Ngobunikazi bamaJuda esikhathini sethu futhi ngokujwayelekile

I-BSD

Izifundiswa - 2014

"Kusenjalo umuntu avuke ekuseni azizwe engumuntu, ahambe"

UMichael Avraham

Uma kukhona ama-kibbutzim angayazi ukuthi iyini i-Yom Kippur, awazi ukuthi iShabbat iyini futhi awazi ukuthi liyini ithemba. Onogwaja nezingulube ziyafuywa. Ingabe banabo ubudlelwano noyise?… Array? I-Array iyinto engcwele? Bazinqamule kukho konke esidlule kukho futhi bacela iTorah entsha. Uma lingekho iSabatha futhi lingekho iYom Kippur, pho ungumJuda ekuthini?

            (Inkulumo KaRabbi Shach Yonogwaja, Yad Eliyahu, 1990)

Lesi sihloko sabhalwa khona ezinsukwini lapho izingxoxo ezengeziwe ziqhuma phakathi kwethu namaPalestine, kodwa kulokhu imibuzo yomazisi eholele kuso isisondele kakhulu ebusweni. Isizathu esikhulu sokuqhuma kwe-Israel kwakuyisidingo sokuqaphela uMbuso wakwa-Israyeli njengombuso wamaJuda. Lesi sidingo sihlangatshezwana, phakathi kokunye, ngezimpikiswano zamaPalestina nezinye izakhi, ezidinga kuqala ukuthi sichaze ukuthi yini futhi ubani ongumJuda emehlweni ethu ngaphambi kokuba sikufune kwabanye. Kulo mongo, abanye basethula njengenzalo yamaKhazar, ngaleyo ndlela bebukela phansi ubuqiniso bomlando wendaba yamaJuda, okungukuthi, ukuthi ngempela siwukuqhubeka kwemvelo kwamaJuda asendulo ayehlala lapha eZweni lakwa-Israyeli. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amaPalestine aphinde aveze umlando wezwe (othize okhohlisayo) njengesisekelo sezingxabano zawo. Ngithole isibonelo esihlekisayo ikakhulukazi esihlokweni sika-Eldad Beck, esichaza ingxoxo phakathi kukaNgqongqoshe u-Tzipi Livni, ophethe izingxoxo namaPalestina egameni likahulumeni wakwa-Israel, no-Saib Erekat, ophethe izingxoxo ngasohlangothini lwasePalestine. :[1]

Amalungu ethimba elikhulu lakwa-Israyeli engqungqutheleni yezokuphepha eMunich abemangele izolo ebusuku, ngesikhathi ilungu lethimba lezingxoxo lasePalestine, uSaeb Erekat, eshaya uLivni ngokuthi yena nomndeni wakhe bangamaKhanani futhi bahlala eJeriko iminyaka eyizi-3,000 (!?) Ngaphambili efika emzini wakwa-Israyeli eholwa nguJoshua Ben Nun. Phakathi nengxoxo ngenqubo yokuthula eMpumalanga Ephakathi lapho laba bobabili babambe iqhaza khona, u-Erekat waqala ukukhuluma ngezindaba ezihlukene zomlando zezinhlangothi zombili, i-Israel kanye nePalestina, futhi wathi amaPalestina kanye nommeleli wakhe empeleni bayinzalo yamaKhanani futhi amalungelo amaningi omhlaba wasePalestine kunamaJuda. U-Livni waphendula ngokuthi u-Israyeli kanye namaPalestina akufanele babuze ukuthi iyiphi indaba enobulungisa kakhulu, kodwa indlela yokwakha ikusasa. “Uhlelo lokuthula angilubheki ngendlela yothando. I-Cynicism ayiyona ingozi encane kune-naivety. "I-Israel ifuna ukuthula ngoba izithakazelo zayo."

Ngale kwempikiswano engokoqobo, kunomuzwa wokuthi uLivni uzama ukugwema le ngxoxo eyihlazo ngoba ucabanga ukuthi ubuwena buwuhlobo lokulandisa, ngakho-ke ingxoxo ngakho ayibalulekile. Akukho okulungile noma okungalungile lapha, ngoba njengoba kuyisiko namuhla ukucabanga ukuthi noma yisiphi isizwe singowaso futhi akekho omunye ovunyelwe ukukwenzela lokho. Abaningi bazothi ngisho nakubunikazi bamaJuda kunezimbobo ezigcwaliswa ukulandisa okuhlukene (nakuba umthamo uhluke kakhulu esibonelweni sasePalestina). Izimangalo zikaGolda, uBen-Zion Netanyahu nabanye abaningi, zokuthi ayikho into ebizwa ngokuthi umPalestine, zizwakala ziyisidala kakhulu futhi ziyizinto zakudala namuhla. Hhayi ngenxa yanoma yikuphi okutholwe emlandweni, kodwa ngenxa yokuthi abantu nobuzwe kuyimiqondo echazwa ngokuthi i-de facto kuphela.

Imibuzo yobunikazi, umlando kanye namasiko, yenqaba ukusiyeka. Bama bade basihlasele bephindelela. Kubonakala sengathi cishe akukho ndawo emhlabeni lapho imibuzo yobunikazi bezwe ixakeke abantu njengaphakathi kwamaJuda, futhi kunjalo nakwa-Israyeli. Izingxabano mhlawumbe zingatholwa ekutheni ungowase-Belgian wangempela noma cha, kodwa ikakhulukazi njengethuluzi lokushaya abamelene nabo, noma njengengxenye yothando lwenhlangano yesizwe nobuzwe. Kunzima ngisho nokucabanga iqembu noma umuntu odonsa kanzima mayelana nombuzo wokuba umBelgian, noma waseLibya, wangempela futhi oyiqiniso.

Uma sithatha njengesibonelo ubuthina bethu, akekho kithi onganqumi ukuthi nginguMikayeli Abraham wangempela, futhi ngikuphi ngempela uMikayeli Abraham? Ithini incazelo kaMichael Abraham, futhi ngiyayiphendula? Ubunikazi bomuntu buyabonakala futhi abudingi izincazelo. Kungokufanayo nangokuqondene nobunikazi bomkhaya. Wonke umuntu ongowomndeni ka-Abrahama unjalo, futhi kunjalo. Imibuzo emayelana nemibandela nezincazelo kulezi zimo ibukeka igobile. Ngithola umbono wokuthi emazweni amaningi kuphinde kube njalo mayelana nobuzwe. Ukhona nje, futhi yilokho nje. Ngakho-ke yini ngaye, ngobunikazi bamaJuda, ehlala isihlupha kangaka? Kungenzeka yini ukuba nengxoxo eyakhayo nehlakaniphile ngale ndaba?

Kulesi sihloko ngizozama ukuchaza izinkinga ze-methodological ezithintekayo engxoxweni yobunikazi bamaJuda, futhi ngethule ukuhlaziywa komqondo ojwayelekile kanye nokuhlaziya okuphambili ngakolunye uhlangothi, kodaba nezincazelo zalo. Ngakho-ke ngeke ngingene emininingwaneni kanye nama-nuances ukuze ngingalahlekelwa isithombe esikhulu, futhi ngivumele ukusebenzisa ama-generalizations okubonakala kunengqondo kimi ngaphandle kwesidingo semithombo ethile, iTorah noma umcabango ojwayelekile. Isidingo sami sezihloko, futhi ikakhulukazi ezombangazwe zombango we-Israel-Palestine, asenzelwanga izinjongo zokuxoxisana kodwa ukukhombisa izimangalo ezizovela emazwini ami. Angivezi mbono lapha mayelana nokungqubuzana uqobo nokuthi kuxazululwa kanjani.

Ingxoxo yamasiko nefilosofi kanye nengxoxo ye-halakhic-Torah

Umqondo oyinhloko esihlokweni sengxoxo, ubunikazi bamaJuda, awucacile. Ingxoxo ngayo ingathathwa okungenani ngezindlela ezimbili: a. I-Jewish national identity in the philosophical-ethnic-culture sense. B. Ubunikazi bamaJuda ngomqondo weTorah-halakhic (abaningi ngeke bavume nakancane ukucabanga ukuthi lezi yizingxoxo ezimbili ezihlukene). Lokhu-ke kuhlobanisa nombuzo (inyumba ngokubona kwami) ukuthi ubuJuda yinkolo noma yisizwe, engingeke ngisithinte nalapha. Lezi akuzona nje izingxoxo ezimbili ezihlukene, kodwa ziveza izindlela ezimbili ezihlukene zengxoxo: noma ngabe ukuqhuba ingxoxo ngohlelo lomqondo ojwayelekile noma ohlelweni lwe-halakhic-Torah.

Ngokuvamile, amagama enkolo kulula ukuwachaza kunobunikazi bezwe. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi ubuwena benkolo busekelwe ezimisweni nasezinkambisweni ezabiwe, futhi ikakhulukazi ezenzweni nasezinkolelweni ezizibophezele (nakuba kunezindlela ezihlukahlukene zokuhumusha. Akukho lutho empilweni olulula kangako).[2] Ngokuphambene, ubuwena buwumqondo ohlukile, futhi busekelwe emlandweni, indawo, isiko, inkolo, ulimi, izici ezithile zezinhlamvu nokunye, noma ezinye izingxube zakho konke lokhu. Ngokuvamile ubuwena abuhlobene nezimiso ezivamile zengqondo noma ezingokoqobo, futhi ngokuqinisekile akuhambisani nezimiso ezihlukile kubantu abathile. Kodwa isiko, ulimi, izici zengqondo zohlobo oluthile noma olunye, ziyahlukahluka futhi azicaci, futhi ezimweni eziningi zingabelana nezinye izizwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ezinye zalezi zici ziyahlukahluka, futhi umuntu noma inkampani ingase ithathe noma ilahle ezinye zazo. Ngakho yikuphi kulokhu okuwumgomo odingekayo ukuze uthole ubuwena bezwe?

Lokhu kunjalo nasemongweni wamaJuda. Kulula kakhulu ukuchaza ubuJuda benkolo. Labo abanesibopho sokugcina i-mitzvos banobunikazi bamaJuda. Mangaki ama-mitzvos okufanele agcinwe? Lona umbuzo onzima kakhulu, futhi uya ngokuya uba nzima esizukulwaneni sethu esiyinkimbinkimbi, kodwa umbuzo wesibili. Ukuzibophezela ngokomthetho kuma-mitzvos kuyincazelo eyanele yezidingo zethu.[3] Ngaphezu kwalokho, esimweni se-halakhic umbuzo wokuthi ungubani, ngisho nowenkolo, awubalulekile. Kunencazelo ecacile ye-halakhic mayelana nazo zonke izinhlobo zezibopho zenkolo, eziqondiswe kubo futhi ziboshwe kuye. Imibuzo yobunikazi benkolo ayiveli ngqo emhlabeni wemiqondo yeTorah-halakhic.

Uma mayelana nobunikazi benkolo akukho ukubaluleka kwe-halakhic embuzweni, khona-ke kulula futhi ephathekayo mayelana nombuzo wobunikazi bezwe. Uyini umphumela we-halakhic wokuzimisela ukuthi iqembu libe nobuzwe bamaJuda? Ku-halakhah, umbuzo wokuthi ubani ogcina noma ongawagcini ama-mitzvos anencazelo, futhi nakakhulu umbuzo wokuthi ubani okufanele agcine noma angawagcini. Umbuzo wobunikazi awunayo impendulo ecacile ye-halakhic, futhi ayinayo imithelela ye-halakhic eqondile ngokwayo.

Ngokombono we-halakhic, umJuda ngumuntu owazalwa ngumama ongumJuda noma oguqulwe ngendlela efanele.[4] Lokhu ubunikazi bakhe ngomqondo we-halakhic, futhi akunandaba ukuthi wenzani, futhi ikakhulukazi ukuthi uyayigcina noma akayigcini i-mitzvos. Halachically vele kumele ahambisane nawo, futhi kuyenzeka kuxoxwe ukuthi lowo ongakwenzi lokho uyisigebengu nokuthi yini okufanele yenziwe kuye. Kodwa umbuzo wokuthi ungubani awunandaba. Amagama anjengokuthi "waphuma ku-Israyeli wonke" ngokuvamile ayisingathekiso, futhi awanawo umthelela wangempela ongokoqobo ku-halakhah. Futhi noma ngabe anencazelo ethile, i-halakhah iwachaza ngokwenqubo yawo yobuchwepheshe.

I-National Identity: Umehluko Phakathi Kwezivumelwano Nezimo Eziphuthumayo

Kuze kube manje sibhekane nemibuzo yokuzazi ngombono we-halakhic-zenkolo. Ngokombono ovamile wefilosofi, isithakazelo esiyinhloko sisebuzweni hhayi kobenkolo. Sengike ngakubalula ukuthi ubuwena bukazwelonke jikelele wumqondo ongacacile futhi onzima ukuwuchaza. Lapha ngizogxila kakhulu ezigxotsheni ezimbili ezeqisayo maqondana nencazelo yobunikazi bezwe: indlela yokuvumelana (conventionalist) kanye nendlela ebaluleke kakhulu (essentialist).

Umbuzo wobuzwe kanye nobuzwe wumbuzo omusha futhi empeleni wesimanje. Esikhathini esidlule, ngenxa yezizathu ezihlukahlukene, abantu babengazibuzi neze ukuthi ubuzwe babo babuyini nokuthi buchazwa kanjani. Umhlaba ubumile kakhulu, abantu abenzanga izinguquko eziningi ezimpilweni zabo, futhi bekungadingeki ukuthi babhekane nobunikazi babo ngobunikazi obuqhudelanayo. Kuyangabazeka ukuthi ekwazini kwabo ubukhona yini umqondo ohlukile wobunikazi bezwe, futhi noma ngabe kwaba khona izinguquko kulobo bunikazi bavele bazenzakalela futhi ngokwemvelo futhi benganakile. Ubuwena bezwe babungokwemvelo, bufana nobunikazi bomuntu siqu nomndeni okukhulunywe ngenhla. Isizinda esingokwenkolo naso saba nengxenye ethakazelweni, njengoba iningi labantu lalinophawu olungokwenkolo. Ezweni langaphambili kwakunombono wokuthi ubukhosi buyisipho esivela kuNkulunkulu kulabo abazalelwa ukuba yinkosi, kanjalo nobuzwe bethu nenkolo yethu kanye nokuzihlanganisa nabo. Zonke lezi zadalwa kanye nomhlaba ezinsukwini eziyisithupha zikaGenesise, futhi zathathwa njengezingabalulekile futhi zathathwa kalula.

Esikhathini samanje, ngokukhula kobuzwe eYurophu nasemhlabeni jikelele, umbuzo waqala ukuntanta ngokugcwele. Ubunzima bokuchaza ubuwena buveze izimpendulo ezivame kakhulu phakathi kwezigxobo ezimbili: eyokuqala iyisigxobo esivamile esibona ubunikazi bezwe njengento esekelwe esivumelwaneni esicishe sibe ngokunganaki. Uma iqembu lizibona lingabantu, okungenani uma lihlala isikhathi esithile, ngoba lisuke lingabantu. Imbongi u-Amir Gilboa, ngo-1953, ngemva kokusungulwa kombuso, yachaza kanje: "Ngokungazelelwe umuntu uvuka ekuseni futhi azizwe ukuthi ungumuntu, futhi waqala ukuhamba." Esinye isigxobo imibono eqinile ebona ubuwena njengento engokwemvelo nehlelekile, njengobunikazi bomuntu siqu. Uma umuntu ezibuza kabanzi ngemvelo yaleyo nto "yemvelo" engaqondakali, ubuzwe, ama-romantics ngezinye izikhathi afika ku-metaphysics. Ngokwalezi zindlela, ubuzwe bunokuphila okungokomfanekiso ngomqondo othile, into efana nombono kaPlato, futhi abantu abakha isizwe bafakiwe kuleli bhizinisi ngenxa yokuxhumana kwabo nalo. Ihhashi ngalinye lingeleqembu lamahhashi ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuchaza ngokucacile ukuthi ihhashi liyini. Uyihhashi nje, futhi yilokho. Ngokunjalo, wonke umuntu waseBelgium ungoweqembu laseBelgium ngaphandle kokuzibophezela kunoma yiziphi izincazelo. Hhayi nje ngoba kunzima ukuphakamisa izincazelo, kodwa ngoba akudingekile. Ubuwena bukazwelonke wumqondo wemvelo ofana nobuwena bomuntu kanye nomndeni.

Kubalulekile ukuqonda ukuthi amazwi ka-Amir Gilboa achaza ukuvuswa kwezwe kungenzeka ukuthi abhalwe ngaphakathi kohlaka lwe-substantive-metaphysical conception, kodwa lapha kuzoba ukuvuka kokuhlangenwe nakho, lapho iqiniso elifanayo le-metaphysical elalithule lingena ekuqapheleni kwabantu. . Kuvusa kubo futhi bafuna ukukubona ngokusebenza, emizweni ebambekayo yesikhungo yezepolitiki nezenhlalo. Ngokushesha umuntu uyasukuma futhi ezwe iqiniso le-metaphysical (obelokhu liyiqiniso) ukuthi ungumuntu, futhi uqala ukuhamba. Othandweni lokuphaphama kwesizwe kwavuka indoda ngomqondo wokuphaphama ekhomeni, okuphambene nomqondo wokuvumelana lapho evuke khona kuhunyushwa njengokunyuka phansi ukuze kuqalwe imashi. Inkulumompikiswano imayelana nokuthi ukusungulwa kuwukuvuka noma ukwakheka.

I-National Identity: indlela yokuvumelana kanye nenkulumo yayo

Ngasohlangothini okuvunyelwene ngalo lwemephu abacabangi abanjengoBenedict Anderson, encwadini yakhe enethonya Imiphakathi ecatshangwayo (1983), nabanye abaningi balandela. Lokhu kuyakuphika ukuba khona kokuqukethwe okubalulekile kwemiqondo efana nobuzwe kanye nobunikazi bezwe. Labo abaphethe le ndlela babona ubuzwe njengohlobo lwenganekwane engahleliwe eyakhiwe futhi yagqanyiswa ukwazi kwamaqembu athile kuwo wonke umlando wawo (ovame ukwabiwa). Kubalulekile ukuqonda ukuthi lokhu akusho ukuthi lokhu kuvuka akuvumelekile, noma ukuthi izimfuno nezimangalo zakho zingabukelwa phansi. nakanjani akunjalo. Ubuwena bukazwelonke bukhona njengeqiniso elingokwengqondo futhi bubalulekile kubantu, futhi ngenxa yalokho abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi bufanelwe ukuhlonishwa. Kodwa empeleni kuyinto engenangqondo. Ukucija incazelo yale ndlela, umfundi uzongixolela uma nginikeza izigaba ezimbalwa ezindabeni ezisematheni lapha.

Isibonelo esisobala sendlela okungeyesikole esivumelene ngaso umbono kaProf. Shlomo Zand. U-Zand ungusomlando wase-Tel Aviv University, phambilini obeyingxenye yemibuthano ye-Compass futhi eyingxenye yemibuthano yesokunxele e-Israel. Encwadini yakhe eyindida Asungulwa nini futhi kanjani abantu abangamaJuda? (I-Wrestling, 2008), u-Zand ukhethe ukuhlaziya isibonelo esibekela inselelo ikakhulukazi ithisisi ka-Benedict Anderson. Uzama ukufakazela lapho ukuthi abantu bamaJuda bawumphakathi ocatshangelwayo. Lo msebenzi ungowokuvelela ikakhulukazi, ngoba noma ngabe uyini umbono wethu ngesikhundla sika-Anderson, uma kunesibonelo emhlabeni (waseNtshonalanga) esihluke kakhulu ku-thesis yakhe ngabantu abangamaJuda. Ngempela, ngokubona kwami ​​(futhi ngokombono wabanye abaningi) incwadi kaZand inikeza igama elibi ocwaningweni lomlando, futhi ikakhulukazi ilulaza umehluko onjalo oyisisekelo nobalulekile phakathi kwemibono nocwaningo lwezemfundo.[5] Kodwa okumvumelayo ukuthi enze konke lokhu ukungaqondakali okungokwemvelo komqondo wobuzwe.

Uma siqhubeka nezenzakalo zamanje, isibonelo esicacile ngokukhethekile esivela kwelinye isigxobo, esiqinisekisa kahle umbono ka-Anderson, abantu basePalestina. AmaPalestine angabantu abasekelwe ngokusobala kubunikazi obucatshangelwayo (okunye ngezinye izikhathi obuhlanganisa imibono engelona iqiniso ngempela, njengokuba ngamaFilisti noma amaKhanani aseBhayibhelini, noma ngisho nasezikhathini zangaphambili)[6], Idalwe cishe ngaphandle kweze ngokwemibandela yomlando.

Kunengqondo ukukhomba lapha incazelo evamile yokukhulelwa okuvunyelwene. Ekuqaleni kwencwadi yakhe, u-Zand unikezela le ncwadi: "Esikhumbuzweni sabahlali base-al-Sheikh Mu'anis abasuswa ezindaweni ezikude lapho ngihlala futhi ngisebenza khona manje." Iphimbo liyachaza futhi lizolile, futhi ebusweni ubonakala engayiboni njengenkinga. Uma ubuwena bukazwelonke buwumcabango ngokwemvelo, khona-ke ubuwena obungokomfanekiso buphusha obunye. Ifike iphele. Lena indlela yezwe. Ngokusho kwakhe, lawa amaqiniso angokwengqondo hhayi amanani metaphysical noma amaqiniso, hhayi ngisho amaqiniso omlando. Lolu olunye uhlangothi lohlobo lwemali oluvamile olubona ubunikazi bezwe njengento ecatshangwayo.

Isiphetho siwukuthi uma ubuwena bukazwelonke empeleni kuyisivumelwano esinqunyiwe, kungase kufinyelelwe iziphetho ezimbili (nakuba kungenjalo) (nakuba kungenjalo): 1. Amabhizinisi anjalo awanawo amalungelo angempela. Izizwe ziyizidalwa ezingenamgogodla, ezingenakuphila ngaphandle kwemicabango yabantu. 2. Ubunikazi bukazwelonke buyingxenye ebalulekile yobunikazi babantu abaningi futhi empeleni abukho obunye ubunjalo bezwe (empeleni obungokoqobo), ngakho iqiniso lokuthi buwubunikazi obucatshangelwayo akusho ukuthi izimangalo nezimangalo zalezo zinhlangano zingaba khona. kuthathelwe phansi.

Ngokuyisimangaliso, abanikazi abambalwa bale ndlela bazivumela ukuthi bayisebenzise ukugxeka ubunikazi obubodwa (odabeni lukaZand, umJuda-wakwa-Israel) futhi babasole ngokufihla umhlangano wenhlalo ongenamthetho noma ocatshangelwayo, sizakhele ukwazi, futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo kusukela kulowo mbono kanye.Ngobunye ubunjalo obucatshangwayo (iPalestine, isibonelo seZand). Ukungenangqondo kubhebhetheka nakakhulu ukuthi abantu abangamaJuda ikakhulukazi bayisibonelo esincane esiphumelelayo futhi abantu basePalestina bayisibonelo esicacile sobuzwe obucatshangelwayo. Ngizophinda futhi futhi ngigcizelele ukuthi angiqondile lapha ukudingida ubuhlobo obufanele nesimangalo somphakathi onjalo ukuze uhlonishwe ngokwepolitiki, njengoba lona kuwumbuzo wepolitiki ovamile. Lapha ngibhekana kuphela nencazelo yomlando namasiko kanye nokugxeka ukungahambisani engxoxweni.

I-National Identity: Indlela Ebalulekile

Kuze kube manje ngisamile ku-conventionalism kanye nesimo esiyinkinga yakho. Mhlawumbe ngenxa yalobu bunzima, abanye bathatha umqondo wobunikazi bezwe baye ezindaweni ze-metaphysics. Ukuvuswa kwezwe lonke eYurophu, kanye nokuvuswa kwesizwe samaJuda okwakubonakala emnyangweni weZionist futhi kwathonywa kakhulu yi-European romanticism. Lezi zinhlangano zivame ukuveza isimo sokuthi ubuzwe busekelwe phezu kwenhlangano ethile ye-metaphysical (abantu, isizwe). Izinkulumo ezeqisayo zalo mbono zivela emazwini obufascist (eJalimane likaHitler, i-Bismarck, nezinye eziningi ngaphambi kwazo, kanye nase-Italy yaseGaribaldi nokunye). Lezi zimo zengqondo zavezwa emcabangweni weTorah kaRabbi Kook nabafundi bakhe. Laba bamukela lo mbono we-metaphysical, futhi bawenza umnyombo wokholo lwamaJuda. Inhlansi yamaJuda, efiphele, efihliwe, ephikwayo futhi ecindezelwe, noma ngabe injani, yiyona echaza ubuJuda bomuntu. Ubuhle buka-Israyeli kanye nobungqayizivele bemvelo kanye nezakhi zofuzo zawo wonke umJuda, kwaba cishe umbandela okhethekile wenkolo yobuJuda, ikakhulukazi lapho zonke izici zendabuko (ukugcinwa) zishabalala, noma okungenani ziyeka ukuba yinkomba efanayo okwavunyelwana ngayo. "I-Knesset of Israel" isiphenduke isingathekiso yaba inkulumo ye-ontological yombono we-Metaphysical wamaJuda.

Ngethula lapha indlela ebambekayo ekuphenduleni leyo evumelane, kodwa ekseni yomlando kuyacaca ukuthi umqondo obalulekile (nakuba ungewona ongokwemetaphysical njalo) wandulela ukujwayelekile. Ngokomlando, bekuyizindlela ezijwayelekile eziye zavela ngenxa yezindlela ezibambekayo. Uma indlela eqondile ibonakala kakhulu nge-modernism kanye nokuvuka kwezwe, khona-ke i-conventionalism iyingxenye ye-post-national "i-critique entsha" ehlotshaniswa nesikhundla esaziwa ngokuthi i-postmodernism.

Indida eyisisekelo

Kuze kube manje ngichaze imibono emibili ephikisanayo. Zishayisana kuphi? Uyini umehluko phakathi kwabo? Ngicabanga ukuthi kuleli zinga sibhekene nokumangala. Okubalulekile labo abasebenzisa indlela yesibili, ebalulekile, bakhululekile ekufuneni izincazelo zobuzwe. Phela, ngokusho kwabo, noma ubani onokuhambisana nombono we-metaphysical (Knesset of Israel) ungumJuda. Ngisho nasengxabanweni yokuguqulwa sizwa kaninginingi mayelana nempikiswano ethi "Inzalo ka-Israyeli" njengesisekelo sokufuna lula inqubo yokuguqulwa, futhi akumangalisi ukuthi ivela ikakhulukazi emibuthanweni eseduze noRabbi Kook. I-metaphysics esichaza njengamaJuda, ngakho-ke asikhululekile esidingweni sezincazelo zohlelo. Kuma-romantics e-metaphysical, ubunikazi bobuJuda buyiqiniso elinamandla elingekho ngaphansi kokuqukethwe, amanani, nanoma yimuphi omunye umbandela. Yebo, labo abanesimo sengqondo esinjalo bangase bakholelwe ukuthi wonke umJuda kumelwe agcine izindinganiso nemithetho yeTorah, kodwa lokhu akuhlangene nencazelo yakhe njengomJuda nobuyena.

Yiqiniso, ngisho nangokwemibono ye-metaphysical-metaphysical, izici ezihlukahlukene zobuzwe bamaJuda zingahlongozwa, kodwa ngokombono wabo lezi yizici ezincikene, okungukuthi, azibalulekile ngenjongo yokuchaza isizwe. Ngisho nalabo abangazibheki bangamaJuda ngenxa yokuba yingxenye yombono wamaJuda wesayensi yezinto eziphilayo. Nakuba kungalindelekile, umbuzo wokuthi ungubani ungaphandle kokucabanga kwendabuko.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, labo abanombono ovamile, labo abangakholelwa othandweni lwe-metaphysical, badinga izincazelo ezengeziwe, imibandela kanye nezici abangahlulela ngazo ukuthi ubani ongowalobu buzwe bezwe nokuthi ubani ongakholelwa. Yingakho bezibuza ukuthi kungani singamaJuda. Uma kungeyona i-metaphysics, kusho ukuthini? Kodwa abantu abavamile abayitholi incazelo enjalo ezwakalayo, futhi ngaleyo ndlela bafinyelele emibonweni yobuwena obucatshangelwayo. Eziningi zazo zamukela incazelo engabonakali iwukuqhutshekiselwa phambili okungokwemvelo kobuJuda njengoba kwakubonakala ezinkulungwaneni zeminyaka ngaphambi kwethu. Ukufunda izincwadi zika-Amos Oz, ukukhuluma isiHebheru, ukukhonza empini nokukhokha izintela ezihloniphekile kuhulumeni, ukushushiswa ekuQothulweni Kwesizwe, futhi mhlawumbe nokukhuthazwa yimithombo yeTorah, kuyizimpawu zobuJuda namuhla. Kulokhu kufanele kwengezwe umlando ovamile kanye nohlu lozalo. Kuyiqiniso futhi yilokhu kuphela okuphawula amaJuda esikhathini sethu (nakuba kungebona bonke). Uma kunjalo, ngokombono wabo ubunikazi bezwe bubuye buwuhlobo lweqiniso, njengoba nje endleleni ye-metaphysical, ngaphandle kokuthi lapha kuyiqiniso elingokwengqondo-lomlando hhayi iqiniso le-metaphysical.

Kuphakama imibuzo emibili maqondana nendlela ye-conventionalist:

  • Kungamuphi umqondo lobu bunikazi besizwe buhlanganisa ukuqhubeka kokubonakala kwabo kwangaphambili? Uma nje ubuwena obucatshangelwayo buyisisekelo sokuqhubeka, ngakho akwanele. Kufanele siqale sichaze iqembu bese kuphela lapho singabuza ukuthi yiziphi izici zalo. Kodwa inqobo nje uma izici zingekho silichaza kanjani iqembu? Lona umbuzo ohlala ungenayo isixazululo esanelisayo, futhi angeke kube khona isisombululo esanelisayo sawo esithombeni esivumelane ngaso. Njengoba kushiwo, nabaphathi bezikhundla ezibalulekile abanaso isixazululo kulo mbuzo, ngaphandle kokuthi abakhathazwa nhlobo yikho.
  • Ingabe lezi zincazelo "ziyawenza umsebenzi" ngempela? Phela, lezi zincazelo azikwazi ukumelana nanoma yikuphi ukuhlolwa okubucayi. Cabanga ngezilungiselelo ezisikiselwe ngenhla. Ukukhuluma ngolimi lwesiHeberu ngokuqinisekile akuwahlukanisi amaJuda, futhi ngakolunye uhlangothi kunamaJuda amaningi angasazi isiHeberu. Ngisho nokuxhumana neBhayibheli akufani nalokho (ubuKristu buxhumene ngokujule kakhulu nalo, futhi amaJuda amaningi awaxhumene nhlobo nalo). Ukukhokhwa kwezintela nomsebenzi wezempi ngokuqinisekile akuwabonakalisi amaJuda (amaDruze, ama-Arabhu, izisebenzi ezifudukayo nezinye izakhamuzi ezingewona amaJuda akwenza kahle lokhu). Kunalokho, kunamaJuda ambalwa alungile angakwenzi, futhi akekho noyedwa ongabaza ubuJuda bawo. U-Amos Oz neBhayibheli afundwa emhlabeni wonke, ngisho noma engekho ngolimi lokuqala. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ingabe izincwadi ezilotshwe ePoland ezihlobene neBhayibheli nazo zingamaJuda? Manje yini esele?

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela lapha ukuthi zikhona ngempela izici zomlingiswa wamaJuda, njengoba kungashiwo ngomlingiswa ohlangene wezinye izizwe eziningi. Kodwa izici zomlingiswa azifani ngokobuzwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuze kukhulunywe ngophawu lomlingiswa kufanele aqale achaze iqembu aphiwe lona. Phela, baningi abantu emhlabeni abaphiwe isimilo esingawela ngaphansi kwencazelo yesimilo samaJuda, nokho akekho ozothi bangamaJuda. Kuphela ngemva kokwazi ukuthi ubani umJuda, lapho singabheka iqembu lamaJuda futhi sibuze ukuthi zikhona yini izici zomlingiswa eziwabonakalisayo. Kukhona nomlando wamaJuda kanye nemvelaphi efanayo, kodwa lawa amaqiniso nje. Kunzima ukubona ukubaluleka kukho konke lokhu, futhi akucaci ukuthi kungani konke lokhu kubhekwa njengenkinga ekhona futhi njengento edinga incazelo. Eqinisweni kuyiqiniso ukuthi amaJuda amaningi anomsuka nomlando ofanayo ngandlela thize. Manje? Ingabe ikhona indawo yesimangalo esivela kumuntu ukuthi abe ngumJuda, ngomqondo wozalo nomlando? Uma enjalo kusho ukuthi unjalo, futhi uma kungenjalo ngeke.

Uma kunjalo, ngisho noma sivuleleke kakhulu futhi sivumelana nezimo, kusenzima ukukhomba umunwe esimeni esibukhali sokuthi ubani ongumJuda wesizwe ngomqondo wenani endleleni yokuvumelana. Mhlawumbe kufanele sisebenzise indlela eyamukelwe ekuxilongweni kwengqondo (futhi ngezinye izikhathi nezokwelapha), ngokusho ukuthi ukuba khona kwenani elithile lezimpawu ohlwini olunikeziwe kwakuyohlanganisa incazelo egculisayo yobuJuda? Njengoba ngibonisile ngenhla, kunzima ukubona lokhu njengenqubo egculisayo. Ingabe ukhona kithi onganikeza uhlu olunjalo? Ngabe ukhona phakathi kwethu ongachaza ukuthi kungani isithupha salolu hlu lwezimfanelo sidingeka, kunesikhombisa noma ezinhlanu? Futhi ngaphezu kwakho konke, ingabe lesi simiso siyophumelela ngempela ekuhlukaniseni amaJuda nabangemaJuda ngendlela ekholekayo? Ngokusobala akunjalo (bona izibonelo ngenhla).

Ngenxa yalesi simo esiyinkinga, abaningi abavamile babuyela lapha ezindaweni ze-halakhic genetics, okusho ukuthi nabo bafuna ubuJuda kumama. Abanye bazoyiphanyeka ekwazisweni komuntu: umJuda yilowo ozizwa futhi azisho ukuthi ungumJuda.[7] Ukuzungeza okwakhelwe ngaphakathi nokungabi nalutho kwale ncazelo akubakhathazi ngempela abavamile. Izivumelwano zikulungele ukwamukela noma yimuphi umhlangano, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi oyisiyingi noma ongenanjongo noma nini. Ukuba semthethweni kwayo kungenxa yokuthi bavumelana ngakho. Kodwa kulindeleke ukuthi umphakathi ozicabangela wona uzimisele ukusekela ubuwena emicabangweni. Ngaphezu kwazo zonke lezi zimpikiswano, kusengamaqiniso noma izimpikiswano eziyize, ezingachazi neze ukushuba kwesimo kule ndaba.

URabi Shach enkulumweni yakhe ecashunwe ngenhla uhlasela incazelo yobuntu bamaJuda, futhi ukwenza lokho ngokwemibandela ye-halakhic. Iveza ngokuyisisekelo uhlobo lwesikhundla esibalulekile, kodwa hhayi ngempela imetaphysical (ubunikazi bezwe mayelana nokuzibophezela kumanani athile). I-Wikipedia 'Inkulumo Yonogwaja Nezingulube' ichaza ukusabela kukaRebbe waseLubavitch enkulumweni yonogwaja bakaRabi Shach kanje:

I-Lubavitcher Rebbe', Indawo yokudlela yasePlugata KaRabi uShaki iminyaka eminingi, waphendula inkulumo ngeyakhe inkulumo, ayethula kuyoisabatha Ngemva kwalokho ku-beit midrash yakhe. URebbe wathi akekho ovunyelwe ukukhuluma ngokumelene nabantu abangamaJuda. Umbono wamaJuda uthi “u-Israyeli, nakuba isono sika-Israyeli siyi,” abantwana bakwa-Israyeli “bayindodana yodwa” ka-Israyeli IzExpress Futhi lowo okhuluma ekulahlweni, njengalowo okhuluma ekwahlulelweni kukaNkulunkulu. Wonke umJuda kumele asizwe ukuze agcine yonke into Imiyalo Inkolo, kodwa ungalokothi uyihlasele. I-Rebbe ichaza abantu besikhathi sakhe ngokuthi "i-Udim shaded by fire", futhi "Izingane ezithunjiwe", Ukuthi akufanele basolwe ngolwazi lwabo nesimo sengqondo ngenkolo yobuJuda.

Lesi isibonelo sokusabela okuvela ohlotsheni lwe-metaphysical. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, owayengumongameli wangaleso sikhathi, uHaim Herzog, wazwakalisa ukusabela okwejwayelekile emazwini kaRabi Shach, lapho ezibuza ukuthi ubuJuda bama-kibbutznik amaKubilnik nozankosi abasungula umbuso futhi bakhonza ebuthweni ngokuzinikela okukhulu babungaba kanjani. kubuzwa. Pho ulungiselelani uRabi Shach? Akayamukeli imetaphysics, futhi akazimisele ukuba umuntu ovamile. Ingabe ikhona inketho yesithathu?

Ingabe imiqondo engachazeki ayikho?

Isiphetho esisobala siwukuthi umqondo wobuzwe bamaJuda awunakuchazwa. Yebo kungenzeka ukunikeza izincazelo ezihlukene, ngayinye ngokwezinga lakhe lokusungula, kodwa ngokuqinisekile akunakwenzeka ukuvumelana ngencazelo, futhi okungenani emaqenjini amaningi abonakala engabashiyi ngaphandle labo abangahlangabezani nencazelo yabo. wonke u-Israyeli (inqobo nje uma unina engumJuda). Ingabe lokhu kusho ukuthi ubuntu obunjalo buwumcabango ngempela, okusho ukuthi ubuJuda abukho ngempela? Ingabe ukuphela kwenketho ye-metaphysics noma i-halakhic formalism ukulandisa? Angiqiniseki.

Lo mbuzo usiyisa ezindaweni zefilosofi ukuthi akukho ndawo yokungena lapha, ngakho ngizozama nje ukuthinta kafushane. Sisebenzisa amagama amaningi angacacile, njengobuciko, ukuhluzeka kwengqondo, isayensi, intando yeningi nokunye. Nokho njengoba sisondela ukuchaza umqondo onjalo sihlangabezana nezinkinga ezifana nalezi ezichazwe lapha. Abaningi baphetha ngalokhu ngokuthi le mibono iwumcabango nje, futhi baze bakhele eduze kwayo isigodlo esihle sesimanje sesimanje (ukuxhumana okungokomqondo noRabi Shagar akulona iphutha). Isibonelo esicacile salokhu yincwadi kaGideon Ofrat, Incazelo yobuciko, Ubani onikeza izincazelo eziningi ezahlukene zomqondo wobuciko futhi uyazenqaba, kuze kube yilapho efika esiphethweni sokuthi ubuciko yilokho okuboniswa kumnyuziyamu (!). Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uRobert M. Piersig, encwadini yakhe yehlelo I-Zen kanye nobuciko bokulungisa izithuthuthu, Ichaza uhambo oluyisingathekiso lukasolwazi wezikhulumi ogama lakhe lingu-Phydros, ophishekela ukuchaza umqondo wekhwalithi. Ngesinye isikhathi uthola ukukhanyiselwa, ephetha ngokuthi ifilosofi yamaGreki isibangele inkohliso yokuthi wonke umqondo kufanele ube nencazelo, futhi umqondo ngaphandle kwencazelo awukho nje (uyacatshangelwa). Kodwa umqondo ofana nekhwalithi cishe awunakuchazwa, kodwa nokho uyenqaba ukwamukela isiphetho sokuthi umqondo ongenakho okuqukethwe kwangempela. Umhlangano nje. Kuyacaca ukuthi kukhona ukuxhumana kwekhwalithi futhi kukhona okungakwenzi. Ngezinga elifanayo, kunemisebenzi yobuciko futhi kunemisebenzi yobuciko obumpofu. Isiphetho siwukuthi imiqondo efana nekhwalithi, noma ubuciko, nakuba kunzima futhi mhlawumbe kungenakwenzeka ukuyichaza, isekhona. Akuzona ngempela ezicatshangelwayo.

Kubonakala sengathi isimangalo esifanayo singenziwa futhi endabeni yobunikazi besizwe. Umuntu angamukela ithisisi ebalulekile yokuthi kunobunikazi bezwe ngaphandle kwesidingo se-metaphysics. Ubunikazi bukazwelonke bunezici ezihlukile futhi kunzima ukunikeza incazelo yakho, futhi nokho lokhu akukona ngempela ukucabanga noma izimiso, futhi akuzona ngempela i-metaphysics. Kungaba umqondo wangempela we-amorphous onzima noma ongenakwenzeka ukuwuchaza. Kimina kubonakala sengathi incazelo eqinile efanayo ingaphansi komqondo kaRabi Shach (yize ephakamisa incazelo ye-halakhic, futhi engakwamukeli ukuthi kube nokwenzeka kwencazelo ehlukile kazwelonke). Uphikisa ngokuthi kunencazelo ebalulekile yobuJuda, ngisho nezimfuno zabantu ezisekelwe kukho. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, akayiboni i-metaphysics njengenye indlela eyanelisayo. Mina ngokwami ​​angithandi ukucabanga kanjalo. Ngaphandle kwe-metaphysics angiboni ukuthi umuntu angakhuluma kanjani ngenhlangano kazwelonke ngomqondo we-ontological. Kodwa kuyangicacela ukuthi baningi abangahambisani nami kulokhu.

Iziphetho

Kuze kube manje ifilosofi. Kodwa manje kuza umbuzo olandelayo: Kungani konke lokhu kubalulekile? Kungani kufanele sichaze, noma sizame ngisho nokuqonda, ubuJuda? Impendulo yami ithi akunandaba nhlobo. Ayikho imithelela yalo mbuzo, futhi ngokuvamile kuyindaba yokuhlaziya ubuhlakani (imvamisa inyumba, futhi mhlawumbe nokuqukethwe okungenalutho). Uma ngingenza isono ku-psychology yesihlalo se-armchair, ukufuna ubuwena bamaJuda kuwukubonakaliswa komqondo wokuzibophezela enkolweni yamaJuda kanye nomlando ngaphandle kokuzimisela ukukusebenzisa. Abantu bafuna ezinye izindlela zokubonisa ubuwena obake baba ngokwenkolo, ukuze bazizwe bengamaJuda ngemva kokuchithwa kobunikazi nokuzibophezela kwezenkolo. Ukuze kufezeke lokhu, kwakhiwa imibuzo emisha nemiqondo emisha, futhi kwenziwa umzamo omkhulu noyize ukuze kuhlaziywe.

Ngokubona kwami, ayikho indlela yokuxoxa ngengxoxo ehlakaniphile yobunikazi bamaJuda, futhi ngokuqinisekile ungafinyeleli izinqumo ngakho, nakho okungabalulekile ngempela. Uma kuyingqungquthela kungani niphikisana ngezivumelwano. Ngamunye uzosayina izivumelwano ezibonakala kuye. Uma kuyi-metaphysics, angiboni ukuthi kufinyeleleka kanjani engxoxweni nasengxoxweni. Futhi noma samukela umbono oqinile wobunikazi besizwe samaJuda (ngokungafani ne-halakhic), lokhu futhi akufinyeleleki ezincazelweni, ukuphikisana, futhi ngokuqinisekile akusona isinqumo okuvunyelwene ngaso. Lezi iziphakamiso ze-semantic, eziningi zazo ezingenasisekelo, kanti ezinye azinalutho nhlobo okuqukethwe, noma azikuvumeli ukuvivinywa kwanoma yikuphi ukucabangela. Ngaphezu kwalokho, njengoba ngike ngaphawula, konke lokhu akunakubaluleka okungokoqobo. Lena imizabalazo yabantu ngokwasemoyeni, futhi akukho okunye.

Le mpikiswano engadingekile nengabalulekile manje isisetshenziswa ngokuyinhloko ukuze kuhlatshwe omelene naye. Noma ngubani ofuna ukuthuthukisa imibono ye-socialist - usichazela sonke ukuthi ubuJuda bebulokhu bungama-socialist, futhi noma ubani ongenjalo akayena umJuda. Abanye abathanda imibono yezempi babuye babukise ngobuJuda nobuJuda. Kunjalo nangentando yeningi, ukulingana, ubunxiwankulu, inkululeko, ukuvuleleka, ukuphoqelela, isisa nomusa, ubulungiswa bezenhlalakahle, kanye nazo zonke ezinye izimiso eziphakeme. Kafushane, ubuJuda buwukukhanya kwabeZizwe, kodwa imvelo yalokho kukhanya ngokuyisisekelo ayinakuphikiswa futhi ayinakunquma. Ngokungafani nezinye izingxabano, ezingaba izindlela zokuzicacisa futhi ezingaba nenzuzo ethile kuyo, impikiswano ephathelene nokuthi ungubani ongumJuda empeleni ayixazululeki futhi ayibalulekile nganoma iyiphi indlela.

Into eyodwa ecacile ngokunengqondo: alukho lolu hlu lwamanani (i-socialism, impi, ubulungiswa bezenhlalakahle, ukulingana, inkululeko, njll.), nanoma yiliphi elinye inani, elingakha into ebalulekile, edingekayo noma eyanele encazelweni ye Ubunikazi bamaJuda. Noma ubani okholelwa kunoma iyiphi yalezi zindinganiso noma kunoma iyiphi inhlanganisela yazo angaba ngumuntu onobuhle kuyo yonke imibono futhi engenakuphikiswa. Awukho umgoqo wokuba i-socialist gentile, ukukhuthaza ukulingana noma inkululeko, impi noma cha. Ngakho-ke, zonke lezi akuzona izindlela ezifanele zobunikazi bamaJuda, noma ngabe kwenzeka okungakholakali (futhi ungesabi, cishe ngeke kwenzeke) futhi othile uzokwazi ukufakazela ngokwesiko lamaJuda nemithombo ukuthi enye yalezi ngempela iyingxenye ye Uhlelo lwalobu bunikazi.

UbuJuda esikhathini sethu

Isiphetho siwukuthi inkulumo-mpikiswano ngobuwena iyize futhi ayisizi ngalutho. Njengoba ngike ngasho, okufanayo kuyiqiniso mayelana nobunikazi benkolo. Noma ngubani ozelwe ngumama ongumJuda noma oguquke ngendlela efanele kumele agcine imiyalo yeTorah kanye namazwi ezazi futhi angenzi iziphambeko. yilokho kuphela. Izincazelo zomuntu, ubunikazi bakhe, kanye neminye imifino, kuyindaba ethintekayo, futhi ingase ibe ngokwengqondo, i-metaphysical, evamile, noma mhlawumbe i-amorphous (engachazeki) ebalulekile. Wonke amathuba angalunga, ngakho-ke akukho phuzu lokuxoxa ngawo.

Ake sicabangele ukuthi ungaba yini umphumela wengxoxo enjalo? Ukuthi othile uyozizwa enelisekile ngokuthi ungumJuda olungileyo? Ukuzizwa kahle kuyindaba yezazi zokusebenza kwengqondo. Izingxoxo mayelana nokuthi ungubani ngomqondo wenani azinalutho futhi azinalutho, ngakho-ke azidingeki. Uma kunikezwa umthelela ophathekayo esinentshisekelo yawo ekuchazeni ubuwena, kuyokwazike (mhlawumbe) ukuxoxisana ngemibuzo efanele ngakho. Kodwa inqobo nje uma kuyingxoxo evamile, wonke umuntu uzochaza ubuJuda bakhe ngendlela abafisa ngayo. Ngisho noma omunye elungile futhi omunye engalungile, lo mbuzo akufanele uthakazelise noma ubani, ngaphandle kwabacwaningi abambalwa bezemfundo abaziphilisa ngokuhlaziywa okunjalo kwe-semantic. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ngingubani mina ukuba ngiphazamise lo mzamo wobuqhawe noyize? I-Sisyphus futhi iyingxenye yobunikazi bethu bamasiko…[8]

[1] U-Eldad Beck waseJalimane, YNET, 1.2.2014.

[2] Inqubo yokungabi nankolo iphakamisa izindaba zokuthi ungubani ngokwenkolo (ingabe isho amaProthestani, amaMuslim, noma amaKhatholika, angokwenkolo?).

[3] Uma sibhekene nezincazelo, khona-ke imvelo ye-mitzvos okukhulunywa ngayo kanye nesisusa sokugcinwa kwayo kubaluleke kakhulu. Ngisho noma umthetho udinga ukuziphatha okuhle, akunakwenzeka ukuchaza ubuJuda ngalesi sisekelo njengoba kuvamile kubo bonke emhlabeni. Ngisho nama-mitzvot anjengokuhlaliswa kwe-Eretz Yisrael, okungezona ezokuziphatha, awakwazi ukuchaza ubuJuda obungokwenkolo, ngoba bukhona nakulabo abangazichazi njengengxenye yenkolo yamaJuda, ngoba ezimweni eziningi isisusa ngoba ubukhona bawo buvela endaweni eyodwa.

[4] Nakuba ukuguqulwa nakho kuyinqubo yona ngokwayo eyimpikiswano njengezinye izindaba eziningi ze-halakhic, kwanele izidingo zethu.

[5] Lokhu akuzange kuvimbele ukuthi le ncwadi ihunyushelwe ezilimini ezingamashumi amabili futhi iwine imiklomelo emhlabeni jikelele.

[6] Bheka, ucaphuna incwadi ka-Eldad Beck ecashunwe ngenhla.

[7] Ngokungcono kakhulu engikukhumbulayo, owayengumongameli wangaleso sikhathi, u-Haim Herzog, ekuphenduleni kwakhe inkulumo kanogwaja, kanye nabanye abaningi kuze kube namuhla, basho lesi "sisekelo." Noma ubani onokuzwela okunengqondo kancane uyamangala ngalesi senzakalo esithakazelisayo. Sifuna ukuchaza umqondo wamaJuda, futhi sikwenze ngale ndlela elandelayo: konke okungabekwa endaweni ka-X ngendlela elandelayo: "u-X owazizwa u-X" futhi incazelo iphuma iqiniso, ingeyamaJuda. Ngokwale ncazelo, noma yisiphi isidalwa esizaziyo esingaqambi amanga kuso singumJuda (hlola iqembu lokubeka).

[8] Kungenzeka ukuthi kufanele futhi siqonde isiphetho sikaGideon Ofrat esingenhla. Mhlawumbe akasho ukuthi abukho ubuciko, kodwa uphetha ngokuthi ukukhuluma ngakho akudingekile futhi akusizi ngalutho.

3 Imicabango mayelana "NobuJuda BamaJuda Esikhathini Sethu Futhi Ngokujwayelekile"

  1. Lapho uchaza umJuda njengomuntu ozicabangela njengomJuda, awusho lutho. Amagama asetshenziswe encazelweni kufanele ajwayeleke ngaphambi nangaphandle kwayo. Ngakho-ke uma sithatha ngokuthi igama elithi umJuda ngu-X futhi incazelo idinga ukulicacisa, khona-ke ngokuyisisekelo okushilo kule ncazelo ukuthi umJuda ungu-X ocabanga ukuthi ungu-X.

  2. angivumi. Ukuhlonza into engachazwanga nhlobo. E-Kabbalah kunencazelo yakho kokubili kwaphezulu nokucwebezela njll. Uma nje umuntu ekhuluma ngeTorah engacacile kusho incazelo engasho lutho. Ikhona impela incazelo. Kodwa ngeke ngimlethe manje. Okushoda ngencazelo kusho ukuthi awukho umgomo ohlanganisa wonke umuntu ukukhomba oyedwa. Ngakho-ke akukho ubunikazi obubodwa kubo bonke. Kukhona i-nafkamina yobunikazi bamaJuda. Ngoba lona kanye iqiniso lokuthi ngizibona ngingumJuda futhi angingabazi ukuthi ungubani umJuda. Kulokhu ngizixhuma kuye futhi lapho ngenza isenzo esithile futhi ngisichaza njengesenzo samaJuda, khona-ke ngithi umJuda, ingxenye yezindinganiso zakhe zobuJuda ukwenza lezi zenzo. Okungelona iqiniso ngempela ngoba ikati ngokwesibonelo liziphatha ngesizotha ngaphandle kokuba senkolweni yesizotha nokho-ke umuntu unamandla okuziphatha njengenja futhi adle phansi ngenxa yesifiso sokufeza enye inhloso. Nakuba indlela ayikhethile iphambene nemvelo.

    Uma umJuda ezibona ngempela njengomJuda omusha futhi ezihlukanisa nobuJuda, omunye, isibonelo, ngeke asebenzise uMthetho Wokubuya. Ikakhulukazi uma kwenziwa ngaphandle kwezikhungo zikahulumeni njengombuso wamaJuda. Kodwa lapho ukuxhumana kunqanyuliwe kubizwa ngokuthi ubulili futhi ngokomthetho wamaJuda kufanele kubangele ukufa okungaqondile.

    Ngakho uma sonke sizibona singamaJuda. Naphezu kokwehluka kodwa kunento eyodwa sonke esifana ngayo okuyiyona edala ukuthi singayilahli incazelo yethu yobuJuda. Futhi ukuzihlanganisa ngokwethu kuxhumene nawo wonke amaJuda emhlabeni. Lena akuyona incazelo engokomthetho ngoba namaJuda angawazi umthetho ayakuvuma lokho. Lena incazelo yendlela yokuphila efunwa yiwo wonke amaJuda. Lena incazelo ezwakalayo empilweni yakhe njengomJuda noma ngabe nje ufuna ukuqaphela le ncazelo. Kunoma yikuphi, iyisikhungo senani. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi uzama ukukubona noma ukuzama ukukuziba ngenkani. Ngoba lokho nakho kuyisimo sengqondo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, inani elingenabo ubudlelwano alikuphiki lokho angakucabangi nhlobo futhi alikuphathi izingxabano.

Shiya amazwana