwenzeka ukujongana nalo mbuzo, endingayaziyo into endiyicingayo-ukuthi i-Gd inokukhetha ihlabathi apho kuphela imithetho yokuziphatha echaphazelekayo njengomsebenzi womntu, kwaye unokukhetha. Ihlabathi apho le mithetho ngokwayo igatywayo ngokuchasene nezinye imilinganiselo.Inokuba yiyo nantoni na kwaye ixhomekeke kukhetho lwakhe. Yaye wakhetha ukhetho lwesibini ngenxa yokuba ngaphandle kwemeko enjalo, kwakungafane kwenzeke ukuba siyijonge le mithetho, yayizicacele (njengoko uMaimonides ebhala ngomthi wolwazi nodoc). Ngokwale nto inokwenzeka - ubukho behlabathi le-halakhic eliphikisana nemithetho yokuziphatha ngamanye amaxesha lithetheleleka ngenxa yesizathu esithile sangaphandle, akuyimfuneko, kwaye ayifuni lonke ihlabathi lemigaqo apho uThixo aphantsi kwayo. Kwelinye icala, njengoko kukhankanyiwe, kwa kanye isigqibo sokudala ihlabathi elinjalo sinokubonakala sithandabuzeka.

    1. Andizange ndiliqonde ibango. Ndiza kugqabaza kuphela kumanqaku amabini kumanqaku akho (endithemba ukuba ndiyawaqonda):
      1. Imithetho ayisebenzi. Inkcazo yokulungileyo nokubi ayikho ngokuyimfuneko kodwa mhlawumbi iyinyani. Ke ngoko akukho nto inokuthetha ngayo malunga nombuzo wokuba bangaphezulu kunoThixo okanye hayi.
      2. Imithetho yokuziphatha kakuhle ikwayimithetho kwihlabathi lethu kuphela. Ukuba kwakudalwe elinye ihlabathi elahluke ngokupheleleyo kunye nezidalwa ezakhiwe ngokuhlukileyo ngokupheleleyo (babengenasizi kunye nokubandezeleka), ngoko eminye imithetho yayiza kusebenza kuyo. Kodwa ukuba ibiyimithetho yokuziphatha ke le ibikukusetyenziswa kwaloo mithetho yethu yokuziphatha kwezo meko. Yile nto kanye oyichazile malunga ne-halakhah, ngoko kubonakala ngathi akukho mahluko.

  4. Oonyana bakhe nguYitsak Koren

    “Lonke ibango lesazisi lodidi: a ngu b. Ukucinga ukuba eli bango lichanekile, ke oko kuthetha ukuba: a is a, ithetha i-tautology engenanto. ” - Ndinexesha elinzima lokufumana ingxaki apha. Ukucinga ukuba eli bango lichanekile, lilingana ngengqiqo ukubanga i-A = A, kodwa kunye nokubanga 1 + 1 = 2 kunye nakweliphi na ibango elichanekileyo. Ukuba intsingiselo yesivakalisi lulwazi olongezayo, ngoko akukho sivakalisi "sinentsingiselo yokucinga ukuba yinyani." Ukuba sicinga / siyazi ukuba yinyani, ngoko ke ukuthetha kwakhona ukuba yinyani asongezi ulwazi kuthi, kwaye ke ayibalulekanga.

  5. B.S.D.

    Ingxaki entle yaseUthron yeyezithixo, ezingacacanga ngokupheleleyo ukuba zichongwa kangakanani na ngokuziphatha. Kunoko, ngokutsho kwamabali asentsomini kucacile ukuba azele ngumona namandla.

    Ngokwahlukileyo koko, uThixo kaSirayeli ungumthombo wenyaniso nomthombo wokulunga. ‘Akazithobanga’ kwimilinganiselo yokuziphatha nenyaniso. Uyinyani kunye nokuziphatha kubunyulu babo obugqibeleleyo. Thina njengabadali ukuba ulwazi lwethu luyi-crumb encinci. Sikwazi kancinane ngezivamvo zethu, ngezivamvo zethu nangofundisiso lwethu, kodwa into esiyaziyo sisiqwengana esisuka kumfanekiso opheleleyo, owazi kuphela uMdali wehlabathi uphela yaye nguye kuphela owazi injongo yawo.

    Ubunzima bethu bokuziphatha ngeendlela zoMdali bufana nobunzima bomntwana ongasiqondi isizathu sokuba uyise ambethe xa ezama nje ukuncamathisela ihamile kwisixhobo sombane, yaye akasiqondi isizathu sokuba uyise anikelwe esandleni. igquba elikhohlakeleyo leengqalutye ezimhlophe likhupha iimela zalo likrazula inyama yenkwenkwe enelishwa.

    Ngokuphathelele abazali abangabantu, sele sinenyhweba yokuqonda ukuba ukubethwa kwesandla kuza kusindisa umntwana ekubanjweni ngumbane, yaye ‘abatsala iimela ngeengubo ezimhlophe’ benza utyando olusindisa ubomi emntwaneni. Ngokungakumbi njengezenzo zoMdali wehlabathi, owathabatha uluntu kumakhulu eminyaka ephanda ukuze aqonde ubunzulu bazo—ukuba sivunyelwa ukuba ‘sizukise’ uMdali wethu, ukuba ukubandezeleka nentuthumbo yakhe. ezisa nathi kukuhle kuthi, ukusilungiselela epasejini.'Lounge', kwaye usazise ngeentliziyo zethu' ukuba xa utata engcungcuthekisa unyana wakhe 'uElkich uyakungcungcuthekisa'

    Othipron Nefshatim Halevi

    1. 'Ukuziphatha kukayihlo' 'neemfundiso zikanyoko' - ukwamkela idyokhwe okanye ukuqonda nokuchazwa?

      Ukuba uMdali ukwaziwa ngokupheleleyo ukuthanda kwakhe neenjongo zakhe, umntu unokuba nomsantsa phakathi kwengqiqo yakhe yoko kulungileyo noko kulungileyo nemiyalelo ayifumana kuMdali wakhe. Kwaye lo msantsa awukho nje 'ukwenzeka' kodwa kuyimfuneko, kodwa uyancitshiswa nje ukuba umntu unzulu kwaye eqonda ngakumbi ukuthanda kukaKono.

      Ngapha koko, ubani unokwaneliswa kukwamkela idyokhwe eqinisekile ukuba uMdali wehlabathi ugweba kwanokuba umntu akaqondi, kodwa oko akwanelanga. Kuba umntu makangabi 'likhoboka' elithembekileyo ku-Kono kuphela, kodwa abe 'ngumfundi' okwaziyo ukucacisa ukuthanda kukaKono nakwiimeko apho angafumananga imiyalelo ecacileyo.

      Ku 'ikhoboka' kwanele ukuyalela 'yenza njalo' okanye 'yenza njalo'. Akayi kuthabatha inyathelo ngaphandle kokufumana umyalelo ocacileyo, kodwa ukuze abe 'ngumfundi' owaziyo ukwalathisa ukuthanda kukaRabhi wakhe naxa kuyimfuneko 'ukuqonda into ethile kwinto ethile', kufuneka kubekho ukuqonda Intsingiselo yezinto, anokusebenzisa ngayo imigaqo.

      Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, kwanikelwa iTorah ebhaliweyo eyayibhalwe ngasentla ngegama elithi ‘ikrolwe emacwecweni’, kodwa ikwamele ibe ‘yiTorah yomlomo’ efuna ukuqonda intsingiselo nengqiqo yemithetho yeTorah, nasekuqondeni ubunzulu beTorah. Imithetho yeTorah - umntu unokufunxa umoya wezinto.

      NgeTorah yomlomo ecacisa umthetho wenkululeko - umntu ukhululwe 'kwingxaki ye' Yifron ', ekubeni intando yoMdali eyaqala 'njengokufumana idyokhwe yangaphandle' - iba ngakumbi nangakumbi 'iTorah Delia' leyo uyaqonda kwaye uyachonga.

      Ngokunyanisekileyo, uEnoki Hanach Feinschmeker-Felti

      1. Okulungileyo nokungalunganga

        Kodwa xa isono [umntu emthini wolwazi] sisohlwaywa ngokuhluthwa ukufikeleleka okufanayo kwengqondo ... kwaye ngenxa yoko kuthiwa 'naba njengoThixo nazi okulungileyo nokubi' kwaye ningathethi 'ngabazi bobuxoki nenyaniso' okanye 'abaphumezi bobuxoki nenyaniso'.
        Kwaye kwizinto eziyimfuneko akukho nto ilungileyo nembi konke konke ngaphandle kobuxoki nenyaniso ”(Mon., Icandelo I, P.B.)
        Mhlawumbi uMaimonides apha ukwathetha malunga neenyani zokuziphatha kwaye ususa ingxaki ye-Eitipron?

          1. Okulungileyo nokungalunganga

            Ndiyabulela ngembekiselo, ndayifunda, mhlawumbi andizange ndiyiqonde, kodwa andizange ndibone ngxaki ngamazwi kaMaimonides.
            Kubonakala kum ukuba isivakalisi kufuneka sahlulwe sibe zimbini:

            "Kwaye wawunjengoThixo owazi okulungileyo nokubi" - oku malunga nokuqonda okuye kwaphuhliswa kuwe kubantu abadumileyo, abahle kunye namanyala, okulungileyo okanye okubi. Ke ngoku ukuziphatha kwakho kubonakala kukuhle kwaye kubi.

            “Yaye [le ndinyana] ayizange ithethe ubuxoki nenyaniso okanye abo bafikelela ubuxoki nenyaniso, yaye kwizinto eziyimfuneko akukho nto ilungileyo yaye akukho bubi konke konke ngaphandle kobuxoki nenyaniso” - apha uMaimonides uthetha ngokuziphatha. Oko kukuthi, ngale ngqiqo uye wazikhwebula kuThixo kwaye uphulukene namandla okuqonda obunawo ngaphambili okubona isimilo kudidi lwenyaniso nobuxoki.

            Ifanele ifundwe njengombuzo nempendulo - kwaye kutheni le ndinyana ingazange ithi "ubuxoki nenyaniso"? Phendula - kuba ulahlekile. Kodwa uya kwazi ukuba ngokwenene, kuThixo, izinto eziyimfuneko (ukuziphatha) azilungile kwaye azibi kodwa zibubuxoki kwaye ziyinyani. Kwaye apha ingxaki ye-Eitipron ayifanelekanga.

            1. Andisawakhumbuli ngokuthe ngqo indlela awayebhalwe ngayo, kodwa ndaqonda ukuba yayiphathelele imbeko kuphela kungekhona ukuziphatha. Kwimeko nayiphi na into, nokuba unyanisile ukuba kukho inkcazo eMaimonides engayithinteliyo ingxaki ye-Eitipron. Ubukhulu becala usenokuphikisa ngelithi uMaimonides wayenembono yakhe kule ngxaki.

      2. Ukuziphatha-imfesane okanye ukuziphatha-ukuthintela?

        Kwi-SD ACH Tov e-Adash XNUMX

        Umahluko awukho phakathi 'kwenkolo' kunye 'nokuziphatha' kodwa phakathi 'kokuziphatha okuhle kwemfesane' kunye 'nokuziphatha kokuthintela'. UDetersh, kwelinye icala, unesimilo sokunqanda ukuzisa umoni impindezelo ekhohlakeleyo eya kukhupha kumoni wexesha elizayo yonke 'oh amen' yokuphinda ulwaphulo-mthetho.

        Apha sifuna 'umyalelo wobuthixo' oya kusinika idosi efanelekileyo eya kuzisa ulungelelwano phakathi kwemfuneko yothintelo oluphawulekayo nomnqweno wobuthixo wokuba nenceba nokuvumela ukulungiswa.

        Ngaloo ndlela, ngokomzekelo, ukuthintela kufuna ukuba kuncothulwe ezingcanjini izizwana ezavelisa ingcamango yentiyo nobungendawo—ama-Amaleki nabantu bakwaKanan—kwaye kwelinye icala imfesane ifuna ukubabizela eluxolweni kuqala nokubavumela ukuba babaleke ‘ngokuguquguquka kolwalathiso’ okanye imfesane. ngokwamkela iinqobo ezisisiseko zokholo nokuziphatha.

        Imibuliso, uHasdai Bezalel Kirshan-Kwas Cherries

  6. Unxantathu ophakamileyo webhastile ongqukuva. Yinto egcina zonke iimpawu zikanxantathu kunye nazo zonke iimpawu zesangqa.
    Into engunxantathu ongqukuva yomibini isangqa kwaye yenziwe ngemigca emithathu ethe tye.

    Ngelixa oku kuphikisana nengqiqo yobomi bemihla ngemihla, ngethamsanqa inyaniso ayidanisi kwizandi zengqiqo yethu. Kungenjalo, ngesingekho.

  7. Andiqondi ukuba umfanekiso owuchazile ubonisa ukuba imilinganiselo yonqulo inyanzeliswa kuThixo. Ngenxa yokuba yiloo nto ayiyo, yena ngokwakhe unegunya elinokugqiba ukuba imilinganiselo ethile yenkolo (eyayidalayo) ibalulekile ngokwaneleyo ukugatya imilinganiselo yokuziphatha. Isibakala sokuba imilinganiselo yokuziphatha iyabophelela ayithethi ukuba yeyokuqala kuludwe lwezinto eziphambili.

    1. Kum kubonakala ngathi awuyiqondi ingxabano yam (okanye kaTirgitz). Ukucinga ukuba imilinganiselo yonqulo isezandleni zakhe, nto leyo ethetha ukuba unokuyimisela ngendlela athanda ngayo, akukho sizathu ehlabathini sokumisela imilinganiselo yonqulo ephikisana nokuziphatha. Kutheni esenza oku ukuba unokumisela imilinganiselo yonqulo ngendlela efanele imilinganiselo yokuziphatha? Oku kulandela ukuba imilinganiselo yenkolo nayo ayikho sezandleni zakhe.

      1. Ukuba kunjalo andizange ndiyiqonde ngaphambili, kodwa naloo nto ayizi engqondweni yam, ngenxa yezizathu ezibini:

        1. Akunakwenzeka ukwenza inkqubo yonqulo ehambelana ngokupheleleyo nokuziphatha (njengentetho yakho malunga nokudalwa kwehlabathi elingenabubi). Oku akuthethi ukuba unyanzeliswa kuye, ekubeni unako ukuyeka ngokupheleleyo, ngokungafaniyo nemeko kunye nokuziphatha. Kodwa ecinga ukuba ufuna enye ngesizathu esithile, imele ingqubane nemilinganiselo ethile yokuziphatha. Ukhe wakhetha eyona nyani incinci, kwaye oku kukwachaza unxibelelwano olubalulekileyo phakathi kwemilinganiselo yeTorah kunye nemilinganiselo yokuziphatha.

        2 UThixo unokumbuyekeza, kweli hlabathi okanye kwelilandelayo, nabani na oye wenzakala ngenxa yobukho bexabiso leTorah. Unokuqinisekisa ukuba kushwankathelo lulonke umlinganiselo wakhe wolonwabo uya kuba kanye njengoko bekufanele kube njalo ngaphandle kwexabiso leTorah.

        1. 1. Ngoko ke oko kuthetha ukuba kunyanzeliswa kuye. Ukuba umisela inkqubo ngendlela athanda ngayo akukho sithintelo ngoko yintoni ethintela ukuthotyelwa kokuziphatha?
          2. Ukuba unokuhlawulela iishifti inokuba yinyani. Kodwa akukho sizathu ehlabathini sokwenza oko. Uyakwazi ukumisela ezi milinganiselo ukuze zihambelane nokuziphatha.

          1. 1. Ubeka inkqubo njengoko ethanda, kodwa oku akuthethi ukuba kukho indawo yamathuba inkqubo yemilinganiselo yonqulo kunye ne-0 yokuphulwa kokuziphatha. Akanakuseka nayiphi na inkqubo yonqulo, okanye akhethe kwezo zonakalise ukuziphatha okubi.

            Njengoko wayenokukhetha ukungalidali ihlabathi, kodwa (mhlawumbi) wayengenakukwazi ukudala ihlabathi elinazo zonke iingenelo zeli hlabathi kodwa ngo-0 ububi. Oku akuthethi ukuba ukudalwa kwehlabathi kunyanzeliswa kuye, kodwa ukuba ufuna (!) Ukudala ihlabathi elinokuzikhethela ngokukhululekileyo kuya kubakho ububi kulo.

            1. Awukuqondi oku kuzingisa.
              Ukuba akukho mqathango ongaxhomekekanga kuye, yintoni emthintelayo ekubeni angagqiba kwelokuba umfazi kaCohen owadlwengulwayo ufanele ahlulwe kumyeni wakhe? Ngewayezimisele ngokuchaseneyo (sinike iTorah ngaphandle kwezi nkcukacha). Nguwuphi umqobo omthintelayo ekwenzeni oko? Kumxholo wobubi, ndachaza ukuba imithetho engqongqo yendalo ayinakho ukubakho ngaphandle kwamanqaku okubandezeleka kunye nobubi. Ayikho enye inkqubo. Kodwa iinkqubo zemithetho yonqulo azinazithintelo kuzo. Azinanjongo. Ngoko ke yintoni imeko yonqulo emthintelayo ekumiseleni imiyalelo elishumi elinesine kuphela ngaphandle komfazi kaCohen?

  8. [Wenze into engengomphumeleli njengophumeleleyo. Ndive nje ukuba kukho into engacacanga (kwaye iphume kumazwi akho nakum) hayi ngendlela ebukhali oyichazayo]

    Umfanekiso ubonisa ukuba akukho mmahluko phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha xa kuziwa kwiingxabano, kodwa emva koko, bonke abantu bayaqaphela lo mahluko kwaye kufanelekile ukuthatha intuition yabo kwisiqingatha. Kwanokuba ubani uyazisola ngokulahlekelwa ngumntu ongazange ayifumane i-mitzvah okanye imvakalelo ekhethekileyo ehamba nobukho bayo, andizange ndimve umntu ezisola ngokudlula kwi-lau ngenxa yokwaliwa (ukulahlwa okunzulu okufana ne-shatanz kwi-tassel okanye yibum. , Kwimeko yaseMadin, kukho ukugatywa okukhulu, kwaye oku kubonakala ngathi yiTza'a), kwaye ngokuziphatha, abantu abaqhelekileyo bayazisola ukuba baye baphula umthetho wokuziphatha, njengokuyeka ukuhlangula i-kosher gentile ngeShabbat.

    Ke uyicacisile ngethiyori yokuba kwi-halakhah uThixo ulungisa umonakalo wokomoya kwaye ekuziphatheni akawulungisi umonakalo wenyama. Kodwa iphendula njani, ke ukuba akukho sinyanzelo sokuziphatha ngoko abantu bakhathalele ntoni ngokwenzakala emzimbeni? Ngaba (kwaye nam ngokubanzi) ziphosakele nje kwaye akukho ntlupheko eqhelekileyo apha kodwa yimvakalelo yokungazi?
    Ukucacisa umntu kufuneka adibanise ngokucacileyo ukuba ide ihlale imiyalelo kwaye nokuba yaliwe ke wonke umthetho uhlala ukhona. Oku kuthetha ukuba lo myalelo ayingomyalelo osebenzayo othi "yenza ngoku" kodwa ngumyalelo womgaqo, kwaye endaweni yongquzulwano kukho ngokwenene umyalelo apha kunye nomyalelo kwaye ke ngoko endaweni yongquzulwano kunye nesigqibo esicacileyo kukho ingxaki. (Ngaphandle kokuba ngokucacileyo akukho mfuneko yakufika kwaphela kwizinto ezahlukeneyo zokomoya).
    Kwaye oku ngokusisiseko yi-Raqa (enyanisweni ifunyenwe ibhaliwe ngemfuneko kunye nohlaziyo kwiphulo lombhiyozo njengoko ubundithumelele. Andizange ndifunde iphulo kodwa ndabona nje ukuba uthi ukuba umntu uvuthela i-shofar kwiRosh Hashanah ewela ngeShabbat Enyanisweni kodwa umgaqo. Mna andiyiqondi kakuhle le nto, ungandicacisela na? (Kwimpendulo apho ubhale ukuba ucinga njalo). Lo myalelo ngumyalelo osebenzayo, andiboni ntsingiselo xa ndisithi kwelinye icala ndiyalela uA kwaye kwelinye ndiyalela uB kwaye enyanisweni ndiyalela uB.

    1. Awuqondi ukuba kutheni ungaboni lusizi ngenxa yokulahlekelwa yi-mitzvah. Ewe yeyakho. Njengomntu ongengo mazala kuba egula. Kwaye amabali ayaziwa ngoorabhi abamqinisekisayo kwaye bamxelele ukuba ngumsebenzi wakhe kwimeko yakhe. Ngaphandle koko, ekwenzeni i-lao enyanyekayo yimeko eqhelekileyo kwaye abantu baye baqhelana nayo. Umzekelo kwinquza yoboya nelinen, akukho mntu ukhumbulayo ukuba kukho i-shatnaz. Kodwa kwisigulane kwi-USSR yimeko enqabileyo kwaye ibuhlungu kakhulu.
      Ewe abantu bayakhathala ngokwenzakala emzimbeni kunye nentlungu yabanye. Yintoni eyakuthi ndenze ngokufanelekileyo. Kwaye ukuba umntu uyabandezeleka ngenxa yeentlekele zemvelo andizisoli. Ngoko xa ndinetyala ngayo (nokuba kunjalo) ndiqinisekile ukuba ndiyaxolisa. Fuck Hezi abantu engozini abangenatyala ngayo, kwaye nomonakalo ngokwawo unetyala, ingakanani intlungu abanayo ngomonakalo abawenzayo.
      Andisawakhumbuli amazwi am owacaphulayo wokuba umthetho ukho, kodwa ndibhale ngawo kakhulu kwincwadi yesithathu kuthotho lwengqiqo lweTalmudic. Incwadi ngokwayo iyonke izinikele kumahluko phakathi komyalelo kunye nemfundiso ebonakalayo. Umyalelo luhlobo lwenyani, kwaye umyalelo osebenzayo uphuma kuwo. Inyani ye-halakhic kakhulu. Undikhumbuze nje ngalonto.

      1. I "quote" yamazwi akho yayikwimpendulo kumsonto apho xa ndandizama ukuphetha ngokusuka kuRAKA ukuba umthetho awulolizwi likaThixo nje kuphela (ukuba nje ilizwi likaThixo ke alikho kwi-mitzvah kwimeko apho uThixo ekugqibeleni uyala. ungenzi kwaye ude unqande ukwenza). Kwaye uphendule wathi, "Ndiyavumelana nohlalutyo olubona isiseko kwimbono ye-mitzvos njengohlobo lwenyani kwaye kungekhona nje ubukho belizwi likaThixo." Mhlawumbi andizange ndiyiqonde injongo yakho apho ngokuchanekileyo, kodwa emehlweni am amazwi e-RAA awanakuqondwa ngokupheleleyo. Ukuba ungandinceda ndiqonde le ngcamango ndingabulela kakhulu.
        Ngokubhekiselele kwintlungu, kubonakala kum ukuba kukho umahluko phakathi kwempazamo yabantu ngaphandle komkhwa (imveli ngokuchasene ne-halakhic evela ezincwadini) kunye nesiseko sokwenyani, kuba bazisola kuphela ngenxa yokunganyatheli ezithendeni zabo kwaye bangabi nanceba nge-tassel. nemfene nokuba ziyakhunjuzwa. Kodwa ndiyayicacisa loo ngongoma.
        Kwaye eyona nto iphambili - ukuba ukuziphatha kuyabophelela kuphela ngenxa yokunyanzeliswa ngoko apho kukho isinyanzelo esichasene nokuziphatha akukho qhekeza lengxaki eqhelekileyo nokuba yingozi umonakalo oliwaka. Ithini impendulo kwisibakala sokuba abantu baziva bengquzulana baze bayijike phambi koThixo njengoko uchaze kuluhlu? Impendulo yakho ikude njengoko ndiqonda ukuba yimpazamo kwaye ngenene akukho ngxaki iqhelekileyo kuyonzakalisa xa uThixo ewurhoxisile umthetho wakhe wokuziphatha wokuyeka ukwenzakalisa. Yaye ingcamango yokulungisa umonakalo wokomoya xa kuthelekiswa nokungawulungisi umonakalo owenziwe emzimbeni yenzelwe kuphela ukuchaza iimvakalelo zabantu kungekhona ukuzithethelela. injalo?

        1. Oku kunokuqondwa ngengcebiso yam kwiinzuzo zomoya. Ezi zinto zibonakala naxa ndingenalo uxanduva lokuwenza loo msebenzi uzisiweyo. Kodwa ngokuqinisekileyo inzuzo iyodwa ayanelanga ukuchaza i-mitzvah. Ngokomfuziselo ndingatsho ukuba lo myalelo ukho ngonaphakade. Kodwa ngamanye amaxesha kufuneka iwiswe ngenxa yomnye umyalelo.
          Umzekelo wento awayenzayo kukuba ixesha labangela abafazi. Imvume phantse bonke abalamli ukuba kukho ixabiso ekwenzeni oko, kwaye uninzi lwabo bade bacinge ukuba yi-mitzvah ekhoyo (uRabbi Brish uthetha ukuba uSafra ubhala ukuba uyala u-hayi). Kodwa ngokwemigaqo yomthetho kaThixo abafazi bakhululekile. Akunyanzelekanga ukuba wenze oku, ngoko yintoni i-mitzvah ekhoyo ukuba bayenzile?

          Ndicinga ukuba kukho ingxaki eqhelekileyo yokulimala kwaye usizi luyinyani kwaye alukho nje ngokwasengqondweni. Ukonakala Kokuziphatha Ngokungafaniyo Nokomoya UThixo akacimi nokuba wenze oko ubukufuna.

          1. Isikweko sokuba umthetho ukho ngonaphakade kodwa kufuneka sigqithiswe sibonisa ingxaki. Oku kunokwenzeka xa umthombo wohlaselo uvela kwiinyani zomoya ezithuleyo ekoneni kwaye kubonakala kungenakwenzeka xa i-mitzvah ingumntu okrelekrele ekufuneka andixelele into afuna ndiyenze. Ngokwenza njalo, ufanisa umthetho wegunya kunye ne-shofar ku-Thixo nge-Shabbat, apho u-Thixo angandivumeliyo ukuba ndingxole (endiyalela ukuba ndithobele izilumko. Ndiyavuma ukuba kunzima ukuchaza ukwahlukana, kodwa ngaphandle koko kubonakala kukho. Ukuthi ndenza imiyalelo kaThixo ngoxa ndandimvukela yaye ndavuthela isigodlo phezu kwawo nje amehlo akhe azukileyo phezu kwawo nje isalelo yinto engaqhelekanga. MM Ukuba kunjalo uya kucamngca ngayo (ngendlela inika umdla ukuthelekisa kwi-mitzvah elandelayo kwityala kunye nengxoxo oye wayizisa kuR. Asher Weiss, ndiya kucamngca ngale nto. Kwaye incasa yehagu iginywe kuyo. ngendlela eyala ukusuka eDauriyta mhlawumbi naye uRaqa uyavuma ukuba akukho myalelo wokutya)

            Khange ndiqonde ukuba yeyiphi ingxaki eqhelekileyo ekufuneka yonzakaliswe ukuba kulo mba kuthethwa ngawo akukho myalelo uvela kuThixo owalelayo ukwenzakaliswa kwalo monakalo. Ngamanye amazwi, uthetha ukuba nakwindlela yokuziphatha yomyalelo wokungonakalisi uhlala ukho kodwa kufuneka udlule. Ukuba umyalelo liqumrhu elikrelekrele elazi yonke into kwaye lithatha isigqibo sokuba lenze ntoni neqela ke lo mbandela awubonwa ndim njengasentla. Njengoko kuchaziwe ndiza kucamngca ngale nto, mhlawumbi ndiye ndaphathwa kuhlalutyo lwesikwere.

            1. Ngokumalunga nokuthintelwa kweDauriyta kunye ne-mitzvah, umzekelo ongcono wedini elenziwe ixhoba (nokuba ukutya kuthintelo njengokutya kuhleli kwaye akukho mitzvah okanye nokuba kukho mitzvah kwaye kwakhona wenze ityala) yingxaki yentombi. kubazalwana. I-Beit Hillel iyakwenqabela kunye ne-bastard yomntwana. Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba ngokoluvo lwabo, kwanabo balilela usizi lwentombi bazalisekisa mitzvah yokuzila?! (Kuyenzeka ukwahlula phakathi kwemithetho phakathi kwe mitzvah naphakathi kwemithetho kwi mitzvos eyahlukileyo. Kodwa eyona ngongoma kukuba kum ibonakala ifana kanye)

            2. Kukho iinyani zokomoya, njengoko ndibhale kwikholamu. Kodwa azinabunyaniso ngaphandle kokuba kukho iqumrhu elizimisela ngokomthetho kunye/okanye eziziyalelayo.
              Akukho mahluko kwimeko yethu phakathi kokuthintelwa kunye nokungabikho kwembopheleleko. Wena ngokwakho uyavuma, uze wenze kube nzima. Ndimangalisiwe!

              1. Ucinga ukuba kuthambekela ntoni kwimeko yokuqala, ukuba amazwi Raqa kwakhona kuyo nayiphi na lau Dauriyta engakhatywanga ngenxa yesenzo esithile ukuba kukho isenzo kwaye wagqitha lao won a mitzvah kwaye waphuma emsebenzini, okanye amazwi akhe. kuphela kwisithintelo saseThekwini esirhoxisa iDauriyta mitzvah?

  9. Akukho mfuneko yezimvo kunye nobukrelekrele kuqala. Kum kubonakala ngathi kukho ubungqina boku kwinto yokuba i-mitzvah elandelayo kwityala ayisebenzi. Kwaye sele iqalile igxininise kumahluko phakathi kwalo mgaqo kwaye yenza i-no. Kwimeko nayiphi na into, kwiimeko ezininzi, xa umthetho ungakhatywanga ngenxa yesizathu esithile (umzekelo, awukho ngaxeshanye), yimeko yeNkundla ePhakamileyo.
    Ngokombono wakho, akukho mfuneko yendinyana kule nto, ekubeni imeko ngokwayo ayinalo ixabiso le-mitzvah enjalo. Kodwa iGemara ikufunda oku "kulowo uthiyileyo ukuphanga umphambukeli." Ngaphezu koko, ngokutsho kukaThos.

    1. Ndikhe ndagqabaza ngasentla nge-mitzvah elandelayo kwityala kodwa ndacinga nje ngomzekelo we-sukkah ephangiweyo apho isenzo se-mitzvah singesosikhubekiso (kwaye kukho ingxoxo yakho ngamazwi kaR. Asher Weiss noEzal). Ngoku ndabona kwi-Wikipedia umzekelo wokutya i-matzah efakwe kwi-Pesach kwaye bathi apho (andikhange ndijonge umthombo) ukuba abaphumi kwindlela yabo yokwenza i-matzah kwaye abayigcini i-matzah matzah. Kwaye iyangqina njengoko usitsho (mhlawumbi kuphela ukuba ikho xa ingenayo enye i-matzah kwaye ke kucacile ukuba u-Thixo uyamalela ukuba atye i-matzah editshiweyo).
      Ngaphandle kwendinyana besingenakukwazi oko kwanda, oko kukuthi, oko ngokwenene uThixo akuyalelayo, mhlawumbi kwi<em>matzah ecwilisiweyo uyalela ewe ukuba kutyiwe ukuba akukho matzah yimbi. Andazi lo mbandela kodwa ukuphanga kulowo kuthiwa ngumphambukeli I-novelty nasemva kokuba umphangi uthenge kunye nomphambukeli wakhe kuzo zonke iinjongo kunye neenjongo kwaye uvumelekile ukuba awudle ngenxa yesidlo awufanelekanga isibingelelo. [Ngaphandle koko, umbono wokungqina ukuba ngenye indlela "akukho mfuneko yendinyana" iyathandabuzeka kwaye ngakumbi xa kukhankanywa ikholamu kwindinyana efundisa ngokuchaseneyo, kuba sinezimvo apha naphaya kwaye ndiyavuma ngokuqinisekileyo. ukuba uRAKA uthethe amazwi akhe ude ucinge ukuba amazwi akhe ayamkeleka ndinengxaki yokucinga ukuba udinga ivesi ukuze uphume kule ngcaciso]

      Kwimeko nayiphi na into, cinga ukuba njengoko usitsho kuvela ukuba nabani na odla i-matzah editshiweyo akawugcini umyalelo we-matzah konke konke kwaye uye waphula ukuvinjelwa kokudipha. Kodwa nabani na owayevuthela isigodlo e-US ngeShabbat ngenxa kaYakobe wayenomyalelo wokuvuthela aze ahambe ngeShabbat eThekwini.
      Oku kuthetha ukuba kwimithetho yokugatywa ngaphakathi kweTorah i-mitzvah "ngokwayo" ichazwa kuphela kwiimeko apho inganqatshwanga. Kodwa kwimithetho yokwaliwa ukusuka eThekwini i-mitzvah Dauriyta "ihlala" ngaphandle kokuba eneneni inqatshelwe ukuyigcina kwaye njengesafobe sokuba umyalelo ukhona ngonaphakade kodwa ngamanye amaxesha kufuneka uphulwe.

  10. Ngokubhekiselele kwingcebiso yakho yokuba umthetho wenkolo, okanye ubuncinci iziseko zawo ezisisiseko, ziphuma kwiinyani ezizimeleyo ezibekwe kuThixo - kubonakala kum ukuba endaweni yokuhlaziya omnye umlinganiso obopha uThixo, ubunzima obuvela kwizakwalizwi, oku kunokubekwa kwingcinga yokuba imfuno ephezulu yoqeqesho lomntu. Ukuze kwandiswe uqeqesho kunye nokukhethwa komntu, "uThixo uneTorah kunye ne-mitzvos eninzi" kubo, kwanabo baphikisana nokuziphatha. Ndikhumbula ndibhala kwenye yeekholamu ukuba ngokuchanekileyo ubuninzi bamaxabiso okunika intsingiselo engakumbi kukhetho, kuba kukho indibaniselwano enokwenzeka ngakumbi phakathi kwamaxabiso.

    1. Into endiyibiza ngokuba luxabiso lwenkolo nithi luqeqesho lomntu. Ngoko yahluke njani? Ngaba uthetha ukuthi akukho njongo kuyo yonke into ngaphandle kokugqitywa kwendoda? Kulandela ukuba yonke imithetho ayinamkhethe ngokupheleleyo (wayenokukhetha eminye kunye nemithetho echaseneyo). Kodwa ke ingxabano kaTirgitz iyabuya, kutheni kukho amatyala apho uye wagweba ngokuchasene nokuziphatha.

  11. Ubhala ukuba iinqobo zenkolo zinyanzeliswa ku-Thixo, kodwa kwimeko yongquzulwano phakathi kwemilinganiselo yenkolo isebenza ummangaliso kwaye ithintele umonakalo wenkolo obangelwa kukwenza ixesha elidlulileyo. Ukuba andizange ndiyiqonde indlela imilinganiselo yonqulo enyanzeliswa ngayo kuye - ngoko unokurhoxisa nanini na xa efuna. Yaye ukuba akafuni kuphazamisana nendalo (kwanakwimeko yonqulo), kutheni ephazamisana neemeko zongquzulwano phakathi kwemilinganiselo yonqulo?

  12. Malunga nalento uyibhale apha”
    "Nangona kwingcinga eyongezelelekileyo kunokuphikiswa ukuba kwithiyori ukuba ndenze into evunyelweyo ngoko ke umonakalo wokomoya uthintelwe. Kunokuthiwa uThixo wenza ummangaliso, athintele umonakalo, ukuze kungabikho bubi kumntu olilungisa njengam othembekileyo emthethweni. ”
    Ukuba kunjalo, kutheni engasoloko esenza imimangaliso ukuze athintele wonke umonakalo owenziwe ngabantu, enoba benza okuthile okuvunyelweyo okanye akunjalo?

      1. Umhlaba uya kuxhomekeka ngenene kwizenzo zethu, kuphela ukonakaliswa kokomoya akuxhomeki kwizenzo zethu, kuba kukho ngokwezinto ozibhalileyo kuthande ukungenelela. Yaye ngaphaya koko, ukuba uThixo ukwafuna ukuba umonakalo wokomoya uxhomekeke kwizenzo zethu, ngoko kutheni kwimeko yomntu owenze okuthile evunyelwa ukuba angenelele ukuze athintele umonakalo wokomoya? Ngapha koko, sisinxibo somgaqo-nkqubo wakhe ukuba ihlabathi liya kuxhomekeka kwizenzo zethu.

  13. Ngokumalunga nento oyibhalileyo kulo mhlathi:
    “Ndizakucacisa umbuzo wakhe. Ngokwendlela yam, uThixo usiyalela ukuba sibe nemithetho echasene nemilinganiselo yokuziphatha ukuze sikhuthaze imilinganiselo yonqulo. Ukuba kunjalo, uTirgitz uthi, kubonakala ngathi imilinganiselo yenkolo iyanyanzeliswa kuye kwaye ayisiyiyo isiphumo sentando yakhe (umthetho olawulayo). Ukuba imiyalelo yayingeyiyo “inyaniso yehalakhic” ebekwe kuThixo kodwa yayidalwe ngumthetho waKhe, ngoko wayenokuwenza ngokwahlukileyo. Kwimeko enjalo ndingalindela ukuba xa efuna (kwaye azuze ilifa) ukwenza okulungileyo akayi kuwisa imithetho echasene nokuziphatha. Ubukho beengxabano bubonisa ukuba imithetho ye-halakhah (okanye imilinganiselo yonqulo, ekhuthazwa yimithetho efanayo ye-halakhah) nayo iyanyanzeliswa kuThixo, ngoko ke uyabanjwa (okanye asixhaphaze) ngenxa yemfuneko yolu ngquzulwano. "

    Kuthetha ukusuka kumazwi akho ukuba yonke i-mitzvos kunye nemithetho ye-Halacha inyanzeliswa ku-Gd, kodwa kwingxoxo yakho oku kunokugqitywa kuphela ngokubhekiselele kwimithetho kunye ne-mitzvos echasene nokuziphatha. Umyalelo ofana nokucengceleza iShema awuchasananga nokuziphatha kwaye ngoko akuyomfuneko ukuba unyanzelwe ku-Gd okanye ukuba yinyani ye-halakhic.

    Ngaphezu koko, kunokwenzeka ukuba kwanakwiimeko apho uThixo eyalela into ebonakala imbi, oko kukuthintela ukungabikho kokusesikweni okungakumbi kokuziphatha. Umzekelo, umcimbi wamaxhoba. Kuyabonakala ukuba uThixo uyalela ukuba kubulawe izilwanyana ngokungeyomfuneko. Kodwa kunokwenzeka ukuba ngaphandle kwalo myalelo, abantu ngebabelugatye ngokupheleleyo unqulo kuba lwalungayi kuba nenxalenye ebalulekileyo kubomi bonqulo obandulela ukunikelwa kweTorah. Oko kukuthi, ukutshintshela kunqulo lwamaYuda kwakubukhali kakhulu kwaye kwakuya kulubeka emngciphekweni olu tshintsho ukuba lungenzeki.

    Ukongeza, kunokwenzeka ukuba u-Thixo ngamanye amaxesha ukubeka phambili ukuthanda kwaKhe (okunganyanzeliswanga Kuye) njengento ebaluleke ngaphezu kokwenzakala kwizidalwa zaKhe. Ngokomzekelo, masiwuthabathe umnqweno kaThixo wokuvuzwa. Ukuba ngenxa yale njongo maxa wambi kuye kufuneke enzekalise umntu othile kwizidalwa zakhe, usenokukulungela ukwenjenjalo ukuze akhuthaze loo mnqweno, yaye nangona esenokuwuyeka loo mnqweno ngaxa lithile, usawubeka kwindawo yokuqala njengento ebaluleke ngakumbi kunokonakala ngokokuziphatha. . Oko kukuthi, kunokwenzeka ukuba nemithetho echasene nokuziphatha ayinyanzelwanga kuye kwaye ayizizo iinyani ze-halakhic, ukanti ukhetha ukuyiyalela kuba ibaluleke ngakumbi kuye kunomonakalo wokuziphatha. Kwaye ukuba uthi oku kukhetha ukuziphatha okubi kwaye kuchasene nengcamango yokuba uThixo uhlala eziphatha kakuhle, ndiya kuphendula ukuba uThixo kufuneka abe nokuziphatha okuhle kuye. Oko kukuthi, xa enikezela ukuthanda kwakhe, kukho ukwenzakala kuye (uhlobo lokuqwalaselwa kobomi bakho bangaphambili).

    1. Ngokwenene, ingxoxo ijongene kuphela nemithetho echasene nokuziphatha.
      Ngokuphathelele amaxhoba, andizange ndiwuqonde umbuzo. Unikela ngokupheleleyo ingcaciso yemithetho yemibingelelo. Kulungile. Kwaye ukuba uthetha ukuba le yinkcazo engathanga ngqo yokuziphatha, ngokombono wam akunakwenzeka.
      Xa usithi into ethile ilunge ngakumbi emehlweni akhe, kuthetha ukuba unosukelo oluthile olungengomphumo wokuthanda kukaThixo nje okungalawulekiyo.

      1. Ngokuphathelele amadini, ndandithetha ukuba kukho imiyalelo ebonakala ngathi ichasene nokuziphatha, kodwa enyanisweni kubunzulu bayo ikhuthaza ukuziphatha. Asiqondi nje ukuba njani okanye kutheni kodwa kunokubakho inkcazo enzulu emva kwabo enegalelo ekukhuthazeni ukuziphatha (ayiyiyo yonke imiyalelo echasene nokuziphatha okuyimfuneko, kodwa ubuncinane eminye yayo inokuba njalo).

        Ngokuphathelele kwindawo yokuqala emehlweni akhe, ndithetha iminqweno "yomntu" kunye neminqweno kaThixo. Oko kukuthi, kungekhona into enyanzeliswa kuye ngaphandle, kodwa ukuthanda kwakhe ngaphakathi. Andiqinisekanga ukuba igama elingenasizathu lifanelekile apha malunga nokuthanda kukaThixo. Kanye njengokuba umnqweno womntu wokuba ngumdlali we-chess oqinisekisiweyo awubizwa ngokuba ngumnqweno ongekho ngqiqweni (kwaye akunyanzelwanga kuye ngaphandle). Ngumnqweno wobuqu. Mhlawumbi uThixo ufuna "ukuba ngumdlali we-chess oqinisekisiweyo" kwintsimi ethile, kwaye ngenxa yoko ukulungele ukuncama ingozi yokuziphatha kubantu abathile ngamanye amaxesha.

          1. Andithethi ngabantu abasongelwayo ngokwabo. Ndithi kunokubakho ukuthanda kukaThixo, ukuba nangona kunganyanzeliswanga kuye ngaphandle (inyaniso ye-halakhic), isabaluleke kakhulu kuye kunokulimala kokuziphatha kwizidalwa zakhe, kwaye ngoko uyala.

            1. Ukuba akunyanzelwanga kuye kwaye akukho njongo yokuyimisela ngoko sisigqibo sakhe esingenasizathu, kunye ne-draa kushya kwi-duchy. Nokuba kungenasizathu okanye kunyanzeliswa (ngengqiqo yokuba imilinganiselo yokuziphatha iyanyanzeliswa kuthi. Ukuqinisekiswa kwabo kunyanzelekile, kungekhona ukuziphatha ngokutsho kwabo). Andiboni ukuba kunokwenzeka okwesithathu.

                  1. Kukho umba wemfihlelo yomsebenzi imfuno ephezulu kunye nomnqweno kaThixo wokuhlawula. Kuzo zombini, uThixo ufuna ukuba sizifezekise ezi njongo. Ukuze kuphunyezwe olu sukelo, akunakuphepheka ukuba ubani enzekaliswa ngokuziphatha. Kanye njengokuba abantu besenza ulingelo ngezilwanyana ngeenjongo zonyango, kunokwenzeka ukuba uThixo uyasisebenzisa kwanokuba maxa wambi isenzakalisa, ngokweemfuno zakhe.

                    1. Kutheni ngokuqinisekileyo kuya kunyanzeliswa kuye. Usenokukhetha. Ngapha koko, yonke imfuneko yokuba kuthiwe kuyanyanzelwa kuye ivela kwingcaciso yokuba uThixo akayi kukhetha nto imbi. Kodwa ndinike umzekelo wokuba apho kuyimfuneko, abantu nabo bakhetha into engcolileyo ngenxa yabo kwaye ngokufanelekileyo (uvavanyo lwezonyango kwizilwanyana)

        1. Ke kutheni kufuneka umntu eze kwiinyani ze-halakhic ezinyanzeliswa ku-Gd. Kunokuthiwa kukho isibakala sokuziphatha esithi endaweni yongquzulwano phakathi kwentswelo kaThixo nokonakaliswa kokuziphatha kwabantu, kukho isibakala sokuziphatha esithi kulunge ngakumbi ukwenzakalisa abantu kunokulalanisa kwintswelo kaThixo.

          1. Kwakhona intswelo kaThixo iyanyanzeliswa kuye, okanye ayiyomfuneko yaye ayithetheleli ukugatywa kwemilinganiselo yokuziphatha.
            Ngokombono wam akukho ndlela yokuphuma koku: nokuba kunyanzeliswa okanye kunyanzelekile. Kwaye ngokuthandabuza akugatyi ukuziphatha kakuhle. Ngalo lonke ixesha uvela kwicala elahlukileyo kodwa impendulo iyafana. Ingubo imfutshane, unokugquma imilenze okanye intloko kodwa hayi zombini.

              1. Ayinamsebenzi lonto. Kusekho izinto ezinyanzelwayo kuye. Kodwa ngaphaya koko, le mfuno yinyani eyenza i-OUGHT. Ingxabano kukuba imithetho inyanzeliswa kuye njengemilinganiselo yokuziphatha. Akubonakali kubalulekile kum nokuba kukunyanzeliswa ngeenyani kunye neemfuno okanye ngokuthe ngqo. Ndisacinga ukuba ezi zixabiso, kodwa kutheni zibalulekile?!

                1. Yile nto bendiyiphikisa kwimpendulo ngaphambili. Ukuba inyani yale mfuno idala kufanelekile, kodwa ifanele ukusuka kwindawo yokuziphatha kwaye ingekuko kummandla we-halakhic okanye ngenye indlela. Kanye njengokuba ukulinga ngezilwanyana kungekhona ebantwini kufanelekile, nam andizange ndiye.

                  1. Akuyomfuneko ukuba kukuziphatha. Ezinye zifuna okanye zixabisekile, ziziphatha okanye azikho. Ngokomzekelo, ukuqeqesha uThixo akuyomfuneko ngendlela eqhelekileyo. Kwanokuvalwa kokutya inyama yehagu akubonakali ngathi yimbonakaliso yesibakala sokuziphatha.

                    1. Into endiyithethayo kukuba uThixo uyalela imithetho echasene nokuziphatha ngaphandle kwesidingo esikhoyo kuye. Kodwa ngaphambi kokuba ayalele usengxakini yokuba abeke phambili imfuno yakhe, okanye aphephe ukwenzakaliswa ngokuziphatha ebantwini. Le ngxaki ikwinqanaba lokuziphatha. Kanye njengokuba ingxaki yokuba ukwenza imifuniselo ebantwini okanye kwizilwanyana ikwinqanaba lokuziphatha.

  14. Ngoko kukho ixabiso lenkolo (okhetha ukulibiza ngokuba yimfuneko) elinyanzeliswa kuyo, kwaye kuphela isigqibo kwingxaki phakathi kwayo kunye nokuziphatha sisigqibo sokuziphatha. Caba unyanisile, then what? Iphi ingxabano? Ngaphandle koko, ngokombono wam isigqibo phakathi kwexabiso lenkolo okanye imfuno kunye nexabiso lokuziphatha ngokwalo asikho kwinqanaba lokuziphatha.

    1. Ngokolwazi lwam, uRabi Michi uthi:
      A. UThixo ufuna okulungileyo kuba elungile
      B. Ulungelelwaniso lonqulo alufani nomyalelo wokuziphatha
      Isithathu. Kungquzulwano phakathi kolungelelwaniso lonqulo nolungelelwano lokuziphatha, maxa wambi kumele kukhethwe ulungelelwano lokuziphatha
      Kutheni ungabango ukuba ungquzulwano luyintelekelelo kuphela (njengendlela kaRabbi Lichtenstein kunye nokuthanda isimo sengqondo esikhoyo kwizithili zonqulo)?
      D. Kukuqonda kwam ukuba ngokuyimfuneko kulandela ukuba umyalelo wonqulo unyanzeliswe kuThixo ngokunjalo, kungenjalo kutheni eyalela ngokuchasene nokuziphatha?
      Oko kusamele kuqondwe kukuba kutheni sivunyelwa ukuba sikhethe ulungelelwaniso lokuziphatha xa kukho ungquzulwano, ekubeni uThixo enyule ulungelelwaniso lonqulo kolo ngquzulwano?
      Isisombululo esinokubakho kukuba umyalelo wenkolo wanikelwa nguThixo, kodwa sele eqalisile ukulinda, kwaye sicinga ukuba kwinyani enikiweyo wayengeyiyo i-mitzvah, kwaye ke ukhethe ucwangco lokuziphatha.
      Konke oku ngokwendlela yengqondo yonyana wethu, uRamad Shlita, uthembekile kwindlela yakhe engaqapheli ukhetho lwentando kaThixo (kwaye ubone isayensi yenkululeko). Kwaye doc kunye il.

        1. Oku kuthetha ukuba akukho kwazisi phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha. Ezi zintlu ezimbini ezizimeleyo ngokwemigaqo (nangona kusoloko kukho ukuphikisana phakathi kwazo kunjalo). Ukugweba ukuba isenzo sinokuziphatha okanye akunjalo, kwaye ukugweba ukuba kuvumelekile okanye kunqatshelwe i-halakhically zigwebo ezimbini ezahlukeneyo kwaye ziphantse zizimele. Udidi lwe-halakhic kunye nokuziphatha zizinto ezimbini ezahlukeneyo. Ngokuqinisekileyo kwiimeko apho kukho ukungqubuzana phakathi kwemfundiso yokuziphatha kunye ne-halakhic ngoko kufuneka kugqitywe ngandlela-thile (kwaye oku akusoloko kuvumelana ne-halakhic), kodwa ubukho bongquzulwano abuyongxaki ngokwayo. Kukho ungquzulwano olunjalo phakathi kwemilinganiselo emibini yokuziphatha (njengoko kumzekelo wokusindisa ubomi ngokubangela intlungu), kwaye akukho nto iphikayo ukuba kuya kubakho ixabiso le-halakhic kunye nexabiso lokuziphatha.

          Caphula kwikholam 15. kunye namazwi akho malunga namafanasini kudliwano-ndlebe neLondon. Ngaba asingabo abafundisi abathi maxa wambi bangayigcini imilinganiselo yonqulo? Unganceda undicacisele umahluko?

          1. Ndajongana nale nto ekuqaleni kwencwadi yesithathu kwitrilogy. Ngamafutshane, xa kukho ungquzulwano olumandla umthetho usoloko usongamela. Ngokomzekelo, kuma-Amaleki. ITorah ngokwayo yaliqwalasela ixabiso lokuziphatha ukanti yayalela ukuba kwenziwe oko. Kodwa xa ungquzulwano lwenzeka ngengozi, njengokulawulwa kwengqondo kunye neShabbat, apho akunakwenzeka ukuba ungabandakanyi kumyalelo weShabbat owala iPikun okanye ngokuphambene. Kwiimeko ezinjalo kufuneka uzenzele isigqibo.
            Kwaye konke oku xa umthetho ucacile kwiTorah. Ukuba sisiphumo sokutolika okanye intshumayelo ngoko ke ukuthandabuza kungena apha ukuba lo mgaqo awuchanekanga.

  15. Ndandidla ukukhankanya kwiingxoxo malunga nokuthambekela okuchasene nobuYuda, ukuba uluvo lwakho kukuba kule meko ukuziphatha kufuneka kukhethwe phezu kweTorah, ngokuchasene noRabbi Riskin owenza i-okimata kwiTorah, kunye norabhi bendabuko abenza okimata ngokuziphatha. Nesiko lakwaSirayeli iTorah.
    Nje, ndonwabe kakhulu ukuba wenze uluvo lwam lucace. Kwimeko ye-Daurite halakhah ecacileyo ephikisana nokuziphatha, ngaba kukho indawo yokukhetha ukuziphatha? Kwaye kuthekani ngeHalacha Durban? Ngaba i-Okimata yenziwe kwi-Dauriyta halakhah ngendlela engaphikisani nokuziphatha, nokuba ichasene nesithethe se-halakhic?

  16. Umbuzo omsulwa. Inyaniso yokuba kukho ukuziphatha okusemthethweni (ubuthixo, umzekelo) - apho le migaqo yokuziphatha ibhalisiwe? Ngaba siyithatha kwi-intuition yethu ukuba ukubulala kunye nokuba makungavunyelwa? Oko kukuthi, ukuba yinto efundwayo kwi-intuition yabantu okanye kwiindibano zemveli zentlalo, akusekho ukunyanzela umntu ongazange ayamkele loo ngcamango. Kwaye ukuba ngandlel’ ithile inxulumene neTorah, ngoko kwakhona ingumthetho ongcwele obhaliweyo, kwaye uphi umahluko phakathi kweTorah nokuziphatha?

    1. Kubhaliwe elucwecweni lwentliziyo yethu. Umthetho uyasifundisa, wena wenze okulungileyo nokulungileyo, kodwa awusicaciseli ukuba kuthini na. Ucinga ukuba wonke umntu uyayiqonda intsingiselo yokuziphatha (ibhalwe kwicwecwe lentliziyo yakhe). Umxholo wokuziphatha ufundwa kwingqiqo yokuziphatha, kodwa umsebenzi wokuyilandela ungokwentando yobuthixo. Njengoko ndichaze kwikholamu. Ukuba kukho umntu ongenayo le intuition ngumntu ogulayo kwaye akukho nto imdibanisa nayo. Kanye njengokuba kungekho nto yakwenza nomntu oyimfama ongaboniyo.
      Umahluko phakathi kwe-halakhah kunye nokuziphatha kumyalelo. Imithetho ekwiTorah isebenza kuphela neHalacha, kwaye ukuziphatha akukho phantsi komyalelo. Yintando kaThixo ngaphandle komyalelo kwaye ke ihlala ingaphandle komthetho. Ke ngoko umxholo wayo awubonakali kwiTorah kodwa ngaphakathi kuthi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kwiHalacha imixholo nayo ibhaliwe kwiTorah. Ke ngoko, "naye nenza okulungileyo nokulungileyo" aliqukwanga kwinani leemitha kuzo naziphi na iindimbane.

      1. Oko kukuthi, kukho ukucinga ukuba "ukunyaniseka nokulunga" yinto eqondwa ngumntu wonke kwi-intuition yakhe esisiseko, oko kukuthi, izinto esizamkelayo njengokubulala nokudlwengula, kodwa umbuzo ofanayo owawubuza abantu abangakholelwa kuThixo - ungathini malunga igosa elicinga ukuba indlela yakhe yokusebenza kukubulala. Ubungqina bokuba kukho inkqubo yangaphandle yokuziphatha kumntu, ongokobuthixo, kodwa kwakhona, le nkqubo ayitoliki oko kuqukwa kuyo "ubulungisa nokulunga," kwaye kwakhona siya kukubuza ukuba ungathini malunga nendoda ekholelwa ukuba ukubulala ubulungisa nokulunga. Ngamafutshane, ndingathanda ukulola ukuba yeyiphi ingxaki oyisombululayo ngentelekelelo yokuba isimilo sifuna uThixo.

        1. Uxuba iinqwelomoya. Ndibuze umbuzo hayi ngomntu ongayiqondiyo into yokuba ukubulala akuvumelekanga kodwa umntu oqondayo ukuba akuvumelekanga kodwa akaziva ezinikele kuko. Lo ngumbuzo owahluke ngokupheleleyo. Lowo ungaqondiyo uyimfama. Kufuneka ndimxelele ntoni? Oku kuthetha ukuba yimfama engaboniyo kwaye iphika ubukho bemibala umzekelo.
          Into endababuza yona kukuba yintoni ebangela ukuba umntu abe semthethweni ekuziphatheni kakuhle hayi okuthethwa yimithetho yokuziphatha.
          Ngaphandle koThixo nam, ngokuva ubunyani bemithetho yokuziphatha, ngendingazange ndibotshwe yiyo. Ndingayichitha le mvakalelo njengenkohliso eqondwayo kum ukuba ayinanyani yokwenyani. NguThixo kuphela onokukunika ubunyaniso.

          1. Ndaqonda. Ngokusisiseko uthi into ebandakanyiweyo ekuziphatheni - iyaziwa ngumntu wonke, yindalo yethu ukuba ukubulala nokudlwengula kukuziphatha okubi. Kwaye ngokusisiseko uyaphikisana ukuba oku kuziphatha kumbindi wako kufuneka kwamkeleke kuye wonke umntu, ngaphandle kotshintsho lweenkcubeko kunye namaxesha. Umahluko phakathi komntu ongakholelwayo kubukho bukaThixo kunye nekholwa kukuba ikholwa likwachaza isizathu sokuba le milinganiselo yokuziphatha ibophelelekile kuye. Ndiyayiqonda kakuhle?

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