Pamusoro pekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha munguva yedu uye mune zvese

BSD

Academics - 2014

“Pakarepo mumwe murume anomuka mangwanani onzwa sokuti vanhu, otanga kufamba”

Michael Avraham

Kana paine kibbutzim isingazive kuti Yom Kippur chii, hauzive kuti Shabbat chii uye hauzive kuti tariro chii. Tsuro nenguruve zvinopfuyiwa. Vane hukama nababa vavo here?… Array? Array chinhu chitsvene? Vakazvibvisa pane zvese zvekare uye vari kukumbira Torah itsva. Kana pasina Shabbat uye pasina Yom Kippur, saka ari muJudha munei?

            (Rabbi Shach's Speech of the Rabbits, Yad Eliyahu, 1990)

Ichi chinyorwa chakanyorwa chaizvo mumazuva apo nhaurirano dzakawanda dziri kuputika pakati pedu nevaPalestine, asi panguva ino mibvunzo yekuzivikanwa yakatungamirira kune iyo iri pedyo zvikuru nepamusoro. Chikonzero chikuru chekuputika kweIsrael kwaive kudiwa kwekuziva Nyika yeIsrael senyika yemaJuda. Chikumbiro ichi chinozadzikiswa, pakati pezvimwe zvinhu, nemakakatanwa ePalestine nezvimwe zvinhu, zvinoda kuti isu titange tatsanangura kuti ndiani uye ndiani muJudha mumaziso edu tisati tazvida kubva kune vamwe. Muchirevo chechinyorwa ichi, vamwe vanotipa isu sevazukuru veKhazars, nokudaro vachikanganisa huchokwadi hwenhoroondo yerondedzero yechiJudha, ndiko kuti, kuti isu tiri zvechokwadi kuenderera kwechisikigo kwemaJuda ekare aigara muno muNyika yeIsrael. Nekune rimwe divi, maPalestine vanopawo nhoroondo (yakati delusional) chiziviso chenyika sehwaro hwenharo dzavo. Ndakawana muenzaniso unonyanya kusekesa muchinyorwa chaEldad Beck, chinotsanangura nhaurirano pakati peGurukota Tzipi Livni, ari kutungamira nhaurirano nevaPalestine akamiririra hurumende yeIsrael, naSaib Erekat, ari kutungamira nhaurirano pamusangano. Palestine divi:[1]

Nhengo dzeboka guru reIsrael kumusangano wekuchengetedza muMunich dzakashamiswa nezuro manheru, apo nhengo yePalestine timu yekukurukurirana, Saeb Erekat, yakarova Livni kuti iye nemhuri yake vaiva vaKenani uye vaigara muJeriko makore 3,000 (!?) vachisvika muguta reIsrael vachitungamirirwa naJoshua Ben Nun. Panguva yenhaurirano pamusoro penzira yerunyararo kuMiddle East umo vaviri vakapinda, Erekat akatanga kutaura nezvenhoroondo dzakasiyana dzemapato ese, Israel nePalestine, uye akapokana kuti maPalestine nemumiriri wake vazukuru vevaKenani saka kodzero zhinji panyika yeParesitina kupfuura maJuda. Livni akapindura kuti Israeri nemaPalestine havafanire kubvunza kuti ndeipi rondedzero yakanyanya kunaka, asi nzira yekuvaka ramangwana. “Ini handitarise hurongwa hwerunyararo nenzira yerudo. Kutsoropodza hakuna ngozi kune kusaziva. "Israel inoda runyararo nekuti inofarira."

Kupfuura gakava rinoshanda, pane pfungwa yekuti Livni ari kuyedza kudzivirira nhaurirano inonyadzisa iyi nekuti anofunga kuti kuzivikanwa kwenyika imhando yerondedzero, uye saka nhaurirano pamusoro payo haina basa. Hapana chakarurama kana kuti chakaipa pano, nokuti setsika nhasi kufunga kuti rudzi rupi norupi runoumba chiziviso charwo pacharwo uye hapana mumwe munhu anobvumirwa kuita kudaro nokuda kwarwo. Vazhinji vachataura kuti kunyangwe mukuzivikanwa kwechiJudha kune maburi anozadzwa nerondedzero dzakasiyana (kunyangwe chipimo chemushonga chakasiyana kwazvo nemuenzaniso wePalestine). Zvinotaurwa naGolda, Ben-Zion Netanyahu nevamwe vazhinji, kuti hakuna chinhu chakadai sePalestine, zvinonzwika sechinyakare uye chekare nhasi. Kwete nekuda kwezvakaitika kare, asi nekuti vanhu uye nyika pfungwa dzinotsanangurwa chete de facto.

Mibvunzo yekuzivikanwa, nhoroondo uye tsika, ramba kutisiya. Vanomira vakareba vachitirwisa zvakare uyezve. Zvinoita sekuti hapana pese pasi pano mibvunzo yekuzivikanwa kwenyika inobatikana nevanhu sezviripo sepakati pemaJuda, uyezve muIsraeri zvakare. Nharo dzinogona kuwanikwa dzekuti iwe uri weBelgian chaiye here, asi zvakanyanya sechombo chekurova vanopikisa, kana sechikamu cherudo rwebato renyika-nyika. Zvakaoma kana kufungidzira boka kana munhu ari kunetsekana aripo nemubvunzo wekuve Belgian, kana Libyan, chaiye uye wechokwadi.

Tichitora semuenzaniso kuzivikanwa kwedu pachedu, hapana mumwe wedu asina kusarudza kuti ndiri Mikaeri Abrahama wechokwadi here, uye ndiri chii chandiri Mikaeri Abraham? Ndeipi tsanangudzo yaMichael Abraham, uye ndinoipindura here? Kuzivikanwa kwemunhu kunozviratidza uye hakudi tsananguro. Zvimwe chetezvo ndezvechokwadi nezvokuzivikanwa kwemhuri. Munhu wose wemhuri yaAbrahamu akaita saizvozvo, uye ndizvo zvazviri. Mibvunzo pamusoro pemaitiro uye tsananguro mumamiriro ezvinhu aya inoita seyakamisikidzwa. Ndinowana fungidziro yekuti munyika zhinji ndizvowo zvakadaro maererano nekuzivikanwa kwenyika. Ari ipapo, uye ndizvozvo. Saka chii pamusoro pake, mukuzivikanwa kwechiJudha, chinoramba chichitinetsa zvakadaro? Kunobvira here chose kuva nekurukurirano inovaka neine ungwaru pamusoro peiyi nhau?

Muchikamu chino ini ndichaedza kutsanangura matambudziko emethodological akabatanidzwa mukukurukurirana kwekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha, uye kupa ruzivo rwekuongorora pfungwa uye priori analytical kune rumwe rutivi, yenyaya uye zvarinoreva. Ini saka handisi kuzopinda mune zvakadzama uye nuances kuti ndisarasikirwe nemufananidzo muhombe, uye ndizvibvumire kushandisa generalizations inoita seine musoro kwandiri pasina kudiwa kwekwakananga masosi, Torah kana pfungwa huru. Kuda kwangu kwemusoro, uye kunyanya zvematongerwo enyika ehondo yeIsrael-Palestine, hazviitwe pano nekuda kwezvikonzero zvekupokana asi kuratidza zvichemo zvinouya mumashoko angu. Ini handisi kutaura chimiro pano maererano nekukonana kwacho uye kuti kunogadziriswa sei.

Hurukuro yetsika-huzivi uye nhaurirano yeHalakhic-Torah

Pfungwa huru mumusoro wenhaurirano, kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha, haina kujeka. Hurukuro pamusoro payo inogona kutorwa munzira dzinenge mbiri: a. Chiziviso chenyika chechiJudha muhuzivi-yedzinza-tsika. B. Kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha muTorah-halakhic pfungwa (vazhinji havatombogamuchire fungidziro yekuti idzi inhaurirano mbiri dzakasiyana). Izvi zvechokwadi zvinobatana nemubvunzo (usingabereki mumaonero angu) kuti chiJudha chitendero kana rudzi, izvo zvandisingazobata pano zvakare. Idzi hadzisi nhaurirano mbiri dzakasiyana, asi dzinoratidza nzira mbiri dzakasiyana dzekukurukurirana: kana kuitisa nhaurirano mune yakajairika pfungwa system kana mune halakhic-Torah system.

Kazhinji, mazita echitendero ari nyore kutsanangura pane mazita enyika. Izvi zvinodaro nekuti hunhu hwechitendero hunobva pane zvakagovaniswa hunhu netsika, uye kunyanya pazviito nekutenda (zvisinei nemhando dzakasiyana dzekududzira. Hapana muhupenyu chiri nyore kudaro).[2] Mukupesana, kuzivikanwa kwenyika ipfungwa yeamorphous, uye yakavakirwa panhoroondo, nharaunda, tsika, chitendero, mutauro, humwe hunhu hunhu uye nezvimwe, kana mimwe misanganiswa yezvose izvi. Kazhinji chiziviso chenyika hachienderane nepfungwa dzakafanana kana misimboti inoshanda, uye kwete nemisimboti yakasarudzika kune chaivo vanhu. Asi tsika, mutauro, hunhu hwepfungwa hwerumwe rudzi kana rumwe, zvinochinja-chinja uye hazvina kujeka, uye kazhinji kazhinji zvinogona kugoverwawo kune mamwe marudzi. Zvakare, mamwe eaya maitiro anosiyana, uye munhu kana kambani inogona kutora kana kusiya zvimwe zvacho. Saka ndechipi cheizvi chinodiwa kuti munhu azivikanwe nenyika?

Aya ndiwo mamiriro ezvinhu zvakare muchirevo chechiJuda. Zviri nyore kutsanangura kuzivikanwa kwechitendero chechiJudha. Avo vanosungirwa kuchengeta mitzvos vane chiziviso chechiJudha. Mangani mitzvos anofanirwa kucherechedzwa? Uyu mubvunzo wakaoma, uye uri kuramba uchioma muchizvarwa chedu chakaoma, asi mubvunzo wechipiri. Kuzvipira mumusimboti kune mitzvos tsananguro yakakwana kune zvatinoda.[3] Uyezve, muchirevo che halakhic mubvunzo wekuzivikanwa, kunyange wechitendero, hauna kukosha. Pane yakanyatsojeka halakhic tsananguro maererano nemarudzi ese ezvisungo zvechitendero, kwavanotaurirwa uye kwavanosungirwa. Mibvunzo yekuzivikanwa kwechitendero haimuke yakananga munyika yeTorah-halakhic pfungwa.

Kana maererano nekuzivikanwa kwechitendero pasina halakhic kukosha kumubvunzo, saka zviri nyore uye zvinhu maererano nemubvunzo wekuzivikanwa kwenyika. Ndeipi halakhic mhedzisiro yekutsunga kuti boka rine chiziviso cherudzi rwechiJudha? Mu halakhah, mubvunzo wekuti ndiani anochengeta kana kusachengeta mitzvos une zvazvinoreva, uye zvakatonyanya mubvunzo wekuti ndiani anofanirwa kana kusachengeta. Mubvunzo wekuzivikanwa hauna mhinduro yakajeka ye halakhic, uye haina zvakananga halakhic zvinoreva pachayo.

Kubva pane halakhic maonero, muJudha munhu akaberekwa naamai vechiJudha kana kutendeuka nenzira kwayo.[4] Uku ndiko kuzivikanwa kwake mupfungwa ye halakhic, uye hazvina basa nezvaanoita, uye kunyanya kana achichengeta kana kusachengeta mitzvos. Halachically iye zvechokwadi anofanira kugara navo, uye zvinokwanisika kukurukura kana uyo asingadaro ari tsotsi uye chii chinofanira kuitwa kwaari. Asi mubvunzo wekuti ndiani hauna basa. Mazwi akadai sekuti “akabuda muIzirairi yese” anonyanya kuita madimikira, uye haana zvaanoreva zvinobatika muHalakhah. Uye kunyangwe kana vaine chirevo, halakhah inovatsanangura zvinoenderana nemaitiro ayo ehunyanzvi.

National Identity: Musiyano Pakati peZvibvumirano uye Contingencies

Kusvika ikozvino takabata nemibvunzo yekuzivikanwa kubva kune halakhic-yechitendero maonero. Kubva pamaonero ouzivi, chinonyanya kufarirwa ndechekuzivikanwa kwenyika kwete mune zvechitendero. Ndakatotaura kuti chiziviso chenyika mune zvakawanda ipfungwa isina kujeka uye yakaoma kutsanangura. Pano ini ndichanyanya kutarisa pamatanda maviri akanyanyisa maererano netsanangudzo yekuzivikanwa kwenyika: nzira yekubvumirana (conventionalist) uye inokosha (essentialist) nzira.

Mubvunzo weurudzi uye kuzivikanwa kwenyika mubvunzo mutsva uye wazvino uno. Munguva yakapfuura, nokuda kwezvikonzero zvakasiyana-siyana, vanhu vaisambozvibvunza vamene kuti kuzivikanwa kwavo kwakanga kuri rudzii uye kuti vangarurondedzera sei. Nyika yaive yakamira zvakanyanya, vanhu havana kuita shanduko zhinji muhupenyu hwavo, uye vaisatombofanira kutarisana nekuzivikanwa kwavo nemakwikwi. Hazvina chokwadi kana mukuziva kwavo maive nepfungwa yakasarudzika yekuzivikanwa kwenyika, uye kunyangwe paive neshanduko mukuzivikanwa kwakauya nekusagadzika uye nemusikirwo uye nekusaziva. Kuzivikanwa kwenyika kwakangofanana nehunhu hwemunhu uye hwemhuri hwadudzwa pamusoro apa. Mamiriro echitendero akakonzerawo kufarira, sezvo vanhu vakawanda vaiva nechitendero. Munyika yekare maiva nemafungiro okuti humambo chipo chinobva kuna Mwari kune avo vanozvarwa kuti vave mambo, uye ndizvo zvakaitawo kuzivikanwa kwedu kwenyika nechitendero uye kubatana kwahwo. Zvose izvi zvakasikwa pamwe nenyika mumazuva matanhatu aGenesi, uye zvakatorwa sezviri nyore uye zvakatorwa sezviri nyore.

Munguva yemazuva ano, nekuwedzera kwehurudzi muEurope uye munyika yose, mubvunzo wakatanga kutenderera nesimba rakazara. Kuomerwa kwekutsanangura kuzivikanwa kwenyika kwakapa mhinduro dzinonyanya kumira pakati pemapango maviri: yekutanga igwara remaconventionalist iro rinoona kuzivikanwa kwenyika sechinhu chakavakirwa pachibvumirano chinenge chisina tsarukano. Kamwe boka rinozviona sevanhu, kana richitora nguva yakati rebei, nekuti vanenge vatova vanhu. Mudetembi Amir Gilboa, muna 1953, mushure mekugadzwa kwehurumende, akazvitsanangura sezvizvi: "Pakarepo munhu anomuka mangwanani uye anonzwa kuti iye vanhu, uye anotanga kufamba." Rimwe danda ipfungwa dzakadzama dzinoona kuzivikanwa kwenyika sechinhu chakasikwa uye chakarongeka, sekuzivikanwa kwemunhu. Kana munhu achinge afunga zvakawanda nezve chimiro chechinhu chisinganzwisisike "chezvakasikwa", nyika, vanodanana dzimwe nguva vanouya kumetaphysics. Zvinoenderana nemaitiro aya, nyika ine hupenyu hwemetaphysical mune imwe pfungwa, chimwe chinhu senge pfungwa yaPlato, uye vanhu vanoumba nyika vanosanganisirwa muchikamu ichi nekuda kwekubatana kwavo kwechimiro nacho. Bhiza rimwe nerimwe ndereboka remabhiza pasina chikonzero chekunyatsotsanangura kuti bhiza chii. Anongova bhiza, uye ndizvo zvazviri. Saizvozvo, munhu wese weBelgian ndeweboka reBelgian asina kuzvipira kune chero tsananguro. Kwete chete nekuti zvakaoma kupa tsananguro, asi nekuti hazvidiwi. National identity ipfungwa yechisikigo yakangofanana nekuzivikanwa kwemunhu uye mhuri.

Izvo zvakakosha kuti unzwisise kuti mazwi aAmir Gilboa anotsanangura kumuka kwenyika anogona zvakare kunyorwa mukati meiyo substantive-metaphysical conception, asi pano ichave yekumuka kwechiitiko, umo iyo metaphysical chaiyo iyo yaimbova yakarara inopinda mukuziva kwevanhu. . Inomutsa mavari uye vanoda kuzviona mukuita, mumusangano wezvematongerwo enyika nemagariro evanhu. Pakarepo munhu anosimuka uye anonzwa chokwadi chemetaphysical (iyo yakagara iri yechokwadi) kuti iye vanhu, uye anotanga kufamba. Murudo rwekumuka kwenyika murume akamuka mupfungwa yekumuka kubva pakoma, mukupesana nekubata kwekubvumirana kwaakasimuka kunodudzirwa sekukwira kubva pasi kuti atange kufora. Nhaurirano iri pamusoro pekuti kuumbwa ndiko kumuka kana kuumbwa.

National identity: nzira yekubvumirana uye kutaura kwayo

Kudivi rechibvumirano chemepu vanomira vanofunga saBenedict Anderson, mubhuku rake rine simba Nharaunda dzekufungidzira (1983), uye vamwe vazhinji vakatevera. Izvi zvinoramba kuvapo kwechinyorwa chakakosha chepfungwa dzakadai senyika uye kuzivikanwa kwenyika. Avo vanobata nzira iyi vanoona nyika semhando yenganonyorwa inogadzirwa uye yakakwenenzverwa mukuziva kwemamwe mapoka munhoroondo yavo (kazhinji yakagovaniswa). Zvakakosha kunzwisisa kuti izvi hazvirevi kuti kumuka uku hakusi kwechokwadi, kana kuti zvido zvayo uye zvirevo zvinogona kuderedzwa. zvirokwazvo kwete. Kuzivikanwa kwenyika kuripo sechokwadi chepfungwa uye kwakakosha kuvanhu, uye nekudaro vazhinji vanotenda kuti inofanirwa kuremekedzwa. Asi chaizvoizvo chinhu chakadaro. Kurodza zvinorehwa nemaitiro aya, muverengi anondiregerera kana ndikapa ndima shoma kune zviri kuitika pano.

Muenzaniso wakajeka wenzira yechikoro chakabvumiranwa ndiwo maonero aProf Shlomo Zand. Zand munyori wenhoroondo kubva kuTel Aviv University, aimbove weCompass denderedzwa uye ari wenzvimbo dzakasimukira kuruboshwe muIsrael. Mubhuku rake rine nharo Vanhu vechiJudha vakatangwa rini uye sei? (Wrestling, 2008), Zand akasarudza kuongorora muenzaniso unonyanya kunetsa thesis yaBenedict Anderson. Ari kuedza kuratidza ipapo kuti vanhu vechiJudha inharaunda yekufungidzira. Basa iri rinonyanya kuva nechido, nokuti chero maonero edu pamusoro pechinzvimbo chaAnderson, kana pane muenzaniso munyika (yeWestern) inomira zvakasiyana nedzidziso yake ndeyevanhu vechiJudha. Zvechokwadi, mumaonero angu (uye mumaonero evamwe vakawanda) bhuku raZand rinopa zita rakaipa kutsvakurudzo yezvakaitika kare, uye kunyanya kukanganisa musiyano wakakosha uye unokosha pakati pemafungiro nekutsvakurudza kwezvidzidzo.[5] Asi chinomutendera kuti aite zvese izvi kusajeka kwemukati mepfungwa yekuzivikanwa kwenyika.

Kana tikaenderera mberi nezviitiko zvemazuva ano, muenzaniso wakajeka wakajeka kubva kune imwe danda, iyo inonyatsosimbisa maonero aAnderson, vanhu vePalestine. MaPalestine vanhu vanonyatsoenderana nekuzivikanwa kwekufungidzira (izvo dzimwe nguva zvinosanganisira fungidziro dzenhema, sekuve vevaFiristia kana vaKenani vebhaibheri, kana kusvika kumazera ekutanga)[6], Yakagadzirwa kubva pasina chinhu munhoroondo dzekare.

Zvine musoro kunongedza pano chirevo chakajairika chechibvumirano chekubvumirana. Pakutanga kwebhuku rake, Zand anotsaurira bhuku: "Muchiyeuchidzo chevagari veAl-Sheikh Muanis avo vakadzingwa munguva yakapfuura kubva kwandinogara uye kushanda munguva iri pedyo." Izwi rinotsanangura uye rakanyarara, uye pachiso charo anoita seasingazvioni sedambudziko. Kana zvitupa zvenyika zviri zvekufungidzira, saka kuzivikanwa kwekufungidzira kuri kusunda imwe. Inouya uye inonyangarika. Iyi ndiyo nzira yenyika. Maererano naye, izvi ichokwadi chepfungwa uye kwete metaphysical tsika kana chokwadi, kwete kunyange nhoroondo dzechokwadi. Iri ndiro rimwe divi remari yemazuva ano inoona zvitupa zvenyika sekufungidzira.

Mhedziso ndeyokuti kana chiziviso chenyika chiri chokwadi chibvumirano chekuzvimiririra, zvinogoneka (zvisinei hazvo) kutora mhedziso mbiri dzakatsauka kubva pane izvi: 1. Masangano akadaro haana kodzero chaidzo. Nyika zvisikwa zvisina spineless, izvo zvisina hupenyu kunze kwekufungidzira kwevanhu. 2. National identity chikamu chakakosha chekuzivikanwa kwevanhu vazhinji uye chokwadi hapana humwe huziviro hwenyika (chaizvoizvo chokwadi), saka chokwadi chekuti chiziviso chekufungidzira hazvirevi kuti zvirevo uye zvirevo zvemasangano akadaro zvinogona underestimated.

Nechishamiso, vanhu vashoma vane nzira iyi vanozvibvumira kuishandisa kushoropodza chiziviso chimwe (panyaya yaZand, muIsraeri-muJudha) uye vachivapomera mhosva yekusaziva gungano revanhu rinopokana uye rinofungidzirwa, tichizvigadzira isu kuziva, uye pamusangano. panguva imwe chete kubva pamaonero mamwe chete.Pamwe hunhu hwekufungidzira (Palestine, mumuenzaniso weZand). Izvo zvisina musoro zvinowedzerwa nekuti vanhu vechiJudha kunyanya ndivo vanonyanya kubudirira muenzaniso uye vanhu vePalestine muenzaniso wakajeka wekufungidzira nyika. Ini ndichadzokorora uye kusimbisa kuti ini handidi pano kuti ndikurukure hukama hwakakodzera kune chirevo chenharaunda yakadaro yekuzivikanwa kwezvematongerwo enyika, sezvo ichi chiri chenormative-value-political question. Pano ini ndinongobata chete nhoroondo-yetsika tsananguro uye kutsoropodza kusabatana mukukurukurirana.

National Identity: Iyo Inokosha Nzira

Kusvika pari zvino ndamira nezviri kuitika uye nedambudziko rayo. Zvichida chaizvo nekuda kwematambudziko aya, vamwe vanotora pfungwa yekuzivikanwa kwenyika kune iyo metaphysics. Kumutswa kwenyika muEurope, pamwe nekumutswa kwenyika yechiJudha kwakaratidzwa mubato reZionist uye kwakakonzerwa zvikuru neEuropean national romanticism. Aya mafambiro anowanzo ratidza chinzvimbo chekuti nyika yakavakirwa pane imwe metaphysical entity (vanhu, nyika). Kutaura kunonyanyisa kwouyu murangariro kunooneka mukutaura kwechifascist (muGermany yaHitler, Bismarck, uye mamwe akawanda pamberi pawo, pamwe chete nomuItaly yaGaribaldi uye nezvimwe). Aya maitiro akaratidzwa muTorah pfungwa yaRabbi Kook nevadzidzi vake. Ivava vakagamuchira iyi pfungwa yemetaphysical, uye vakaiita musimboti wekutenda kwechiJudha. Mhepo yechiJudha, yakasviba, yakavanzwa, yakarambwa uye yakadzvinyirirwa, zvisinei kuti ingava sei, ndiyo inotsanangura chiJudha chemunhu. Hunhu hweIsrayeri pamwe nekuzvarwa uye kusarudzika kwemuJudha wese, zvakave chirevo chakasarudzika chechiJudha, kunyanya kana hunhu hwese hwechinyakare (kuchengeta) hwakanyangarika, kana kuti hwakamira kuve dhinomineta yakabvumiranwa. “Knesset of Israel” yashanduka kubva padimikira kuita chirevo cheontological chepfungwa yedimikira yechiJudha.

Ini ndinopa pano iyo substantive nzira yekupindura kune yakabvumiranwa, asi pane yenhoroondo axis zviri pachena kuti iyo substantive (kunyangwe isiri nguva dzose metaphysical) fungidziro yakatangira inowanzoitika. Munhoroondo, dzave dziri dzechinyakare nzira dzakabuda mukupindura kune dzakakosha nzira. Kana iyo substantive nzira yakanyatso kucherechedzwa neyechizvino-zvino uye kumuka kwenyika, saka hunyanzvi chikamu cheiyo post-nyika "kutsoropodza kutsva" kunozivikanwa nechinzvimbo chinozivikanwa se postmodernism.

The basic paradox

Kusvika ikozvino ndatsanangura maonero maviri akatarisana. Dzinorovera kupi? Ndeupi musiyano uripo pakati pazvo? Ndinofunga kuti pamwero uyu tiri mu surprise. A priori avo vane nzira yechipiri, iyo yakakosha, havabvi pakutsvaga tsanangudzo dzekuzivikanwa kwenyika. Mushure mezvose, maererano navo, chero munhu ane hukama hwepfungwa yemetaphysical (Knesset yeIsrael) muJudha. Kunyangwe mukukakavadzana kwekutendeuka tinonzwa zvakare uye zvakare pamusoro pekukakavadzana kwe "Mbeu yaIsraeri" sechikonzero chekuda kufambiswa kwemaitiro ekutendeuka, uye hazvishamisi kuti inouya kunyanya kubva kumadenderedzwa ari pedyo naRabbi Kook. Iyo metaphysics inotitsanangura isu semaJuda, uye nekudaro isu hatibvi pakuda kwetsananguro dzechirongwa. Kune metaphysical romantics, chiziviso chechiJudha ichokwadi chinosimbisa icho chisingaenderane nezviri mukati, hunhu, kana chero chimwe chirevo. Hongu, avo vane mafungiro akadaro vanogona kutenda kuti muJudha wese anofanira kuchengeta tsika nemirairo yeTorah, asi izvi hazvinei netsanangudzo yake semuJudha uye kuzivikanwa kwake.

Ehe, kunyangwe zvinoenderana neakakosha-metaphysical concepts, akasiyana maitiro echiziviso cherudzi rwechiJudha anogona kutsanangurwa, asi mukuona kwavo aya ndiwo maitiro anopesana, ndiko kuti, haana kukosha kune chinangwa chekutsanangura rudzi. Kunyange avo vasingaacherechedzi maJuda nekuda kwekuva vepfungwa yechiJudha yemetaphysical. Sezvo zvisingatarisirwi sezvazviri, mubvunzo wekuzivikanwa ndewekunze kune tsika dzechinyakare kufunga.

Kune rimwe divi, avo vane maitiro echinyakare, avo vasingatendi mukudanana kwemetaphysical, vanoda zvakawanda tsananguro, maitiro uye maitiro avanogona kutonga nawo kuti ndewerudzi urwu uye ndiani asingatendi. Ndiko kusaka vari kuzvibvunza kuti sei tiri maJuda. Kana isiri metaphysics, saka chii? Asi vekare havawani tsananguro inonzwisisika yakadaro, uye nekudaro vanosvika pamafungiro ekufungidzira kuzivikanwa. Vazhinji vavo vanotora tsananguro isingaratidzike sekuenderera kwechisikigo kwehunhu hwemaJuda sezvaionekwa muzviuru zvemakore pamberi pedu. Kuverenga mabhuku aAmos Oz, kutaura Chihebheru, kushanda muchiuto uye kubhadhara mutero wakanaka kuhurumende, kutambudzwa muHolocaust, uye pamwe nekufemerwa neTorah zvinyorwa, ndiwo maitiro ekuzivikanwa kwemaJuda nhasi. Kune izvi panofanira kuwedzerwa nhoroondo yakafanana uye dzinza. Ichokwadi uye izvi chete ndizvo zvinonyatso kuratidza vaJudha munguva yedu (kunyangwe vasiri vese). Kana zvakadaro, mukuona kwavo kuzivikanwa kwenyika kunewo rudzi rwechokwadi, sezvakangoita nenzira yemetaphysical, kunze kwekuti pano ichokwadi chepfungwa-yenhoroondo uye kwete chokwadi chemetaphysical.

Mibvunzo miviri inomuka inoenderana nemaitiro akajairika:

  • Mupfungwai umo uku kuzivikanwa kwenyika kunoumba kupfuuridzirwa kweratidziro dzakwo dzekare? Kana chete kuzivikanwa kwekufungidzira kuri hwaro hwekuenderera mberi, saka hazvina kukwana. Tinofanira kutanga tatsanangura boka uye ipapo ndipo patinogona kubvunza kuti maitiro aro ndeapi. Asi chero hunhu husipo tinotsanangura boka racho sei? Uyu mubvunzo unoramba usina mhinduro inogutsa, uye hapagoni kuva nemhinduro inogutsa pairi mumufananidzo wakabvumirana. Sezvakataurwa, kunyangwe ivo vane chinzvimbo chakakosha havana mhinduro kumubvunzo uyu, kunze kwekuti ivo havatombonetswa nazvo.
  • Tsananguro idzi "dzinoita basa" zvechokwadi here? Mushure mezvose, idzi tsananguro hadzinyatso kusimuka kune chero bvunzo dzakakomba. Funga nezvezvirongwa zvataurwa pamusoro apa. Kutaura mumutauro wechiHebheru zvirokwazvo hakusati kuchisiyanisa vaJudha, uye kune rumwe rutivi kune vaJudha vakawanda vasingatauri chiHebheru. Kunyangwe kubatana kuBhaibheri hakuna kudaro (Chikristu chakabatana zvakanyanya nacho, uye maJuda mazhinji haana kubatana nacho zvachose). Kubhadhara mutero nebasa rechiuto zvechokwadi hazvireve kuti vaJudha (Druze, maArabu, vashandi vanobva kune dzimwe nyika nevamwe vasiri vaJudha vanoita izvi zvakanaka). Mukupesana, kune vaJudha vakanaka vashomanene vasingadaro, uye hapana anopanikira chiJudha chavo. Amos Oz neBhaibheri zvinoraviwa pasi rose, kunyange kana risiri mumutauro wapakuvamba. Ukuwo, mabhuku akanyorwa muPoland ane chokuita neBhaibheriwo echiJudha here? Saka chii chasara?

Zvakakosha kuziva pano kuti pane hunhu hwechiJudha, sezvingataurwa nezve hunhu hwakaungana hwemamwe marudzi mazhinji. Asi hunhu hahuna kufanana nenyika. Uyezve, kuti utaure nezve hunhu munhu anofanira kutanga atsanangura boka raakapihwa naro. Mushure mezvose, kune vanhu vazhinji pasi pano vakapihwa hunhu hunogona kuwira pasi petsanangudzo yehunhu hwemaJuda, uye zvakadaro hapana achataura kuti ivo maJuda. Mushure mekuziva kuti muJudha ndiani, tinogona kutarisa boka remaJuda tobvunza kana paine hunhu hunovaratidza. Kune zvakare nhoroondo yechiJudha uye mavambo akafanana, asi izvi zvinongova chokwadi. Zvakaoma kuona kukosha mune izvi zvose, uye hazvisi pachena kuti nei zvose izvi zvichionekwa sedambudziko riripo uye sechinhu chinoda tsanangudzo. Ichokwadi kuti vaJudha vazhinji vane mavambo akafanana uye nhoroondo mune imwe pfungwa. Saka manje? Pane nzvimbo yekutaura kubva kune mumwe munhu kuti ave muJudha, mupfungwa yedzinza uye nhoroondo? Kana akadaro saka anenge akadaro, uye kana asiri iye akadaro.

Kana zvakadaro, kunyangwe isu tikavhurika zvakanyanya uye nekushanduka-shanduka, zvichiri kunetsa kunongedzera munwe padanho rakapinza rekuti ndiani muJudha wenyika maererano nehunhu munzira yekubvumirana. Zvichida isu tinofanira kutora nzira inogamuchirwa mune zvepfungwa (uye dzimwe nguva zvakare zvekurapa) kuongororwa, maererano nekuvepo kwehumwe huwandu hwehunhu kubva pane yakapihwa runyorwa kungave inogutsa tsananguro yekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha? Sezvandaratidza pamusoro, zvakaoma kuona ichi sechinhu chinogutsa kana. Ani naani wedu anogona kupa ndaza yakadaro? Pane mumwe wedu here wedu anogona kutsanangura kuti nei zvitanhatu zveiyi rondedzero yehunhu zvichidikanwa, pane zvinomwe kana zvishanu? Uye kupfuura zvose, uyu mupimo uchabudirira chaizvoizvo mukusiyanisa vaJudha nevasiri vaJudha nenzira inovimbika here? Zvakajeka kwete (ona mienzaniso iri pamusoro).

Nekuda kwehunhu hunonetsa uhu, vazhinji vevanobvumirana vanodzokera kuno kunzvimbo dze halakhic genetics, zvichireva kuti ivowo vari kutsvaga kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha muna amai. Vamwe vanoiturika pakuziva kwemunhu: muJudha ndiye anonzwa uye anozviti muJudha.[7] Iyo yakavakirwa-mukati kutenderera uye kusava nematuro kweiyi tsananguro haina kunetsa vanojaira. Zvibvumirano zvakagadzirira kugamuchira chero kokorodzano, ingave yedenderedzwa kana isina revo chero nguva. Huchokwadi hwayo imhaka yekuti vakabvumirana pazviri. Asi zvinotarisirwa kuti nharaunda yekufungidzira ichave yakagadzirira kuvakira kuzivikanwa kwayo pamaitiro ekufungidzira. Pamusoro pemakakatanwa ese aya, zvingangove chokwadi kana nharo dzisina chinhu, izvo zvisingatsanangure kunetsana kuriko pamusoro penyaya iyi.

Rabhi Shach mukutaura kwake kwataurwa pamusoro apa anorwisa tsananguro yekuzivikanwa kwemaJuda, uye anozviita nenzira ye halakhic. Iyo inonyatso ratidza rudzi rwechinzvimbo, asi kwete hazvo metaphysical (kuzivikanwa kwenyika maererano nekuzvipira kune humwe hunhu). Wikipedia 'Kutaura kweTsuro nenguruve' inotsanangura maitiro aRebbe weLubavitch pakutaura kwetsuro dzaRabhi Shach sezvinotevera:

Iye Lubavitcher Rebbe', Bar Plugata NezvaRabhi Shaki kwemakore mazhinji, vakapindura kutaura mukutaura kwake, kwaakatauraSabata Zvadaro mune yake beit midrash. Rebbe akati hapana munhu anotenderwa kutaura achipokana nevanhu vechiJudha. Maonero emaJuda ndeekuti “Izirairi, kunyangwe chitadzo chaIsraeri chiri,” vana vaIsraeri ndivo “mwanakomana mumwechete” wavo Mwari neunotaura mukupiwa mhosva, seunotaura mukupiwa mhosva kwaMwari. MuJudha wese anofanira kubatsirwa kuchengetedza zvese Mirairo Chitendero, asi hapana nzira yekuchirwisa. Rebbe akatsanangura vepanguva yake se "Udim yakafukidzwa nemoto", uye "Vakabatwa vacheche, Kuti havafaniri kupomerwa mhosva yezivo yavo nemafungiro avo kuchiJudha.

Uyu ndiwo muenzaniso wekuita kubva kurudzi rwemetaphysical. Ukuwo, purezidhendi wapanguva iyoyo, Haim Herzog, akataura mhinduro yetsika kumashoko aRabhi Shach, apo ainetseka kuti huJudha hwema kibbutzniks evaKubilnik nemahandcuffs akavamba nyika uye vakashanda muchiuto nokuzvipira kukuru kwaigona sei kuva. akabvunza. Saka Rabhi Shach ari kugadzirira chii? Haagamuchire metaphysics, uye haadi kuve akajairika. Pane yechitatu sarudzo here?

Ko pfungwa dzisingatsananguriki hadzipo here?

Mhedziso iri pachena ndeyekuti pfungwa yekuzivikanwa kwenyika yemaJuda haitsananguriki. Zvinokwanisika kupa tsananguro dzakasiyana, imwe neimwe zvichienderana nedhigirii rake rekusika, asi zvirokwazvo hazvigoneke kubvumirana pane tsananguro, uye zvirinani kumapoka mazhinji havaratidzike kusabvisa avo vasingasangane netsanangudzo yavo kubva. vaIsraeri vose (chero bedzi mai vavo vari muJudha). Izvi zvinoreva here kuti kuzivikanwa kwakadaro kunongova kwokufungidzira, kureva kuti kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha hakuko chaizvoizvo? Ndiyo yega sarudzo yemetaphysics kana halakhic formalism ndiyo rondedzero? handina chokwadi.

Mubvunzo uyu unotiendesa kunzvimbo dzehuzivi kuti hapana pekupinda pano, saka ndichaedza kubata pazviri muchidimbu. Isu tinoshandisa mazwi mazhinji asina kujeka, akadai sehunyanzvi, hungwaru, sainzi, democracy nezvimwe. Zvisinei apo patinoswedera pakutsanangura pfungwa yakadai tinosangana nematambudziko akafanana neatsanangurwa pano. Vazhinji vanogumisa kubva pane izvi kuti pfungwa idzi ndedzekufungidzira, uye vanotovaka yakaipoteredza imba yamambo yakanakisa yemazuva ano (iyo pfungwa yekubatanidza kuna Rabbi Shagar haina tsaona). Muenzaniso wakajeka weizvi ibhuku raGideon Ofrat, Tsanangudzo yehunyanzvi, Ndiani anopa zvakawanda zvakasiyana-siyana tsananguro dzepfungwa yeunyanzvi uye anozviramba, kusvika pakupedzisira asvika pamhedziso yekuti art ndiyo inoratidzwa mumuseum (!). Kune rumwe rutivi, Robert M. Piersig, mubhuku rake rorudzidziso Zen uye hunyanzvi hwekugadzirisa mudhudhudhu, Inotsanangura rwendo rwedimikira rwemuzvinafundo anonzi Phydros, ari kutsvaga kutsanangura pfungwa yemhando. Pane imwe nguva anovhenekerwa, achigumisa kuti huzivi hwechiGiriki hwakaita kuti tifunge kuti pfungwa imwe neimwe inofanira kuva netsanangudzo, uye pfungwa isina tsanangudzo haipo (inofungidzira). Asi pfungwa yakaita semhando inogona kunge isingatsananguriki, uye zvakadaro anoramba kubvuma mhedziso yekuti ipfungwa isina chokwadi chemukati. Kokorodzanowo zvayo. Zviri pachena kuti kune mhando dzekubatanidza uye kune dzimwe dzisingaite. Kusvika pamwero wakafanana, kune mabasa eunyanzvi uye kune mabasa asina kunaka asina kunaka. Mhedziso ndeyokuti pfungwa dzakadai semhando, kana unyanzvi, kunyange zvakaoma uye zvichida zvisingabviri kutsanangura, zvichiripo. Hazvina hazvo kufungidzira.

Zvinoita sekuti chirevo chakafanana chinogonawo kuitwa mumamiriro ekuzivikanwa kwenyika. Mumwe anogona kugamuchira thesis yakakosha yekuti kune chitupa chenyika pasina kudiwa kwemetaphysics. Kuzivikanwa kwenyika kune hunhu hwakasiyana uye zvinonetsa kupa tsananguro yazvo, uye zvakadaro aya haasiwo ekufungidzira kana magungano, uye haatombove metaphysics. Inogona kunge iri pfungwa yeamorphous chaiyo yakaoma kana isingagone kutsanangura. Zvinoita sekuti tsananguro yakafanana inomiririra pfungwa yaRabbi Shach (kunyangwe achipa tsananguro ye halakhic, uye asingabvume mukana weimwe tsananguro yenyika). Anotaura kuti pane tsananguro yakakosha yekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha, uye kunyange zvinoda kubva kuvanhu zvinorehwa zvichibva pazviri. Kune rimwe divi, haaone metaphysics seimwe nzira inogutsa. Kana ndiri ini, handifungi kudaro. Pasina metaphysics ini handisi kuona kuti munhu angataure sei nezvenyika mune iyo ontological pfungwa. Asi zviri pachena kwandiri kuti vazhinji havabvumirani neni panyaya iyi.

Mhedziso

Kusvika ikozvino uzivi. Asi zvino panouya mubvunzo unotevera: Nei zvose izvi zvichikosha zvachose? Nei tichifanira kutsanangura, kana kuti kuedza kunzwisisa, kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha? Mhinduro yangu ndeyekuti hazvina basa zvachose. Iko hakuna zvazvinoreva kumubvunzo uyu, uye inonyanya inyaya yekuongorora njere (kazhinji isingabereki, uye pamwe isina chinhu chemukati). Kana ndikatadza mupsychology yechigaro chemaoko, kutsvaga kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha chiratidzo chekuzvipira kuchitendero chechiJudha nenhoroondo pasina kuda kuzviisa mukuita. Vanhu vari kutsvaga dzimwe nzira dzechiziviso chaimbove chechitendero, kuti vanzwe semaJuda mushure mekudururwa kwekuzivikanwa uye kuzvipira kwechitendero. Kuti izvi zviitike, mibvunzo mitsva nemifungo mitsva inotangwa, uye nhamburiko huru uye isina maturo inoiswa mukuinzwisisa.

Mukuona kwangu, hapana nzira yekukurukura nhaurirano yakangwara yekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha, uye zvechokwadi kusasvika pazvisarudzo pamusoro payo, iyo isinganyanyi kukosha. Kana iri gungano saka sei muchipopotedzana nezvezvibvumirano. Mumwe nemumwe achasaina zvibvumirano zvinoonekwa kwaari. Kana iri metaphysics, ini handisi kuona kuti inosvikika sei mukupokana uye nharo. Uye kunyangwe tikabvuma fungidziro yechokwadi yechiJudha (kusiyana ne halakhic) chiziviso chechiJudha, izvi hazvigoneke zvakare kune tsananguro, kukakavara, uye zvechokwadi kwete kune yakabvumiranwa sarudzo. Aya ndiwo mazano e semantic, mazhinji ayo asina hwaro, uye mamwe haana zvachose zvemukati, kana kusamira muyedzo wechero kunzwisisa. Uyezve, sezvandakataura, zvose izvi hazvina maturo zvachose. Aya ndiwo matambudziko epfungwa dzevanhu ivo pachavo, uye hapana chimwe.

Iyi nharo isingakoshi uye isina kukosha yava kushandiswa kunyanya kurova mupikisi. Ani naani anoda kusimudzira pfungwa dzesocialist - anotsanangura kwatiri tose kuti chiJudha chakagara chiri chesocialist, uye ani nani asina kudaro haasi muJudha. Vamwe vanofarira pfungwa dzechiuto vanoshamisirawo nechiJudha uye kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha. Ndizvo zvakaitawo democracy, kuenzana, capitalism, rusununguko, kubuda pachena, kumanikidza, rudo netsitsi, kururamisira mumagariro, uye humwe hunhu hwakakwirira. Muchidimbu, chiJudha chiedza kuvaHedheni, asi chimiro chechiedza ichocho hachina kupokana uye hachina sarudzo. Kusiyana nedzimwe nharo, dzinogona kuva nzira dzekujekesa uye dzinogonawo kuva nehumwe hunokosha mairi, gakava pamusoro pekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha mumutemo harina kugadziriswa uye harikoshi mune chero pfungwa ipi zvayo.

Chinhu chimwe chakanyatsojeka: hapana yeaya rondedzero yehunhu (socialism, mauto, kururamisira munharaunda, kuenzana, rusununguko, nezvimwewo), kana chero humwe kukosha, hunogona kuita chinhu chakakosha, chinodiwa kana chakakwana mukutsanangurwa kwe Kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha. Chero ani anotenda mune chero yeaya maitiro kana mune chero musanganiswa wazvo anogona kuve ane fancy gentle kune ese maonero uye asingapokane. Iko hakuna bhawa pakuva wesocialist gentle, kutsigira kuenzana kana rusununguko, mauto kana kwete. Naizvozvo, zvese izvi hazvina kukodzera maitiro ekuzivikanwa kwemaJuda, kunyangwe zvisingatendeseki zvikaitika (uye usatya, pamwe hazvizoitika) uye mumwe munhu achakwanisa kuratidza kubva kutsika dzechiJudha uye masosi kuti chimwe cheizvi chikamu che chirongwa chekuzivikanwa uku.

Kuzivikanwa kwechiJudha munguva yedu

Mhedziso ndeyokuti gakava pamusoro pekuzivikanwa kwenyika hakuna maturo uye hakuna maturo. Sezvandambotaura, zvakafanana ndezvechokwadi maererano nekuzivikanwa kwechitendero. Ani nani anozvarwa naamai vechiJudha kana kuti akatendeuka zvakanaka anofanira kuchengeta mirairo yeTorah nemashoko evachenjeri uye asaita kudarika. ndizvo. Tsananguro dzemunhu, kuzivikanwa kwake, uye mimwe miriwo, inyaya inomiririra, uye kuve yepfungwa, metaphysical, inowanzoitika, kana pamwe kunyange amorphous (isinga tsananguke) amorphous imwe. Zvese zvingangoitika zvinogona kuve zvakanaka, saka hapana zvakare chikonzero mukukurukura nezvazvo.

Ngationei kuti chii chingava mugumisiro wekurukurirano yakadaro? Kuti mumwe munhu achanzwa kugutsikana kuti iye muJudha akanaka here? Kunzwa zvakanaka inyaya yevanodzidza nezvepfungwa. Hurukuro pamusoro pekuzivikanwa muhukoshi semantiki isingabereki uye isina chinhu, uye naizvozvo haina basa. Kana chirevo chekongiri chikapihwa chatiri kufarira kutsanangura kuzivikanwa, zvino zvinogoneka (zvichida) kukurukura mibvunzo yakakodzera nezvazvo. Asi chero bedzi iri nhaurirano huru, munhu wose achatsanangura chiJudha chavo sezvavanoda. Kunyange kana imwe yakarurama uye imwe isiri iyo, mubvunzo uyu haufaniri kufarira ani zvake, kunze kwevatsvakurudzi vashoma vezvidzidzo vanoita mararamiro kubva pakuongorora semantic yakadaro. Kune rumwe rutivi, ini ndini ani kuti ndivhiringidze iyi nhamburiko yougamba uye isina maturo? Sisyphus zvakare chikamu chehunhu hwedu ...[8]

[1] Eldad Beck anobva kuGermany, YNET, 1.2.2014.

[2] Maitiro ekusarura anomutsa nyaya dzekuzivikanwa kwechitendero chenyanzvi (zvinoreva here Chipurotesitendi, chiMuslim, kana chiKatorike, chenyika?).

[3] Kana isu tichibata netsanangudzo, saka mamiriro emitzvos ari mubvunzo uye kukurudzira kwekuchengeta kwavo kwakakosha. Kunyange kana mutemo uchida mufambiro wetsika, kashoma kuti utsanangure chiJudha pahwaro uhwu sezvo chakajairika kuvose vari munyika. Kunyangwe mitzvot yakadai sekugadziriswa kweEretz Yisrael, iyo isiri yehunhu, haigone kutsanangura chiziviso chechitendero chechiJudha, sezvo chiripowo kune avo vasingazvitsananguri sechikamu chechitendero chechiJudha, nekuti muzviitiko zvakawanda zvinokurudzira. nokuti kuvapo kwavo kunobva panzvimbo imwe chete.

[4] Kunyangwe kutendeuka kuriwo maitiro ayo pachawo ane gakava semamwe akawanda halakhic nyaya, inokwana kune zvatinoda.

[5] Izvi hazvina kumisa bhuku kubva mukushandurirwa mumitauro makumi maviri uye kuhwina mibairo pasi rese.

[6] Ona, uchinokora mashoko tsamba yaEldad Beck yanokorwa mashoko pamusoro apa.

[7] Kune zvakanakisisa zvekuyeuka kwangu, mutungamiri wenguva iyoyo, Haim Herzog, mumhinduro yake kukutaura kwetsuro, pamwe chete nevamwe vakawanda kusvikira nhasi, vakataura "chirevo" ichi. Chero ani zvake ane zvishoma zvekunzwa zvine musoro anoshamiswa nechiitiko chinofadza ichi. Tinoda kutsanangura pfungwa yechiJudha, uye tozviita nenzira inotevera: zvose a zvinogona kuiswa panzvimbo ye X nenzira inotevera: "X akanzwa X" uye tsanangudzo inobuda yechokwadi, ndeyechiJudha. Maererano netsanangudzo iyi, chero chisikwa chinozviziva chisingazvirevi nhema muJudha (tarisa boka rekuisa).

[8] Zvichida ndiyowo nyaya yekuti tinofanira kunzwisisa mhedziso yaGidheoni Ofrat iri pamusoro. Zvichida haasi kutaura kuti hakuna chinhu chakadai seunyanzvi, asi anongogumisa kuti nhaurirano pamusoro payo haifaniri uye haina zvibereko.

3 Pfungwa pa "Pamusoro peKuzivikanwa kwechiJudha munguva yedu uye mune zvese"

  1. Kana uchitsanangura muJudha semunhu anozvifunga semuJudha, hapana chawataura. Mazwi anoshandiswa mutsanangudzo anofanirwa kunge achizivikanwa kare uye pasina. Saka kana tikafungidzira kuti izwi rekuti muJudha ndi X uye tsananguro inoda kuijekesa, saka zvamataura mutsanangudzo yakadai ndezvekuti muJudha ndiX anofunga kuti ndiX.

  2. handibvumi. Kuziva chinhu chisina kutsanangurwa zvachose. MuKabbalah mune tsananguro yezvose zviri zviviri zvoumwari uye zvinopenya nezvimwewo. Chero bedzi munhu achitaura muTorah isina kujeka saka itsanangudzo isina zvazvinoreva. Chokwadi pane tsanangudzo. Asi handisi kuzomuunza iye zvino. Chisina tsananguro zvinoreva kuti hapana musimboti unobatanidza munhu wese kuti aone umwe. Uye saka hapana chiziviso chimwe kune vese. Pane nafkamina yekuzivikanwa kwechiJudha. Nekuti chokwadi chekuti ndinozviona semuJudha uye handipokane nezvekuzivikanwa kwemumwe semuJudha. Mune izvi ndinozvibatanidza naye uye pandinoita chimwe chiitiko uye ndichichitsanangura sechiito chechiJudha, ipapo ndinoti muJudha, chikamu chetsika dzake dzechiJudha ndechekuita zviito izvi. Icho chisiri chokwadi nekuti katsi semuenzaniso inozvibata zvisina mwero isina chitendero chekuzvibata zvisinei kuti munhu ane kugona kuita sembwa uye kudyira pasi nekuda kwekuda kuita chimwe chinangwa. Kunyange zvazvo nzira yaakasarudza inopesana nezvisikwa.

    Kana muJudha achizviona semuJudha mutsva uye achizvibvisa pahunhu hwechiJudha.Mumwe wacho, semuenzaniso, haashandisi Mutemo weKudzoka. Kunyanya kana zvichiitwa kunze kwemasangano ehurumende senyika yechiJudha. Asi kana chinongedzo chikagurwa chinodaidzwa kuti bonde uye maererano nemutemo wechiJudha chinofanira kukonzereswa rufu rusina kunanga.

    Saka kana isu tose tichizviona semaJuda. Zvisinei nekusiyana saka pane chinhu chimwe chete chatinofanana tese ndicho chinoita kuti tisasiye tsananguro yedu yechiJudha. Uye kuzvibatanidza kwakabatana nemaJuda ese ari munyika. Iyi haisi tsananguro yepamutemo nekuti kunyangwe vaJudha vasingacherechedzi mutemo vanobvuma. Iyi ndiyo tsanangudzo yemararamiro anodiwa nemaJuda ese. Iyi itsanangudzo ine matauriro muhupenyu hwake semuJudha kunyangwe ari kutsvaga kuzadzisa tsananguro iyi. Chero zvazvingava, ndiyo pakati pekukosha. Kungava mukuedza kuzviziva kana kuti kuedza kufuratira nechisimba. Nokuti iwowo mafungiro. Kune rumwe rutivi, kukosha kwaasina hukama hakurambi zvaasingafungi nezvazvo zvachose uye haagadzirise kukakavara.

Siya mhinduro