Pa chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda m'nthawi yathu komanso ambiri

BSD

Maphunziro - 2014

“Mwadzidzi anadzuka m’bandakucha, nadziona ngati anthu, nayamba kuyenda;

Michael Avraham

Ngati pali ma kibbutzim omwe sadziwa kuti Yom Kippur ndi chiyani, samadziwa kuti Shabbat ndi chiyani ndipo samadziwa kuti chiyembekezo ndi chiyani. Akalulu ndi nkhumba zimawetedwa. Kodi ali ndi ubale ndi abambo awo?… Array? Array ndi chinthu chopatulika? Iwo adzidula okha ku zonse zakale ndipo akupempha Torah yatsopano. Ngati kulibe Shabbat ndipo palibe Yom Kippur, ndiye kuti ali Myuda ndani?

            (Zolankhula za Rabbi Shach za Akalulu, Yad Eliyahu, 1990)

Nkhaniyi inalembedwa m'masiku omwe zokambirana zambiri zikuphulika pakati pathu ndi Palestina, koma nthawi ino mafunso odziwika omwe adatsogolera ali pafupi kwambiri. Chifukwa chachikulu cha kuphulika kwa Israeli chinali kufuna kuzindikira Boma la Israeli ngati dziko lachiyuda. Kufuna uku kumakwaniritsidwa, mwa zina, ndi mikangano ya Palestina ndi zinthu zina, zomwe zimafuna kuti choyamba tifotokoze chomwe ndi Myuda m'maso mwathu tisanafune kwa ena. M'nkhaniyi, ena amatiwonetsa ife monga mbadwa za Khazars, motero kusokoneza mbiri yakale ya mbiri yachiyuda, ndiko kuti, kuti ndifedi kupitiriza kwachilengedwe kwa Ayuda akale omwe ankakhala kuno ku Dziko la Israel. Kumbali inayi, a Palestine amaperekanso mbiri yakale (mwinamwake yonyenga) ngati maziko a mikangano yawo. Ndinapeza chitsanzo chosangalatsa kwambiri m'nkhani ya Eldad Beck, yomwe ikufotokoza zokambirana pakati pa Mtumiki Tzipi Livni, yemwe amayang'anira zokambirana ndi Palestina m'malo mwa boma la Israeli, ndi Saib Erekat, yemwe amayang'anira zokambirana kumbali ya Palestina. :[1]

Mamembala a nthumwi zazikulu za Israeli ku msonkhano wa chitetezo ku Munich adadabwa usiku watha pamene membala wa gulu la Palestina, Saeb Erekat, adawombera Livni kuti iye ndi banja lake anali Akanani ndipo amakhala ku Yeriko zaka 3,000 (!?) Asanafike ku Bnei Israeli pansi pa utsogoleri wa Yoswa Ben Nuni. Pokambirana za ndondomeko yamtendere ku Middle East komwe awiriwa adatenga nawo mbali, Erekat anayamba kuyankhula za mbiri yakale ya mbali zonse ziwiri, Israeli ndi Palestine, ndipo adanena kuti Palestina ndi nthumwi yake ndi mbadwa za Akanani choncho ufulu wochuluka ku malo a Palestina kuposa Ayuda. Livni adayankha kuti Israeli ndi Palestina sayenera kufunsa kuti ndi nkhani iti yomwe ili yolungama, koma momwe angapangire tsogolo. “Sindimayang’ana mtendere m’njira yachikondi. Kusuliza sikuli kowopsa ngati kusazindikira. "Israel ikufuna mtendere chifukwa ikufuna."

Kupitilira mkangano wothandiza, pali lingaliro loti Livni akuyesera kupeŵa zokambirana zochititsa manyazizi chifukwa akuganiza kuti kudziwika kwa dziko ndi mtundu wankhani, chifukwa chake kukambiranako sikuli kofunikira. Palibe chabwino kapena cholakwika pano, chifukwa monga mwachizolowezi lerolino kuganiza kuti mtundu uliwonse umadzipangira okha ndipo palibe wina aliyense amene amaloledwa kutero. Ambiri anganene kuti ngakhale muzodziwika zachiyuda pali mabowo omwe amadzazidwa ndi nkhani zosiyanasiyana (ngakhale kuti mlingowo ndi wosiyana kwambiri ndi chitsanzo cha Palestina). Zonena za Golda, Ben-Zion Netanyahu ndi ena ambiri, kuti palibe chinthu ngati Palestine, zikumveka zachikale kwambiri masiku ano. Osati chifukwa cha zomwe zapezedwa m'mbiri, koma chifukwa chakuti anthu ndi mayiko ndi malingaliro omwe amangofotokozedwa ngati zenizeni.

Mafunso odziwika, mbiri yakale ndi chikhalidwe, amakana kutisiya. Iwo amaimirira ndi kutiukira mobwerezabwereza. Zikuwoneka kuti pafupifupi paliponse padziko lapansi pali mafunso okhudzana ndi kudziwika kwa dziko omwe amakhudza anthu monga momwe alili pakati pa Ayuda, komanso mu Israeli. Mikangano mwina ingapezeke ngati ndinu weniweni wa ku Belgian kapena ayi, koma makamaka ngati chida chomenyera otsutsa, kapena ngati gawo la chikondi cha gulu ladziko ladziko. Ndizovuta kuganiza kuti gulu kapena munthu akulimbana ndi funso loti akhale waku Belgian, kapena waku Libya, weniweni komanso wowona.

Ngati titenga mwachitsanzo umunthu wathu, palibe aliyense wa ife amene sakudziwa ngati ndine Mikayeli Abrahamu weniweni, ndipo ndine Mikayeli Abrahamu m'njira yotani? Kodi tanthauzo la Michael Abraham ndi lotani, ndipo ndimayankha? Chidziwitso chaumwini chimadziwikiratu ndipo sichifuna matanthauzo. N'chimodzimodzinso ndi kudziwika kwa banja. Munthu ali yense wa m’banja la Abrahamu ali wotero, ndipo ndi momwemo. Mafunso okhudzana ndi zofunikira ndi matanthauzidwe muzinthu izi akuwoneka ngati osasunthika. Ndimaona kuti m’mayiko ambiri ndi mmenenso zilili pankhani ya kudziwika kwa dziko. Iye ali pomwepo, ndipo ndi zimenezo. Ndiye ndi chiyani za iye, mu chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda, chomwe chimativutitsa ife kukhalapo? Kodi n’zotheka kukhala ndi makambitsirano olimbikitsa ndi anzeru pankhani imeneyi?

M'nkhaniyi ndiyesera kufotokoza zovuta za methodological zomwe zikukambidwa za kudziwika kwa Ayuda, ndikuwonetsa kusanthula kwanzeru komanso kusanthula kwapadera kumbali ina, nkhaniyo ndi matanthauzo ake. Chifukwa chake sindipita mwatsatanetsatane ndi ma nuances kuti ndisataye chithunzi chachikulu, ndikudzilola kuti ndigwiritse ntchito zomwe zimawoneka zomveka kwa ine popanda kufunikira kwa magwero enieni, Torah kapena lingaliro wamba. Kufunika kwanga pamutu, makamaka pazandale za mkangano wa Israeli-Palestine, sikunachitike pano chifukwa chazovuta koma kuwonetsa zonena zomwe zingabwere m'mawu anga. Ine sindikunena maganizo pano ponena za mkangano womwewo ndi momwe wathetsedwera.

Kukambitsirana kwa chikhalidwe ndi filosofi ndi zokambirana za halakhic-Torah

Lingaliro lalikulu pamutu wa zokambirana, kudziwika kwa Chiyuda, ndi losamveka. Zokambirana za izi zitha kuchitidwa mbali ziwiri: a. Chidziwitso cha dziko lachiyuda mu filosofi-mtundu-chikhalidwe. B. Chidziwitso cha Chiyuda mu lingaliro la Torah-halakhic (ambiri sadzavomereza konse lingaliro lakuti izi ndi zokambirana ziwiri zosiyana). Izi ndithudi zikugwirizana ndi funso (losabereka mwa lingaliro langa) ngati Chiyuda ndi chipembedzo kapena mtundu, zomwe ine sindidzakhudzanso apa. Izi sizongokambirana ziwiri zosiyana, koma zimalongosola njira ziwiri zosiyana zokambilana: kaya kuchititsa zokambiranazo m'maganizidwe ambiri kapena mu dongosolo la halakhic-Torah.

Kaŵirikaŵiri, zipembedzo n’zosavuta kuzifotokoza kusiyana ndi maiko. Izi zili choncho chifukwa zikhulupiriro zachipembedzo zimachokera pazikhalidwe ndi zikhalidwe zogawana, makamaka pa zochita ndi zikhulupiriro zodzipereka (ngakhale ndi matanthauzidwe osiyanasiyana. Palibe m'moyo chomwe chili chophweka).[2] Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, kudziwika kwa dziko ndi lingaliro la amorphous, ndipo limachokera ku mbiri yakale, gawo, chikhalidwe, chipembedzo, chinenero, makhalidwe ena ndi zina, kapena zosakaniza zina zonsezi. Nthawi zambiri chizindikiritso cha dziko sichikhudzana ndi mfundo zodziwika bwino zamaganizidwe kapena zogwira ntchito, komanso sizigwirizana ndi mfundo za anthu enaake. Koma chikhalidwe, chinenero, makhalidwe a maganizo a mtundu wina kapena umzake, ndizosiyana komanso zosamvetsetseka, ndipo nthawi zambiri zimatha kugawidwa ndi mayiko ena. Kuphatikiza apo, zina mwamakhalidwewa zimasiyana, ndipo munthu kapena kampani imatha kutenga kapena kusiya zina mwazo. Ndiye ndi iti mwa izi yomwe ili yofunikira pakuzindikiritsa dziko?

Izi ndizochitikanso m'mawu achiyuda. Nkosavuta kufotokoza za chipembedzo chachiyuda. Amene ali ndi udindo wosunga mitzvos ali ndi chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda. Kodi mitzvos iyenera kuwonedwa bwanji? Ili ndi funso lovuta kwambiri, ndipo likukhala lovuta kwambiri m'badwo wathu wovuta, koma ndi funso lachiwiri. Kudzipereka kwenikweni kwa mitzvos ndi tanthauzo lokwanira pa zosowa zathu.[3] Komanso, mu nkhani ya halakhic funso lodziwika, ngakhale lachipembedzo, liribe kufunikira. Pali matanthauzo omveka bwino a halakhic okhudza mitundu yonse ya maudindo achipembedzo, kwa omwe amauzidwa ndi omwe amamangidwa. Mafunso okhudzana ndi zipembedzo sizimawuka mwachindunji mdziko lamalingaliro a Torah-halakhic.

Ngati ponena za kudziwika kwachipembedzo palibe kufunika kwa halakhic pa funsoli, ndiye kuti ndizosavuta komanso zakuthupi pokhudzana ndi funso la kudziwika kwa dziko. Kodi zotsatira za halakhic ndi zotani potsimikiza kuti gulu liri ndi chizindikiritso cha mtundu wachiyuda? Mu halakhah, funso la yemwe amasunga kapena osasunga mitzvos lili ndi tanthauzo, komanso makamaka funso la yemwe ayenera kapena sayenera kuisunga. Funso lodziwikiratu liribe yankho lomveka bwino la halakhic, ndipo liribe tanthauzo lenileni la halakhic palokha.

Kuchokera kumalingaliro a halakhic, Myuda ndi munthu amene anabadwa kwa mayi wachiyuda kapena wotembenuka molondola.[4] Uwu ndiye kudziwika kwake m'lingaliro la halakhic, ndipo zilibe kanthu zomwe akuchita, makamaka ngati amasunga kapena sasunga mitzvos. Halachically iye ndithudi ayenera kutsatira iwo, ndipo n'zotheka kukambirana ngati amene satero ndi chigawenga ndi zimene ayenera kuchitidwa kwa iye. Koma funso loti ndi ndani lilibe kanthu. Mawu ngati "anatuluka mu Israeli yense" nthawi zambiri amakhala ophiphiritsa, ndipo alibe tanthauzo lenileni mu halakhah. Ndipo ngakhale ali ndi tanthauzo lina, Halakhah imawafotokoza molingana ndi njira zake zaukadaulo.

National Identity: Kusiyanitsa Pakati pa Mgwirizano ndi Zadzidzidzi

Pakadali pano tathana ndi mafunso odziwika kuchokera kuchipembedzo cha halakhic. Kuchokera m’lingaliro lanthanthi wamba, chidwi chachikulu chiri pa kudziwika kwa dziko osati pa chipembedzo. Ndanena kale kuti kudziwika kwa dziko lonse ndi lingaliro losavuta komanso lovuta kufotokoza. Apa ndidzayang'ana makamaka pamitengo iwiri yonyanyira pokhudzana ndi tanthawuzo la kudziwika kwa dziko: njira yovomerezeka (yovomerezeka) ndi njira yofunikira (yofunikira).

Funso la utundu ndi kudziwika kwa dziko ndi funso latsopano komanso lamakono. Kale, pazifukwa zosiyanasiyana, anthu sankadzifunsa kuti mtundu wawo ndi wotani ndiponso mmene angaufotokozere. Dziko lapansi linali lokhazikika, anthu sanasinthe zambiri m'miyoyo yawo, ndipo sankayenera kuyang'anizana ndi kudziwika kwawo ndi zidziwitso zopikisana. Ndizokayikitsa ngati m'chidziwitso chawo munali lingaliro lapadera la kudziwika kwa dziko, ndipo ngakhale patakhala kusintha kwa umunthu umenewo adadza mwadzidzidzi komanso mwachibadwa komanso mosazindikira. Kudziwika kwa dziko kunali kwachibadwa, mofanana ndi umunthu waumwini ndi wabanja zomwe tazitchula pamwambapa. Chikhalidwe chachipembedzo chinachititsanso chidwi, popeza kuti anthu ambiri anali ndi zipembedzo. M’dziko lakale panali lingaliro lakuti ufumu ndi mphatso yochokera kwa Mulungu kwa iwo amene amabadwa kukhala mfumu, ndi momwemonso kudziwika kwathu kwa dziko ndi chipembedzo ndi kugwirizana nawo. Onsewa analengedwa ndi dziko lapansi m’masiku asanu ndi limodzi a Genesis, ndipo anatengedwa mopepuka ndi kutengedwa mopepuka.

M'nthawi yamakono, ndi kukwera kwa utundu ku Ulaya ndi padziko lonse lapansi, funsoli linayamba kuyandama mwamphamvu. Kuvuta kufotokoza kudziwika kwa dziko kwapereka mayankho omwe nthawi zambiri amakhala pakati pa mizati iwiri: yoyamba ndi mzati wamakono womwe umawona kudziwika kwa dziko ngati chinthu chozikidwa pa mgwirizano wosagwirizana. Kamodzi gulu limadziwona lokha ngati anthu, osachepera ngati litenga nthawi yochuluka, chifukwa ndiye kuti ndi anthu. Wolemba ndakatulo Amir Gilboa, mu 1953, pambuyo pa kukhazikitsidwa kwa boma, adalongosola motere: "Mwadzidzidzi munthu amadzuka m'mawa ndikumva kuti ndi anthu, ndipo amayamba kuyenda." Mzati ina ndi malingaliro owoneka bwino omwe amawona kudziwika kwa dziko ngati chinthu chachilengedwe komanso chokhazikika, monganso umunthu. Munthu akamadabwa zambiri za chikhalidwe cha "chilengedwe" chosowa, dziko, okondana nthawi zina amabwera ku metaphysics. Malinga ndi njira izi, dziko limakhala ndi moyo wongopeka mwanjira ina, ngati lingaliro la Plato, ndipo anthu omwe amapanga mtunduwo akuphatikizidwa mgululi chifukwa cha kulumikizana kwawo ndi iwo. Hatchi iliyonse ili m'gulu la akavalo popanda kufunikira kufotokoza bwino lomwe hatchiyo. Iye wangokhala kavalo, ndipo ndi zimenezo. Momwemonso, waku Belgian aliyense ndi wa gulu la Belgian osapanga tanthauzo lililonse. Osati kokha chifukwa n'zovuta kufotokoza matanthauzo, koma chifukwa sikofunikira. Chidziwitso cha dziko ndi lingaliro lachilengedwe monga umunthu ndi banja.

Ndikofunikira kumvetsetsa kuti mawu a Amir Gilboa ofotokoza kudzutsidwa kwa dziko atha kulembedwanso mkati mwa lingaliro la substantive-metaphysical conception, koma apa kudzakhala kudzutsidwa kwachidziwitso, momwe chowonadi chofananira chomwe kale chinali chogona chimadutsa mu chikumbumtima cha anthu. . Zimadzutsa mwa iwo ndipo amafuna kuzizindikira muzochita, muzochitika zandale komanso zachikhalidwe. Mwadzidzidzi munthu amadzuka ndikumva zowona (zomwe zakhala zowona nthawi zonse) kuti ndi anthu, ndikuyamba kuyenda. Mu chikondi cha dziko kudzutsidwa munthu anauka m'lingaliro la kudzutsidwa chikomokere, mosiyana ndi lingaliro logwirizana limene iye ananyamuka kutanthauziridwa monga kukwera kuchokera pansi kuyamba kuguba. Mkangano uli ngati kukhazikitsidwa ndiko kudzutsidwa kapena kupanga.

National Identity: njira yogwirizana ndi mawu ake

Kumbali yogwirizana ya mapu aima oganiza ngati Benedict Anderson, m'buku lake lodziwika bwino Madera ongoyerekeza (1983), ndipo ena ambiri adatsatira. Izi zimakana kukhalapo kwa zinthu zofunika kwambiri zamaganizidwe monga dziko komanso kudziwika kwa dziko. Omwe ali ndi njira iyi amawona dziko ngati nthano zongopeka zomwe zimapangidwa ndikuwonetseredwa m'malingaliro amagulu ena m'mbiri yawo yonse (yomwe nthawi zambiri amagawana). Ndikofunika kumvetsetsa kuti izi sizikutanthauza kuti kudzutsidwa kumeneku sikoyenera, kapena kuti zofuna zake ndi zonena zake zikhoza kuchepetsedwa. ayi ndithu. Chidziwitso cha dziko chilipo ngati chowonadi chamalingaliro ndipo ndi chofunikira kwa anthu, motero ambiri amakhulupirira kuti chiyenera kulemekezedwa. Koma kwenikweni ndi chinthu chokhazikika. Kunola tanthauzo la njira imeneyi, wowerenga andikhululukire ngati ndipereka ndime zingapo pazochitika zamakono pano.

Chitsanzo chowonekera bwino cha njira yomwe ili ya sukulu yogwirizana ndi maganizo a Prof. Shlomo Zand. Zand ndi wolemba mbiri waku Tel Aviv University, yemwe m'mbuyomu anali wa Compass mabwalo ndipo ndi wa mabwalo akumanzere ku Israel. M'buku lake lotsutsana Kodi Ayuda anayambika liti ndipo anapangidwa bwanji? (Wrestling, 2008), Zand adasankha kusanthula chitsanzo chomwe chimatsutsa malingaliro a Benedict Anderson. Iye akuyesera kutsimikizira pamenepo kuti anthu achiyuda ndi gulu longoyerekeza. Ntchitoyi ndi yofuna kwambiri, chifukwa chilichonse chomwe tikuganiza pa udindo wa Anderson, ngati pali chitsanzo mu dziko (Western) lomwe likusiyana kwambiri ndi chiphunzitso chake ndi anthu achiyuda. Zowonadi, m'malingaliro anga (komanso m'malingaliro a ena ambiri) buku la Zand limapereka dzina loyipa ku kafukufuku wakale, ndipo makamaka limalepheretsa kusiyanitsa kofunikira komanso kofunikira pakati pa malingaliro ndi kafukufuku wamaphunziro.[5] Koma chomwe chimamulola kuti achite zonsezi ndi kusamveka bwino komwe kulipo pa lingaliro la kudziwika kwa dziko.

Ngati tipitirizabe ndi zochitika zamakono, chitsanzo chodziwika bwino kuchokera ku mtengo wina, womwe umatsimikizira bwino maganizo a Anderson, ndi anthu a Palestina. A Palestine ndi anthu omwe amakhala okhazikika pamalingaliro ongoyerekeza (omwe nthawi zina amaphatikiza zongopeka zenizeni, monga kukhala a Afilisti kapena Akanani a m'Baibulo, kapena zaka zakale)[6], Analengedwa pafupifupi popanda kanthu mu mbiri yakale.

Ndizomveka kunena apa tanthauzo lenileni la lingaliro logwirizana. Kumayambiriro kwa buku lake, Zand adapereka bukuli kuti: "Pokumbukira anthu okhala ku al-Sheikh Mu'anis omwe adasamutsidwa kutali komwe ndikukhala ndikugwira ntchito posachedwa." Liwulo ndi lofotokozera komanso lokhazikika, ndipo pamaso pake akuwoneka kuti sakuwona ngati vuto. Ngati zizindikiritso za dziko zili zongopeka, ndiye kuti chizindikiritso chimodzi chikukankhira chinzake. Imabwera ndipo imasowa. Iyi ndi njira ya dziko. Malinga ndi iye, izi ndi zowona zamaganizidwe osati zenizeni kapena zowona, ngakhale zowona za mbiri yakale. Iyi ndi mbali ina ya ndalama zovomerezeka zomwe zimawona zidziwitso za dziko ngati zongopeka.

Mapeto ake ndi akuti ngati chizindikiritso cha dziko chilidi mgwirizano wokhazikika, ndiye kuti ziganizo ziwiri (ngakhale siziri choncho) zotsika (ngakhale siziri choncho): 1. Mabungwe oterowo alibe ufulu weniweni. Mitundu ndi zolengedwa zopanda msana, zomwe zilibe moyo kunja kwa malingaliro a anthu. 2. Chidziwitso cha dziko ndi gawo lofunikira la kudziwika kwa anthu ambiri ndipo kwenikweni palibe chizindikiritso china cha dziko (kwenikweni chenicheni), kotero kuti ndi chizindikiritso chongoganizira sizikutanthauza kuti zonena ndi zonena za mabungwe oterowo zitha kukhala. kuchepetsedwa.

Mozizwitsa, eni ake ochepa a njirayi amalola kuti agwiritse ntchito kutsutsa chizindikiritso chimodzi (pankhani ya Zand, Israeli-Myuda) ndikuwaimba mlandu wosokoneza msonkhano wosagwirizana komanso wongoganizira, kudzipanga tokha kudziwa, komanso pa nthawi yomweyo kuchokera pamalingaliro omwewo. Kupanda nzeru kumakulitsidwanso chifukwa chakuti anthu achiyuda makamaka ndi chitsanzo chochepa kwambiri ndipo anthu a Palestina ndi chitsanzo chodziwika bwino cha dziko lomwe likuganiziridwa. Ndibwerezanso ndikugogomezera kuti sindikufuna pano kuti ndikambirane za mgwirizano woyenera ndi zomwe anthu amtundu woterewa amavomereza pa ndale, chifukwa ili ndi funso lokhazikika-mtengo-ndale. Apa ndimangochita ndi kufotokozera kwa mbiri yakale ndi chikhalidwe komanso kutsutsa kusagwirizana pazokambirana.

National Identity: Njira Yofunikira

Mpaka pano, ndayimilira ndi chikhalidwe cha chikhalidwe ndi zovuta zake. Mwina ndendende chifukwa cha zovuta izi, ena amatengera lingaliro la kudziwika kwa dziko kumalo a metaphysics. Kuwuka kwa dziko ku Ulaya, komanso kudzutsidwa kwa dziko lachiyuda komwe kunawonetsedwa mu gulu la Zionist ndipo kunakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi chikondi cha dziko la Ulaya. Magulu awa nthawi zambiri amawonetsa kuti kukonda dziko lapansi kumakhazikitsidwa pagulu linalake (anthu, fuko). Mawu opambanitsa a lingaliro limeneli amawonekera m’mawu achifasisti (mu Germany ya Hitler, Bismarck, ndi ena ambiri amene analipo patsogolo pawo, limodzinso ndi Garibaldi’s Italy ndi zina). Makhalidwe amenewa anasonyezedwa mu lingaliro la Torah la Rabbi Kook ndi ophunzira ake. Ameneŵa anatenga lingaliro lophiphiritsira limeneli, nalisandutsa kukhala maziko a chikhulupiriro cha Chiyuda. Kuwala kwachiyuda, mdima, kubisika, kukanidwa ndi kuponderezedwa, ngakhale zitakhala bwanji, ndizomwe zimatanthauzira Chiyuda cha munthu. Ukoma wa Israeli komanso chibadwa komanso chibadwa cha Myuda aliyense, zidakhala pafupifupi muyezo wokhazikika wa Chiyuda, makamaka pamene zikhalidwe zonse zamwambo (kusunga) zidasowa, kapena kusiya kukhala gawo logwirizana. "Knesset of Israel" yasintha kuchokera ku fanizo kukhala kufotokozera kwa ontological kwa lingaliro lachiyuda lophiphiritsira.

Ndikupereka pano njira yodalirika poyankha zomwe zimagwirizana, koma pazochitika za mbiri yakale zikuwonekeratu kuti lingaliro lachidziwitso (ngakhale silinali lodziwika nthawi zonse) lisanayambe kugwirizanitsa. M'mbuyomu, zakhala njira zodziwika bwino zomwe zakhala zikuchitika potengera njira zazikulu. Ngati njira yokhazikika imadziwika kwambiri ndi zamakono komanso kudzutsidwa kwa dziko, ndiye kuti chikhalidwe ndi gawo la "kutsutsa kwatsopano" komwe kumadziwika ndi malo otchedwa postmodernism.

Chododometsa choyambirira

Mpaka pano ndalongosola malingaliro awiri omwe amatsutsana. Kodi zimawombana kuti? Kodi pali kusiyana kotani pakati pawo? Ndikuganiza kuti pamlingo uwu tili modzidzimutsa. A priori omwe ali ndi njira yachiwiri, yofunikira, alibe kufunafuna tanthauzo la chizindikiritso cha dziko. Kupatula apo, malinga ndi iwo, aliyense amene ali ndi chiyanjano cha lingaliro la metaphysical (Knesset of Israel) ndi Myuda. Ngakhale mkangano wa kutembenuka timamva mobwerezabwereza za mkangano wa "Mbewu ya Israeli" monga maziko ofunira kuwongolera kwa kutembenuka mtima, ndipo n'zosadabwitsa kuti zimachokera makamaka kuchokera ku mabwalo pafupi ndi Rabbi Kook. Ndi metaphysics yomwe imatitanthauzira ife monga Ayuda, choncho ndife omasuka pakufunika kwa matanthauzo a pulogalamu. Kwa okonda zamatsenga, chizindikiritso cha Myuda ndi chowonadi chomwe sichimakhudzidwa ndi zomwe zili, zikhalidwe, kapena njira ina iliyonse. Zoonadi, amene ali ndi maganizo oterowo angakhulupirire kuti Myuda aliyense ayenera kutsatira mfundo ndi zikhulupiriro za Torah, koma izi ziribe kanthu kochita ndi tanthauzo lake monga Myuda ndi kudziwika kwake.

Zoonadi, ngakhale malinga ndi malingaliro azinthu zakuthupi-metaphysical, mikhalidwe yosiyana ya mtundu wachiyuda ikhoza kuperekedwa, koma m'malingaliro awo awa ndi mikhalidwe yokhazikika, ndiko kuti, sizofunikira kuti afotokoze mtunduwo. Ngakhale iwo amene samaziwona ali Ayuda chifukwa chokhala a m'malingaliro achiyuda ophiphiritsira. Ngakhale zili zosayembekezereka, funso lodziwikiratu ndi lachilendo kumalingaliro achikhalidwe.

Komano, anthu omwe ali ndi njira yodziwika bwino, omwe sakhulupirira chikondi chamatsenga, amafunikira matanthauzo ambiri, njira ndi mikhalidwe yomwe angaweruze kuti ndi ndani wadziko lino komanso yemwe sali. N’chifukwa chake akudzifunsa chifukwa chake ndife Ayuda. Ngati si metaphysics, ndiye chiyani? Koma okhazikika samapeza tanthauzo lomveka ngati limeneli, motero amafika pamalingaliro ongoyerekeza. Ambiri a iwo amatengera tanthauzo lomwe silikuwoneka ngati kupitiriza kwachilengedwe kwa kudziwika kwachiyuda monga momwe kunkachitidwira zaka zikwi zambiri tisanakhaleko. Kuwerenga mabuku a Amos Oz, kulankhula Chihebri, kutumikira msilikali ndi kupereka misonkho yabwino ku boma, kuzunzidwa mu Holocaust, ndipo mwinanso kudzozedwa ndi magwero a Torah, ndizo makhalidwe a Ayuda masiku ano. Izi ziyenera kuwonjezeredwa mbiri yakale ndi mibadwo. Ndizowona ndipo izi zokha ndizomwe zimadziwikiratu Ayuda munthawi yathu (ngakhale si onse). Ngati ndi choncho, m'malingaliro awo kudziwika kwa dziko ndi mtundu wa mfundo, monga momwe zimakhalira m'maganizo, kupatulapo kuti apa ndizochitika zamaganizo-mbiri osati zenizeni zenizeni.

Pali mafunso awiri okhudzana ndi njira yokhazikika:

  • Kodi kudziwika kwa mtundu umenewu kumatanthauza kupitirizabe kusonyezedwa m'mbuyomu? Ngati chizindikiritso chongoganizira chokha ndicho maziko a kupitiriza, ndiye kuti sikokwanira. Poyamba tiyenera kufotokozera gululo ndipo pokhapo tingafunse kuti makhalidwe ake ndi ati. Koma malinga ngati makhalidwe kulibe tingalifotokoze bwanji gulu? Ili ndi funso lomwe limakhalabe lopanda yankho logwira mtima, ndipo sipangakhale yankho lokhutiritsa pa chithunzi chogwirizana. Monga tafotokozera, ngakhale omwe ali ndi udindo wofunikira alibe yankho la funsoli, kupatula kuti sakudandaula konse.
  • Kodi matanthauzo awa "amagwiradi ntchito"? Kupatula apo, matanthauzo awa sangafanane ndi mayeso aliwonse ovuta. Ganizirani zokonda zomwe zaperekedwa pamwambapa. Kulankhula m’chinenero cha Chihebri ndithudi sikumasiyanitsa kwenikweni Ayuda, ndipo kumbali ina kuli Ayuda ambiri amene samalankhula Chihebri. Ngakhale kugwirizana kwa Baibulo sikuli kotere (Chikhristu ndi chogwirizana kwambiri ndi icho, ndipo Ayuda ambiri sali olumikizidwa konse). Kulipira misonkho ndi ntchito zankhondo sikudziwika kwenikweni kwa Ayuda (A Druze, Arabu, ogwira ntchito osamukira kumayiko ena ndi nzika zina zosakhala Ayuda amachita bwino izi). M'malo mwake, pali Ayuda abwino ochepa omwe satero, ndipo palibe amene amakayikira Chiyuda chawo. Amos Oz ndi Baibulo amaŵerengedwa padziko lonse lapansi, ngakhale ngati silili m’chinenero choyambirira. Kumbali ina, kodi mabuku olembedwa ku Poland ogwirizana ndi Baibulo alinso Achiyuda? Ndiye chatsalira chiyani?

Ndikofunikira kuzindikira apa kuti pali mikhalidwe yachiyuda, monga tinganene za gulu la anthu ena ambiri. Koma makhalidwe sali ofanana m’dziko lonselo. Komanso, kuti tiyankhule za khalidwe la munthu ayenera kufotokozera kaye gulu lomwe adapatsidwa. Pambuyo pake, pali anthu ambiri padziko lapansi omwe apatsidwa khalidwe lomwe lingagwe pansi pa tanthawuzo la chikhalidwe cha Chiyuda, komabe palibe amene anganene kuti ndi Ayuda. Pokhapokha titadziwa kuti Myuda ndi ndani, tingathe kuyang'ana gulu la Ayuda ndi kufunsa ngati pali makhalidwe omwe amawasiyanitsa. Palinso mbiri yachiyuda ndi chiyambi chimodzi, koma izi ndi zenizeni. Zimakhala zovuta kuwona phindu mu zonsezi, ndipo sizikudziwikiratu chifukwa chake zonsezi zimawoneka ngati vuto lomwe liripo komanso ngati chinthu chomwe chimafunika kutanthauzira. Ndizowona kuti Ayuda ambiri ali ndi chiyambi ndi mbiri imodzi mwanjira ina. Ndiye? Kodi pali malo oti munthu anene kuti ndi Myuda, m'lingaliro la mibadwo ndi mbiri yakale? Ngati ali chonchi ndiye kuti ali choncho, ndipo ngati sichoncho ndiye ayi.

Ngati ndi choncho, ngakhale titakhala otseguka kwambiri komanso osinthika, zimakhala zovuta kuloza chala pachiyeso chakuthwa kuti ndani ndi Myuda wadziko mumtengo wamtengo wapatali munjira yogwirizana. Mwina tiyenera kutengera njira yomwe imavomerezedwa muzofufuza zam'maganizo (ndipo nthawi zina zachipatala), molingana ndi momwe kupezeka kwa kuchuluka kwa mikhalidwe kuchokera pamndandanda womwe wapatsidwa kungapangitse tanthauzo lokhutiritsa la chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda? Monga ndawonetsera pamwambapa, ndizovuta kuwona izi ngati mulingo wokhutiritsa mwina. Kodi aliyense wa ife angapereke mndandanda wotero? Kodi aliyense wa ife angafotokoze chifukwa chake zisanu ndi chimodzi mwa mndandanda wa zikhumbozi ndizofunikira, osati zisanu ndi ziwiri kapena zisanu? Ndipo koposa zonse, kodi muyezo umenewu ukhozadi kusiyanitsa Ayuda ndi osakhala Ayuda m’njira yodalirika? Ayi ndithu (onani zitsanzo pamwambapa).

Chifukwa cha zovuta izi, ambiri mwa okhazikika amabwerera kuno kumalo a halakhic genetics, kutanthauza kuti nawonso akufunafuna chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda mwa mayi. Ena adzachipachika pa chidziwitso cha munthu: Myuda ndi amene amadzimva ndikudzitcha Myuda.[7] Kuzungulira kozungulira komanso kuperewera kwa tanthauzo ili sikuvutitsa anthu okhazikika. Mapangano ndi okonzeka kuvomereza msonkhano uliwonse, kaya wozungulira kapena wopanda tanthauzo nthawi iliyonse. Kutsimikizika kwake ndi chifukwa chakuti adagwirizana. Koma zikuyembekezeredwa kuti gulu longoyerekeza likhala lofunitsitsa kukhazikitsira chizindikiritso chake pazolinga zongoyerekeza. Kupitilira mikangano yonseyi, zikadali zenizeni kapena mikangano yopanda kanthu, zomwe sizimalongosola mikangano yomwe ilipo pankhaniyi.

Rabbi Shach m'mawu ake omwe ali pamwambawa akutsutsa tanthauzo lachiyuda, ndipo amatero m'mawu a halakhic. Imawonetsa mtundu wokhazikika, koma osati wongoganizira chabe (chidziwitso cha dziko malinga ndi kudzipereka kuzinthu zina). Wikipedia 'Kulankhula kwa Akalulu ndi Nkhumba' ikufotokoza zomwe Rebbe wa Lubavitch adalankhula ndi akalulu a Rabbi Shach motere:

The Lubavitcher Rebbe', Pulogalamu ya Plugata Za Rabbi Sach kwa zaka zambiri, adayankha mawuwo m'mawu ake omwe, omwe adaperekaSabata Pambuyo pake mu beit midrash yake. Rebbe ananena kuti palibe amene amaloledwa kulankhula zoipa kwa Ayuda. Lingaliro la Ayuda ndi lakuti “Israeli, ngakhale tchimo la Israeli lili,” ana a Israeli ndi “mwana mmodzi yekha” wa Audi Ndimo iemwe alankula m’ kuweruza kwatshi, monga iemwe alankula m’ kuweruza kwa Mulungu. Myuda aliyense ayenera kuthandizidwa kusunga chilichonse Malamulo Chipembedzo, koma osachiukira konse. Rebbe anatanthauzira anthu a m'nthawi yake kuti "Udim wodetsedwa ndi moto", ndi "Anagwidwa makanda", Kuti asakhale ndi mlandu pa chidziwitso chawo ndi malingaliro awo pa Chiyuda.

Ichi ndi chitsanzo cha zomwe zimachitika mumtundu wa metaphysical. Kumbali ina, pulezidenti panthawiyo, Haim Herzog, adayankha yankho lachizoloŵezi ku mawu a Rabbi Shach, pamene adadabwa momwe Chiyuda cha kibbutzniks cha Kubilniks ndi ma handcuffs omwe adayambitsa boma ndikugwira ntchito m'gulu lankhondo modzipereka kwambiri. anafunsa. Ndiye Rabbi Shach akukonzekera chiyani? Savomereza metaphysics, komanso sakufuna kukhala wokhazikika. Kodi pali njira yachitatu?

Kodi malingaliro osaneneka kulibe?

Chitsimikizo chodziwikiratu nchakuti lingaliro la chizindikiritso cha mtundu wachiyuda silingadziwike. Ndikotheka kupereka matanthauzo osiyanasiyana, aliyense malinga ndi luso lake lachidziwitso, koma sizingatheke kugwirizana pa tanthauzo, ndipo makamaka kwa magulu ambiri sakuwoneka kuti akupatula omwe sakukwaniritsa tanthauzo lawo. onse a Israeli (malinga amayi awo ali Myuda). Kodi zimenezi zikutanthauza kuti kuzindikirika koteroko kuli kongoyerekezera, kutanthauza kuti kusakhalako kwa Ayuda? Kodi njira yokhayo ya metaphysics kapena halakhic formalism ndiyo nkhani? Sindikudziwa.

Funsoli likutifikitsa ku madera a filosofi kuti palibe malo oti tilowe pano, choncho ndingoyesa kuwakhudza mwachidule. Timagwiritsa ntchito mawu ambiri osamveka bwino, monga zaluso, zolingalira, sayansi, demokalase ndi zina zambiri. Komabe pamene tikuyandikira kutanthauzira lingaliro lotere timakumana ndi zovuta zofanana ndi zomwe zafotokozedwa apa. Ambiri amalingalira kuchokera pa izi kuti malingaliro awa ndi ongoyerekeza, ndipo amamanga mozungulira nyumba yachifumu yokongola yaposachedwa (kulumikizana kwamalingaliro kwa Rabbi Shagar sikunangochitika mwangozi). Chitsanzo chomveka bwino cha izi ndi bukhu la Gideon Ofrat, Tanthauzo la luso, Yemwe amapereka matanthauzo ambiri osiyanasiyana a lingaliro la zojambulajambula ndikuzikana, mpaka pamapeto pake afika potsimikiza kuti zojambulajambula ndizo zomwe zikuwonetsedwa mu nyumba yosungiramo zinthu zakale (!). Kumbali ina, Robert M. Piersig, m’buku lake lachipembedzo Zen ndi luso lokonza njinga zamoto, Akufotokoza ulendo wophiphiritsa wa pulofesa wolankhula mawu wotchedwa Phydros, yemwe akufuna kufotokozera lingaliro la khalidwe. Panthawi ina amakumana ndi kuunika, pomaliza kuti filosofi yachi Greek yatipangitsa ife chinyengo chakuti lingaliro lirilonse liyenera kukhala ndi tanthauzo, ndipo lingaliro lopanda tanthawuzo silinakhalepo (likuganiziridwa). Koma lingaliro ngati khalidwe silingadziwike, komabe iye amakana kuvomereza kuti ndi lingaliro lomwe liribe zenizeni. Msonkhano wamba. Zikuwonekeratu kuti pali kulumikizana kwabwino ndipo pali ena omwe alibe. Momwemonso, pali ntchito zaluso ndipo palinso ntchito zaluso zopanda phindu. Mapeto ake ndi akuti malingaliro monga luso, kapena luso, ngakhale kuti ndizovuta komanso mwina zosatheka kutanthauzira, akadalipo. Sikuti amangoganiziridwa.

Zikuoneka kuti kudzinenera kofananako kungathenso kuchitidwa pa nkhani ya kudziwika kwa dziko. Munthu akhoza kuvomereza mfundo yofunika yakuti pali chizindikiritso cha dziko popanda kufunikira kwa metaphysics. Chidziwitso cha dziko chimakhala ndi mikhalidwe yosiyana ndipo ndizovuta kupereka tanthauzo lake, komabe sizongoganizira zamalingaliro kapena mikangano, komanso sizokhudza metaphysics. Ikhoza kukhala lingaliro lenileni la amorphous lomwe ndi lovuta kapena losatheka kufotokoza. Zikuwoneka kwa ine kuti kutanthauzira kofananirako kumatengera lingaliro la Rabbi Shach (ngakhale akupereka tanthauzo la halakhic, ndipo savomereza kuthekera kwa tanthauzo lina la dziko). Akunena kuti pali tanthauzo lofunikira la chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda, komanso zofunidwa kuchokera kwa anthu omwe amadzinenera. Kumbali ina, sawona metaphysics ngati njira yokhutiritsa. Ine ndekha, sindimakonda kuganiza choncho. Popanda metaphysics sindikuwona momwe munthu angayankhulire za dziko mu lingaliro la ontological. Koma zikuonekeratu kwa ine kuti ambiri sagwirizana nane pankhaniyi.

Mapeto

Mpaka pano filosofi. Koma tsopano pakubwera funso lotsatira: N’chifukwa chiyani zonsezi zili zofunika? Kodi nchifukwa ninji tiyenera kulongosola, kapena ngakhale kuyesa kumvetsetsa, chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda? Yankho langa ndiloti zilibe kanthu. Palibe tanthauzo pafunsoli, ndipo nthawi zambiri ndi nkhani yosanthula mwanzeru (nthawi zambiri osabereka, mwinanso opanda kanthu). Ngati ndingathe kuchimwa mu psychology ya mpando wa armchair, kufunafuna chizindikiritso cha Chiyuda ndi chisonyezero cha kudzipereka ku chipembedzo chachiyuda ndi mbiri yakale popanda kukhala wokonzeka kuziyika izo. Anthu akuyang'ana njira zina zachidziwitso chomwe kale chinali chachipembedzo, kuti athe kumva kuti ndi achiyuda pambuyo pa kukhetsedwa kwa chidziwitso ndi kudzipereka kwachipembedzo. Pachifukwa ichi, mafunso atsopano ndi malingaliro atsopano amapangidwa, ndipo khama lalikulu ndi lopanda phindu likuchitidwa kuti amvetse bwino.

M'malingaliro anga, palibe njira yolankhulirana mwanzeru zachidziwitso chachiyuda, ndipo ndithudi osafikira zisankho za izo, zomwe siziri zofunika kwenikweni. Ngati ndi msonkhano ndiye bwanji kukangana za mapangano. Aliyense adzasaina mapangano omwe amawonekera kwa iye. Ngati ndi metaphysics, sindikuwona momwe zimafikira kukangana ndi kukangana. Ndipo ngakhale titavomereza lingaliro lokhazikika la chizindikiritso cha mtundu wa Chiyuda (mosiyana ndi halakhic), izi sizingathekenso kutanthauzira, kutsutsana, ndipo osati pa chisankho chomwe chinagwirizana. Awa ndi malingaliro a semantic, ambiri omwe alibe maziko, ndipo ena alibe chilichonse, kapena samayima mayeso anzeru. Komanso, monga ndanenera, zonsezi zilibe tanthauzo lililonse. Izi ndizovuta zamaganizo za anthu ndi iwo eni, ndipo palibenso china.

Mtsutso wosafunika komanso wosafunikawu tsopano umagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka kumenya wotsutsa. Aliyense amene akufuna kulimbikitsa malingaliro a chikhalidwe cha anthu - amatifotokozera tonsefe kuti Chiyuda chakhala cha Socialist, ndipo aliyense amene sali wotero si Myuda. Ena amene ali ndi chidwi ndi malingaliro ankhondo amanyadiranso Chiyuda ndi chizindikiritso cha Ayuda. Momwemonso ndi demokalase, kufanana, capitalism, ufulu, kumasuka, kukakamiza, chikondi ndi kukoma mtima, chilungamo cha anthu, ndi zikhalidwe zina zonse zapamwamba. Mwachidule, Chiyuda ndi kuunika kwa Amitundu, koma chikhalidwe cha kuwalako nchosatsutsika komanso chosatsutsika. Mosiyana ndi mikangano ina, yomwe ingakhale njira zomvekera bwino ndiponso ingakhale ndi phindu linalake mmenemo, mkangano wokhudza dzina lachiyuda m’lingaliro lake sunathetsedwe ndipo ndi wosafunika kwenikweni.

Chinthu chimodzi ndi chomveka bwino: palibe mndandanda wazinthu izi (socialism, militarism, chikhalidwe cha anthu, kufanana, ufulu, ndi zina zotero), kapena mtengo wina uliwonse, ukhoza kukhala chinthu chofunikira, chofunikira kapena chokwanira pakutanthauzira Chidziwitso cha Chiyuda. Aliyense amene amakhulupirira zilizonse mwazinthu izi kapena kuphatikiza kulikonse akhoza kukhala wachifundo pamalingaliro onse komanso osatsutsika. Palibe choletsa kukhala wagulu la Socialist, kulimbikitsa kufanana kapena ufulu, wankhondo kapena ayi. Chifukwa chake, zonsezi sizoyenera kudziwa zachiyuda, ngakhale zosakhulupirira zitachitika (ndipo musaope, mwina sizichitika) ndipo wina azitha kutsimikizira kuchokera ku miyambo yachiyuda ndi magwero kuti chimodzi mwa izi ndi gawo la pulogalamu ya chizindikiro ichi.

Chidziwitso cha Chiyuda m'nthawi yathu ino

Chomaliza n’chakuti mkangano wokhudza anthu amene dziko lako ndi ndani n’chachabechabe ndipo n’ngopanda phindu. Monga ndanenera kale, zomwezo ndi zoona pokhudzana ndi kudziwika kwachipembedzo. Aliyense wobadwa kwa mayi wachiyuda kapena wotembenuka bwino ayenera kusunga malamulo a Taurat ndi mawu anzeru ndipo asachite zolakwa. ndichoncho. Tanthauzo la munthu, umunthu wake, ndi masamba ena, ndi nkhani yeniyeni, ndipo ikhoza kukhala yamaganizo, yamaganizo, yamaganizo, yachizolowezi, kapena mwinamwake amorphous (osadziŵika) ofunika. Zonse zomwe zingatheke zingakhale zolondola, choncho palibenso chifukwa chokambirana nawo.

Tiyeni tione zimene zingakhale zotsatira za kukambitsirana koteroko? Kodi wina angasangalale kuti ndi Myuda wabwino? Kumva bwino ndi nkhani ya akatswiri a zamaganizo. Zokambirana zokhuza kudziwika kuti ndi ndani mu tanthauzo lamtengo wapatali ndizosamveka komanso zopanda pake, motero sizofunikira. Ngati tanthauzo la konkire laperekedwa lomwe tikufuna kufotokozera kudziwika, ndiye kuti zidzatheka (mwina) kukambirana mafunso okhudzana ndi izo. Koma bola ngati ndi kukambirana wamba, aliyense adzalongosola Chiyuda chawo momwe akufunira. Ngakhale wina ali wolondola ndipo winayo ndi wolakwika, funsoli siliyenera kukondweretsa aliyense, kupatulapo ofufuza ochepa a maphunziro omwe amapeza ndalama kuchokera ku kafukufuku wa semantic wotere. Kumbali ina, ndine yani kuti ndisokoneze kuyesetsa kwaukali ndi kopanda pake kumeneku? Sisyphus ndi gawo la chikhalidwe chathu…[8]

[1] Eldad Beck waku Germany, YNET, 1.2.2014.

[2] Mchitidwe wachipembedzo umadzutsa nkhani za chipembedzo cha akatswiri (kodi zikutanthauza Chiprotestanti, Chisilamu, kapena Chikatolika, chachipembedzo?).

[3] Ngati tikulimbana ndi matanthauzo, ndiye kuti chikhalidwe cha mitzvos chomwe chikufunsidwa komanso zomwe zimachititsa kuti azitsatira ndizofunika kwambiri. Ngakhale ngati lamulo limafuna khalidwe la makhalidwe abwino, n’kosatheka kulongosola Chiyuda pamaziko ameneŵa popeza kuti n’chofala kwa onse padziko lapansi. Ngakhale mitzvot monga kukhazikika kwa Eretz Yisraeli, zomwe sizili zamakhalidwe abwino, sizingatanthauze mbiri yachipembedzo yachiyuda, popeza limapezekanso mwa iwo omwe sadzifotokoza kuti ndi gawo la chipembedzo cha Chiyuda, chifukwa nthawi zambiri chilimbikitsocho ndi pakuti kukhalapo kwawo kumachokera kumalo amodzi.

[4] Ngakhale kutembenuka kulinso njira yomwe imakhalanso yotsutsana ngati nkhani zina zambiri za halakhic, ndizokwanira pa zosowa zathu.

[5] Izi sizinalepheretse kuti bukuli limasuliridwe m'zilankhulo makumi awiri ndikupambana mphoto padziko lonse lapansi.

[6] Onani, akumagwira mawu kalata ya Eldad Beck yogwidwa mawu pamwambapa.

[7] Ndikukumbukira kwanga, pulezidenti wa nthawiyo, Haim Herzog, poyankha mawu a kalulu, komanso ena ambiri mpaka lero, adatchula "chiyeso" ichi. Aliyense amene ali ndi chidziwitso chomveka bwino amadabwa ndi chodabwitsa ichi. Tikufuna kufotokozera lingaliro lachiyuda, ndikuchita izi motere: zonse zomwe zingathe kuikidwa m'malo mwa X m'mawonekedwe otsatirawa: "X amene anamva X" ndipo kufotokozera kumatuluka zoona, ndi Ayuda. Malinga ndi tanthauzo ili, cholengedwa chilichonse chodzizindikira chomwe sichidzinamiza ndi Myuda (onani gulu loyika).

[8] N'zotheka kuti tiyeneranso kumvetsa Gideon Ofrat pamwamba mapeto. Mwina sakunena kuti kulibe luso, koma amangomaliza kuti kukambiranako sikuli kofunikira komanso kopanda phindu.

3 Malingaliro pa "Chidziwitso Chachiyuda M'nthawi Yathu ndi Zonse"

  1. Pamene ufotokoza Myuda ngati munthu amene amadziona ngati Myuda, sunanene kanthu. Mawu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito potanthauzira ayenera kukhala odziwika kale komanso popanda iwo. Ndiye ngati tilingalira kuti mawu akuti Myuda ndi X ndipo tanthauzo lake likufunika kumveketsa bwino, ndiye kuti zomwe mwanena mu tanthauzo lotere ndikuti Myuda ndi X yemwe amaganiza kuti ndi X.

  2. sindikuvomereza. Kuzindikira chinthu chomwe sichinafotokozedwe nkomwe. Mu Kabbalah pali tanthawuzo la zonse zaumulungu ndi zonyezimira ndi zina zotero. Malingana ngati munthu alankhula mu Torah yosamveka ndiye kuti ndi tanthauzo lopanda tanthauzo. Pali ndithudi tanthauzo. Koma sindimubweretsa tsopano. Zomwe zikusowa pakutanthauzira zikutanthauza kuti palibe mfundo yomwe imagwirizanitsa aliyense kuti adziwe chimodzi. Ndipo chifukwa chake palibe kudziwika kwa onse. Pali nafkamina yodziwika ndi Ayuda. Chifukwa chakuti ndimaona kuti ndine Myuda ndipo sindikukayikira kuti wina ndi Myuda. Mu izi ndimadzilumikiza ndekha kwa iye ndipo ndikachita chinthu china ndikuchifotokoza ngati mchitidwe wa Chiyuda, ndiye ndimati Myuda, gawo la zikhalidwe zake zachiyuda ndikuchita izi. Zomwe sizowona kwenikweni chifukwa mphaka mwachitsanzo amachita modzichepetsa popanda kukhala m'chipembedzo chaulemu komabe munthu amatha kuchita zinthu ngati galu ndikudyera pansi chifukwa chofuna kukwaniritsa cholinga china. Ngakhale njira yomwe adasankha ndi yotsutsana ndi chilengedwe.

    Ngati Myuda adziwonadi kuti ndi Myuda watsopano ndikudzipatula ku Chiyuda, winayo mwachitsanzo, sagwiritsa ntchito Lamulo la Kubwerera. Makamaka ngati zichitidwa kunja kwa mabungwe aboma ngati boma lachiyuda. Koma pamene kugwirizana kwachotsedwa ndiye kuti kumatchedwa kugonana ndipo malinga ndi lamulo lachiyuda kuyenera kuchititsa imfa yachindunji.

    Kotero ngati ife tonse tidziwona tokha ngati Ayuda. Ngakhale zili zosiyana ndiye pali chinthu chimodzi chomwe tonse timafanana chomwe chimatipangitsa kuti tisataye tanthauzo lathu lachiyuda. Ndipo kudziphatikiza tokha ndikolumikizana ndi Ayuda onse padziko lapansi. Ili si tanthauzo lalamulo chifukwa ngakhale Ayuda amene savomereza lamulolo amavomereza. Ili ndilo tanthauzo la moyo umene Ayuda onse amafuna. Ili ndi tanthawuzo lomwe limakhala ndi tanthauzo m'moyo wake ngati Myuda ngakhale atakhala kuti akufuna kuzindikira tanthauzoli. Mulimonsemo, ndilo likulu la mtengo. Kaya n’kuyesa kuzindikira kapena kunyalanyaza mokakamiza. Chifukwa nawonso ndi maganizo. Kumbali inayi, phindu lomwe alibe ubale silimakana zomwe samaganiza konse ndipo samayendetsa mikangano.

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