Mhinduro ndeye mitzvah?

Derech Chaim - XNUMX

BSD ARA XNUMX

Ramban mutsinhiro yake yeBhuku raDhuteronomi (kutanga kwechitsauko L) anotaura kuti kune mitzvah yekuita teshuva.[1] Iyi mitzvah inodzidzwa kubva mundima (ibid.): "NeSabata kuna Jehovha Mwari wenyu." Pane rumwe rutivi, Maimonides muMitemo Yokupfidza ( XNUMX:XNUMX, XNUMX ) anonyora kuti iyi ndima ivimbiso inobva kuna Mwari yokuti mugumo waIsraeri uchaita rupfidzo. Mutoo waMaimonides unewo mitzvah yokupfidza here?

הchinzvimbo (Mitzvah Shasad) nevamwe vakatoratidza kupokana kuri pachena panguva ino. Kune rimwe divi, bBhuku reMirairo (Mitzvah Ag) Maimonides anonyora kuti:

Ndiye akaraira kuti tireurure zvitadzo nezvakaipa zvatakatadza pamberi paMwari vanokwira vozvitaura nemhinduro.

Hapana murairo pano wekuita mhinduro. Nyaya yekureurura inotaurwa pano sechirevo chemitwah: kana munhu akareurura, anofanira kutaura kureurura nekureurura (uye zvese izvi nekuunzwa kwechibayiro). Chiito chaicho chekugadzira teshuva hachiratidzike se mitzvah pano (sepakuuraya, ani naani anoda kudya nyama anofanira kuuraya zviri pamutemo. Kuuraya kunotemerwa mitzvah, asi kudya nyama yega yega haisi mitzvah)[2].

Kubva pane izvi murume anogumisa Mufambisi wedzidzo (Mitzvah Shasad), kuti kana mutadzi akasadzoka, haana chirango zvachose chekusatendeuka (anorangwa chete mhosva yakapfuura). Anowedzera kuti kunyange akatendeuka akasareurura, haana kudzima mitzvah yakaitwa naDavidoi, sezvo iyi isiri mitzvah yakanaka (it is an ‘existential’ mitzvah, anozviita ane mubairo, asi ane mubairo. uyo anozvityora uye akasazviita haabvise chinhu).[3]

Pane rumwe rutivi, munhamba yemitzvos inotangira mitemo yokupfidza, Maimonides anonyora sezvinotevera:

Murayiro mumwe wakaitwa, uye ndewokuti mutadzi adzoke kubva kuchivi chake pamberi paMwari uye areurura.

Nokudaro mufananidzo unoratidzika wakasiyana unobuda. Munhu anenge atadza anorayirwa kuti atendeuke kubva pamabasa ake akaipa, uyezve anorayirwa kuti areurure. Pano mhinduro inoratidzwa seyakagadzirwa matzah, uye ine zvikamu zviviri: kuita mhinduro uye kureurura.[4] Izvi zvinopesana nezvatakaona mumashoko aMaimonides bBhuku reMirairo. Mutsanangudzo yomuitiro waMaimonides, nhungamiro dzakasiana dzakataurwa, uye muchiitiko chazvino havatsananguri chaizvoizvo pamusoro peiyi pokanidzano. Isu tichapa pano nzira yakasiyana, zvichienderana nekunzwisisa kwebasa re Bhuku reMirairo Uye kunzwisisa nyaya yemhinduro.

Sezvinogona kuonekwa munzvero yemidzi mina inotangira MaimonidesBhuku reMirairo Yake, Maimonides anoisa muchikwata chake chete mitzvos ine murayiro wakajeka muTorah. Mitzvot inodzidzwa kubva ku midrasha (ona ipapo pamudzi wechipiri), kana kubva kuna Sabra, kana kubva kuKnesset, haina kubatanidzwa mukoramu yedu. Kana zvakadaro, panogona kunge paine zvikwereti kubva kuDauriyta zvisina kutaurwa mukatiBhuku reMirairo. Mhedziso ndeyokuti chokwadi chokuti mitzvah haioneki ipapo hazvirevi hazvo kuti haisi mitzvah.[5]

Pane murairo wakajeka here muTorah maererano nemurairo wekutendeuka? Taona pamusoro apa, kuti maererano naMaimonides ndima yokuti “neSabata kuna Jehovha Mwari wako” ivimbiso kwete murayiro. Zvakadaro, bRuoko rune simba Maimonides anounza basa rokupfidza sebasa rakakwana. Mhinduro pane izvi ndeyekuti kunyange paine mhosva, inobva kune sabra uye kwete bhaibheri, saka haioneki mu.Safamatz. Mukusiyana, bRuoko rune simba Maimonides anounza mabasa edu ose halakhic, angava anobva muTorah, kubva pakati pemidrasha, kana kuti kubva kuDurban kana kuti tsika, uye naizvozvo musengwa wokupfidza unoonekawo ipapo.

Takawana kuti maererano naMaimonides musengwa wokuita mhinduro wakavakirwa pana Sabra. Kana paine mugero watakasikirwa naMwari kuti tidzokere kwairi nokuregerera zvivi zvedu, zvino zviri nyore kubva kuSabra tinofanira kuishandisa (ona Midrash inoonekwa muBrish. Shaarei Teshuvah kuna R.I., nezvepasi pevhu pakakwasva mutirongo, panofanira kubuda musungwa mumwe nomumwe.

Ichi ndichowo chikonzero nei muTeshuvah, Maimonides kwete kungonyora mitemo chete, asiwo inotsanangura nzira yeTeshuvah, uye inodzokorora kunaka kweBaal Teshuvah (ona Ibid. F) iyo inokonzera mukana uye chisungo chekuita mhinduro. . Hatiwani rudzi urwu rwekunyora mune mamwe mafaera ehalachic aMaimonides. Zvinoitika kuti zvese izvi zvakaitirwa kutiratidza kuti mhinduro inofanira kuitwa, uye kuti inogona kuitwa. Chikonzero nei Maimonides mubhuku rake halakhic achiedza kutinyengetedza kuita mitzvah, ndechokuti hapana murairo mumitzvah (= mhinduro). Hwaro hwayo huri muSabra, uye naizvozvo Maimonides anofanira kutipwisa kuti kunyanguvezvo kunosungirwa kuita kudaro, uye uyu hausati uri mumwe wemirayiro inokosha zvikurusa (uye ona. Lacham PG HG, uyo akanyora kuti uyo asina kutendeuka muchiito achamhan’arirwa nokuda kwacho, uye nhamo chitadzo pachacho. Kusiyana nemashoko emuchinzvimbo Zviri pamusoro apa kuti kusapindura zvirokwazvo haisi mhosva. Uye pamwe pane kupatsanurwa pakati pekuita uye kwese kwegore).

Mumicheto yekutaura kwedu tinocherekedza kuti kazhinji kushaikwa kwemirairo ine chekuita nemabasa e halakhic imhaka yekuti haina kukosha zvakakwana kuti ibatanidzwe mu halakhic dauriyta. Asi kune mitzvot iyo kushaikwa kwemurairo kunokonzerwa chaizvo nekuwanda kwekukosha kwayo nekunyatsoita. Mumitemo inova nheyo mubasa raGd, Torah inongwarira kuti isatiraira, kuti tiite saizvozvo kunze kwe iteruta deltata.

Rabhi mutsamba dzake anonyora nheyo yakafanana ine chokuita nebasa rokunaka. Anojekesa ipapo kuti muzvinhu zvinokosha mubasa raMwari pfungwa yokutanga yokuti uyo asingarayiri uye kuita mukuru inotsigirwa. Nokuda kwechikonzero ichi murayiro hauna kutirayira pamusoro pazvo.[6] Basa rekupindura muenzaniso mukuru weizvi.

Baba naMambo wedu tadzoka mukutendeuka kwakazara pamberi penyu.

Ndinoshuvira Beit Yeshiva yose, Rosh Yeshiva Shlita, vashandi vakazvipira, vadzidzi vose vanodikanwa nemhuri dzavo muBeit Yisraeli yose, kunyora kwakanaka uye kusaina mubhuku reTzaddiks. Ngarive gore rekubudirira nekuzorora kutsvene. Gore rehutano (kunyanya kumukomana anodiwa Israel Yosef ben Ruth ben Tolila uye nesu tose). Gore reAria pamurayiro nebasa, uye kubudirira pamabasa edu ose.

[1] Uye iye bhupenyu hwevanhu,uyeShaarei Teshuvah R.I.

[2] Kunyangwe iyo GRIP mukududzirwa kwake kuBhuku reMirairo YaRasg, inotsanangura kuti nzira yeRasg ine mitzvah yekudya nyama kana mamiriro edu ezvinhu akanaka, iyo inodzidzwa kubva mundima: Asi iyi inzira yakasiyana, uye zvechokwadi mutemo wekuuraya uripowo mumamiriro ezvinhu apo munhu anongoda kudya nyama, kunyange kana muganhu wayo usina kupamhama uye pasina mitzvah mukuidya.

[3] Muono wake wakapfava: kana zvirokwazvo kutendeuka pasina kureurura kwaiva chivi, ndiko kuti, kukanzurwa kwaita, nokuti zvino mugariro wouyo akatadza ndokuita kupfidza asingareururi wakaipa kupfuura uyo akatadza uye asina kutendeuka zvachose. Izvi hazvigoneke hazvo.

[4] Kune mienzaniso mizhinji yemitzvos inosanganisira mamwe mashoko. Semuenzaniso, murairo wemarudzi mana, kana murairo wemuchekechera (chiedza chebhuruu nechena). Ona pamusoro peizvi mumudzi XNUMX waMaimonides.

[5] Vamwe nokudaro vakatsanangura kusavapo kwe<em>mitzvah yaYishuv Ai kubva munhamba ye<em>mitzvos, kunyange zvazvo kune humwe ufakazi hwokuti Maimonides anobvumawo kuti iyi i<em>mitzvah inobva muTorah.

[6] Onawo zvinyorwa "Mupiro uye Challah: Pakati peMirairo uye Kuda kwaMwari", Masikati Kaz (uye ipapo ndakasiyanisa pakati pemhando mbiri dzemitzvos dzakadaro).

Siya mhinduro