Kwizazisi zamaYuda kwixesha lethu nakwabanye

בסדד

Izifundiswa - 2014

“Kuthe kusenjalo kuvuka umntu, azive engabantu, ahambe;

UMichael Abraham

Ukuba kukho iikibbutzim ezingayaziyo ukuba yintoni na iYom Kippur, abazi ukuba yintoni iShabbat kwaye abazi ukuba yintoni ithemba. Imivundla neehagu ziyakhuliswa. Ingaba banobudlelwane notata wabo?… Array? I-Array yinto engcwele? Bazinqumle kulo lonke ixesha lethu elidlulileyo kwaye bacela iTorah entsha. Ukuba akukho Sabatha kwaye akukho Yom Kippur, ngoko uyintoni na umYuda?

            (Intetho kaRabbi Shach yeMivundla, Yad Eliyahu, 1990)

Eli nqaku labhalwa kanye ngeentsuku apho iingxoxo ezininzi ziqhuma phakathi kwethu kunye namaPalestina, kodwa ngeli xesha imibuzo yesazisi eyakhokelela kuyo isondele kakhulu kumphezulu. Esona sizathu siphambili sogqabhuko-dubulo luka-Israyeli yayiyimfuno yokuqaphela iLizwe lakwaSirayeli njengelizwe lamaYuda. Le mfuno ifezekisiwe, phakathi kwezinye izinto, ngeengxoxo zePalestina kunye nezinye izinto, ezifuna ukuba kuqala sichaze ukuba yintoni kwaye ngubani ongumYuda emehlweni ethu ngaphambi kokuba siyifune kwabanye. Kulo mxholo, abanye basibonisa njengenzala yamaKhazars, ngaloo ndlela bejongela phantsi ubunyani bembali yengxelo yamaYuda, oko kukuthi, ngokwenene siqhubeka ngokwendalo yamaYuda amandulo ahlala apha kwiLizwe lakwaSirayeli. Kwelinye icala, amaPalestine abonisa imbali yesizwe (esiyinkohliso ethile) njengesiseko seengxoxo zabo. Ndifumene umzekelo ohlekisayo kakhulu kwinqaku lika-Eldad Beck, elichaza incoko phakathi koMphathiswa uTzipi Livni, ophethe uthethathethwano namaPalestina egameni likarhulumente wakwaSirayeli, kunye noSaib Erekat, ophethe uthethathethwano kwicala lasePalestina. :[1]

Amalungu egqiza elikhulu lakwaSirayeli kwinkomfa yokhuseleko eMunich bothukile phezolo, xa ilungu leqela leengxoxo zasePalestina, uSaeb Erekat, waqhwaba uLivni ukuba yena nosapho lwakhe babengamaKanan kwaye bahlala eYeriko iminyaka engama-3,000 (!?) Ngaphambili Ukufika kwisixeko sakwaSirayeli sikhokelwa nguJoshua Ben Nun. Ngexesha lengxoxo ngenkqubo yoxolo kuMbindi Mpuma apho bobabini bathathe inxaxheba, u-Erekat waqala ukuthetha malunga neengxelo ezahlukeneyo zembali zamacala omabini, i-Israel kunye nePalestina, kwaye yabonisa ukuba amaPalestina kunye nommeli wakhe ngokwenene bayinzala yamaKanan kwaye ngoko baye bafumanisa ukuba abantu basePalestina kunye nommeli wakhe bayinzala yamaKanan. amalungelo amaninzi kumhlaba wasePalestina kunamaYuda. U-Livni waphendula wathi u-Israyeli kunye namaPalestina akufuneki babuze ukuba yeyiphi ibali enobulungisa, kodwa indlela yokwakha ikamva. “Andijongi ilungiselelo loxolo ngendlela yothando. I-Cynicism ayikho ingozi engaphantsi kune-naivety. "USirayeli ufuna uxolo kuba unomdla wakhe."

Ngaphaya kwengxoxo esebenzayo, kukho uluvo lokuba uLivni uzama ukuyinqanda le ngxoxo ilihlazo kuba ucinga ukuba isazisi sesizwe luhlobo olubalisayo, kwaye ke ingxoxo malunga nayo ayinamsebenzi. Akukho nto ilungileyo okanye iphosakeleyo apha, kuba njengoko kulisiko namhlanje ukucinga ukuba naluphi na uhlanga luzimele geqe yaye akukho mntu wumbi uvumelekileyo ukuba akwenzele oko. Abaninzi baya kuthi nakwisazisi samaYuda kukho imingxuma ezaliswe ngamabali ahlukeneyo (nangona idosi ihluke kakhulu kumzekelo wasePalestina). Amabango kaGolda, uBen-Zion Netanyahu kunye nabanye abaninzi, ukuba akukho nto ifana nePalestina, ivakala kakhulu kwaye i-archaic namhlanje. Akunjalo ngenxa yazo naziphi na iziphumo zembali, kodwa ngenxa yokuba abantu kunye nobuzwe yimiba echazwe kuphela yi-facto.

Imibuzo yesazisi, imbali kunye nenkcubeko, yala ukusiyeka. Bema ngobude baze basihlasele ngokuphindaphindiweyo. Kubonakala ngathi phantse akukho ndawo ehlabathini imibuzo yesazisi sesizwe exakekisa abantu njengobukho njengaphakathi kwamaJuda, kwaye kunjalo nakwaSirayeli. Iingxabano mhlawumbi zinokufunyanwa malunga nokuba unyanisekile eBelgian okanye hayi, kodwa ubukhulu becala njengesixhobo sokubetha abachasi, okanye njengenxalenye yothando lombutho wesizwe-kazwelonke. Kunzima nokuba nomfanekiso-ngqondweni weqela okanye umntu osokolayo ngokukhoyo ngombuzo wokuba ngumBelgian, okanye waseLibya, wokwenyani kwaye uyinyani.

Sithatha njengomzekelo ubuni bethu, akukho namnye kuthi ongenzanga sigqibo malunga nokuba ndinguMikayeli wokwenyani uAbraham, kwaye eneneni ndiyintoni na uMikayeli Abraham? Ithini inkcazo kaMichael Abraham, kwaye ndiyayiphendula? Isazisi somntu siyabonakala kwaye asidingi nkcazelo. Kukwanjalo ke nangokuphathelele ubuntu bentsapho. Wonke umntu ongowendlu ka-Abraham unjalo, yaye kunjalo. Imibuzo malunga nemilinganiselo kunye neenkcazo kule mixholo ibonakala ngathi i-angle. Ndifumana ingcamango yokuba kumazwe amaninzi oku kukwanjalo ngokuphathelele kwisazisi sesizwe. Ukhona nje, yiloo nto ke. Ke yintoni le malunga naye, kwisazisi sobuJuda, ehlala isikhathaza ngokukhoyo? Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba kubekho ingxubusho eyakhayo nesengqiqweni ngalo mbandela?

Kweli nqaku ndiya kuzama ukuchaza iingxaki methodological inxaxheba kwingxoxo yesazisi yamaYuda, kwaye ubonise uhlalutyo ingqiqo kunye nohlalutyo priori kwelinye icala, lo mba kunye neentsingiselo zawo. Ngoko ke andiyi kungena kwiinkcukacha kunye neengqungquthela ukuze ndingalahlekelwa ngumfanekiso omkhulu, kwaye ndivumele ukuba ndisebenzise i-generalizations ebonakala inengqiqo kum ngaphandle kwesidingo semithombo ethile, iTorah okanye ingcamango jikelele. Isidingo sam sesihloko, kwaye ngokukodwa kwezopolitiko zongquzulwano lwase-Israel-Palestine, ayenziwanga apha ngeenjongo zokugxeka kodwa ukubonisa amabango aya kuza ngamazwi am. Andibonakalisi sikhundla apha malunga nongquzulwano ngokwalo nokuba lusonjululwa njani.

Ingxoxo yenkcubeko-ifilosofi kunye nengxoxo ye-halakhic-Torah

Ingcinga ephambili kwisihloko sengxoxo, ubuni bamaJuda, ayicacanga. Ingxoxo malunga nayo inokuthatyathwa ubuncinane kumacala amabini: a. Ubuzwe bamaYuda ngokwembono yefilosofi-yobuhlanga-yenkcubeko. B. Isazisi samaYuda kwingqondo yeTorah-halakhic (abaninzi abayi kuyamkela into yokuba ezi ziingxoxo ezimbini ezahlukeneyo). Oku ngokuqinisekileyo kunxibelelana nombuzo (oludlolo ngokoluvo lwam) ukuba ubuJuda yinkolo okanye sisizwe, endingayi kuyichukumisa nalapha. Ezi ayizizo iingxoxo ezimbini nje ezahlukeneyo, kodwa zivakalisa iindlela ezimbini ezahlukeneyo zengxoxo: nokuba ngaba kuqhutywa ingxoxo ngokwenkqubo yengqiqo ngokubanzi okanye kwinkqubo ye-halakhic-Torah.

Ngokuqhelekileyo, iimpawu zenkolo kulula ukuzichaza kunezazisi zesizwe. Oku kungenxa yokuba iimpawu zenkolo zisekelwe kwimilinganiselo ekwabelwana ngayo kunye nezithethe, kwaye ngokukodwa kwizenzo ezizibolileyo kunye neenkolelo (nangona zineendlela ezahlukeneyo zokutolika. Akukho nto ebomini ilula ngolo hlobo).[2] Ngokwahlukileyo koko, isazisi sesizwe singqikelelo esine-amorphous ngakumbi, kwaye sisekelwe kwimbali, ummandla, inkcubeko, inkolo, ulwimi, iimpawu ezithile zomlinganiswa nokunye, okanye eminye imixube yazo zonke ezi. Ngokwesiqhelo ubuni besizwe abuhambelani nemigaqo yengqondo okanye esebenzayo, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo hayi kwimigaqo eyodwa kubantu abathile. Kodwa inkcubeko, ulwimi, iimpawu zengqondo zolunye uhlobo okanye olunye, ziyaguquguquka kwaye azicaci, kwaye kwiimeko ezininzi zinokwabelwana ngazo nezinye izizwe. Ngaphezu koko, ezinye zezi mpawu ziyahluka, kwaye umntu okanye inkampani inokwamkela okanye izishiye ezinye zazo. Ngoko ke yeyiphi kwezi engumlinganiselo oyimfuneko wesazisi sesizwe?

Oku kunjalo nakwimeko yamaYuda. Kulula kakhulu ukuchaza ubuYuda bonqulo. Abo banyanzelekileyo ukuba bagcine i-mitzvos banesazisi samaYuda. Zingaphi iimitzvos ekufuneka ziqwalaselwe? Lo ngumbuzo ontsokothileyo, kwaye uya usiba nzima ngakumbi kwisizukulwana sethu esintsokothileyo, kodwa ngumbuzo wesibini. Ukuzibophelela ngokomgaqo kwi-mitzvos yinkcazo eyaneleyo yeemfuno zethu.[3] Ngaphezu koko, kwimeko ye-halakhic umbuzo wesazisi, kunye nenkolo, ayibalulekanga. Kukho inkcazo ecacileyo ye-halakhic malunga nazo zonke iintlobo zeemfanelo zonqulo, ezibhekiswa kuye kwaye zibopheleleke kuye. Imibuzo yesazisi senkolo ayiveli ngokuthe ngqo kwihlabathi leengqikelelo zeTorah-halakhic.

Ukuba ngokubhekiselele kwisazisi senkolo akukho kubaluleka kwe-halakhic kumbuzo, ngoko kulula kunye nezinto eziphathekayo malunga nombuzo wesazisi sesizwe. Sisiphi isiphumo se-halakhic sokuzimisela ukuba iqela libe nesazisi sesizwe samaYuda? Kwi-halakhah, umbuzo wokuba ngubani ogcina okanye ongayigciniyo i-mitzvos inentsingiselo, kwaye ngakumbi umbuzo wokuba ngubani omele okanye angayigcini. Umbuzo wesazisi awunayo impendulo ecacileyo ye-halakhic, kwaye ayinayo impembelelo ye-halakhic ngqo ngokwayo.

Ukusuka kwimbono ye-halakhic, umYuda ngumntu ozelwe ngumama ongumYuda okanye oguqulwe ngokuchanekileyo.[4] Esi sisazisi sakhe kwingqiqo ye-halakhic, kwaye akunandaba nokuba wenza ntoni, kwaye ngokukodwa ukuba ugcina okanye akayigcini i-mitzvos. Halachically ngokuqinisekileyo kufuneka ahlale kubo, kwaye kunokwenzeka ukuxoxa ukuba lowo ungenzi njalo usisaphuli-mthetho kwaye kufuneka kwenziwe ntoni kuye. Kodwa umbuzo wokuba ngubani awukhathali. Amabinzana afana nelithi "waphuma kuSirayeli wonke" ubukhulu becala angumzekeliso, kwaye akanantsingiselo yokwenyani kwihalakhah. Kwaye nokuba zinentsingiselo ethile, i-halakhah ichaza ngokweendlela zayo zobugcisa.

Isazisi seSizwe: Umahluko phakathi kweziVumelwano kunye nezinto ezinokwenzeka

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku siye sajongana nemibuzo yesazisi kwimbono ye-halakhic-inkolo. Ngokwembono yentanda-bulumko ngokubanzi, eyona nto iphambili kumdla ikubuntu bobuzwe kungekhona kunqulo. Sele ndiyichazile into yokuba ubuwena besizwe ngokubanzi yinto engacacanga nenzima ukuyichaza. Apha ndiya kugxininisa kakhulu kwiipali ezimbini ezigqithisileyo ngokumalunga nenkcazo yesazisi sesizwe: indlela yokuvuma (i-conventionalist) kunye neyona nto ibalulekileyo (i-essentialist).

Umbuzo wobuzwe kunye nesazisi sesizwe ngumbuzo omtsha kwaye ngokusisiseko wale mihla. Mandulo, ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukahlukeneyo, abantu bebengafane bazibuze ukuba ubuzwe babo buyintoni na nendlela yokubuchaza. Ihlabathi lalizinza ngakumbi, abantu zange benze utshintsho oluninzi kubomi babo, kwaye kwakunganyanzelekanga ukuba bajongane nezazisi zabo kunye nezazisi ezikhuphisanayo. Kuyathandabuzeka ukuba ngaba bekukho uluvo olwahlukileyo lwesazisi sesizwe ezingqondweni zabo, kwaye nokuba bekukho utshintsho kweso sazisi zifike ngokuzenzekela nangokwendalo nangokungazi. Ubuni besizwe bemvelo, bufana nobuntu kunye nosapho olukhankanywe ngasentla. Imvelaphi yonqulo nayo yaba negalelo kumdla, njengoko inkoliso yabantu yayineempawu zonqulo. Kwihlabathi langaphambili kwakukho imbono yokuba ubukumkani sisipho esivela kuThixo kwabo bazalelwe ukuba babe ngookumkani, kwaye ngoko bubuzwe bethu kunye nonqulo lwethu kunye nokunxulumana nabo. Zonke ezi zadalwa kunye nehlabathi ngeentsuku ezintandathu zeGenesis, kwaye zathatyathwa njengesiqhelo kwaye zathatyathwa njengesiqhelo.

Kwixesha langoku, ngokunyuka kobuzwe eYurophu nakwihlabathi ngokubanzi, umbuzo waqala ukudada ngamandla. Ubunzima bokuchaza ubuni besizwe buvelise iimpendulo ezithi ubukhulu becala ziphakathi kweepali ezimbini: eyokuqala yipali yesiqhelo ebona ubuni besizwe njengento esekelwe kwisivumelwano esiphantse sibe ngqongqo. Xa iqela lizibona lingabantu, noko ukuba lihlala ixesha elithile, kuba lingabantu. Imbongi u-Amir Gilboa, ngo-1953, emva kokusekwa kombuso, wayichaza ngolu hlobo: "Ngokukhawuleza umntu uvuka ekuseni kwaye uvakalelwa kukuba ungumntu, kwaye uqala ukuhamba." Enye ipali ziimbono ezibambekayo ezibona isazisi sesizwe njengento yendalo kunye neyakhiwe, kanye njengesazisi somntu. Xa umntu ezibuza ngakumbi malunga nobume bento "yendalo" engathandekiyo, ubuzwe, ukuthandana ngamanye amaxesha kuza kwimetaphysics. Ngokwezi ndlela, ubuzwe bunobukho bemetaphysical ngandlel 'ithile, into efana nombono kaPlato, kwaye abantu abenza isizwe babandakanyiwe kweli qumrhu ngenxa yonxibelelwano lwabo lwemetaphysical kulo. Ihashe ngalinye leleqela lamahashe ngaphandle kwemfuneko yokuchaza ngokucacileyo ukuba yintoni ihashe. Ulihashe nje, yiloo nto ke. Ngokunjalo, wonke umntu waseBelgium ukwiqela laseBelgian ngaphandle kokuzibophelela kuzo naziphi na iinkcazo. Akunjalo nje ngokuba kunzima ukucebisa iinkcazo, kodwa ngenxa yokuba akukho mfuneko. Isazisi sesizwe yingcamango yendalo kanye njengesazisi somntu kunye nosapho.

Kubalulekile ukuqonda ukuba amazwi ka-Amir Gilboa achaza ukuvuswa kwesizwe ayenokuthi abhalwe ngaphakathi kwesakhelo se-substantive-metaphysical conception, kodwa apha iya kuba kukuvuka kwamava, apho inyani efanayo yemetaphysical eyayikade ilele ngaphambili ingena kwiingqondo zabantu. . Ivuselela kubo kwaye bafuna ukuyiqonda ngokusebenza, kwiimvakalelo eziphathekayo zezopolitiko nezentlalo. Ngokukhawuleza umntu uyaphakama aze azive inyani yemetaphysical (eye yahlala iyinyani) yokuba ungabantu, kwaye uqala ukuhamba. Kwezothando indoda yokuvuswa kwesizwe yavuka ngengqiqo yokuvuka kwi-coma, ngokuchaseneyo nombono ovumelanayo apho wavuka khona utolikwa njengokunyuka ukusuka emhlabeni ukuqalisa ukuhamba. Ingxoxo-mpikiswano imalunga nokuba ukusekwa kukuvuswa okanye ukusekwa.

Isazisi sesizwe: indlela yokuvumelana kunye nenkcazo yayo

Kwicala ekuvunyelwene ngalo lemephu kume abantu abacingayo abafana noBenedict Anderson, kwincwadi yakhe enefuthe Uluntu lwentelekelelo (1983), nabanye abaninzi balandela. Ezi ziyabukhanyela ubukho bomxholo obalulekileyo weengqikelelo ezifana nobuzwe kunye nesazisi sesizwe. Abo banale ndlela babona ubuzwe njengoluhlobo lweentsomi ezingeyomfuneko ezidalwe kwaye ziqaqambise kwiingqondo zamaqela athile kuyo yonke imbali yabo (edla ngokukwabelwana ngayo). Kubalulekile ukuqonda ukuba oku akuthethi ukuba oku kuvuswa akuvumelekanga, okanye ukuba iimfuno kunye namabango anokujongelwa phantsi. ngokuqinisekileyo akunjalo. Ubuni besizwe bukhona njengenyaniso yezengqondo kwaye ibalulekile ebantwini, kwaye ngenxa yoko abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba ifanelwe intlonipho. Kodwa ngokwenene yinto engafanelekanga. Ukulola intsingiselo yale ndlela, umfundi uya kundixolela ukuba ndinikela iziqendu ezimbalwa kwimicimbi yangoku apha.

Umzekelo ocacileyo wenkqubo yesikolo esivumeleneyo ngumbono kaProf Shlomo Zand. UZand ngumbhali-mbali osuka kwiYunivesithi yaseTel Aviv, owayefudula ekwizangqa zeCompass kwaye engowesangqa sasekhohlo kwaSirayeli. Kwincwadi yakhe ephikisanayo Bayilwa nini yaye njani abantu abangamaYuda? (Wrestling, 2008), uZand ukhethe ukuhlalutya umzekelo ocela umngeni ngokukodwa ithisisi kaBenedict Anderson. Uzama ukubonisa apho ukuba abantu bamaYuda luluntu lwentelekelelo. Lo msebenzi unebhongo ngokukodwa, kuba naluphi na uluvo lwethu malunga nesikhundla sikaAnderson, ukuba kukho umzekelo kwihlabathi (laseNtshona) elihluke kakhulu kwithisisi yakhe ngabantu bamaYuda. Enyanisweni, ngokombono wam (kunye noluvo lwabanye abaninzi) incwadi kaZand inika igama elibi kuphando lwembali, kwaye ngokukodwa iyayijongela phantsi loo mahluko asisiseko kunye nobalulekileyo phakathi kweengcinga kunye nophando lwezemfundo.[5] Kodwa into emvumelayo ukuba enze konke oku kukungacaci kakuhle kwengcamango yesazisi sesizwe.

Ukuba siqhubeka neziganeko zangoku, umzekelo ocacileyo ngokukodwa ovela kwelinye ipali, lowo uqinisekisa kakuhle umbono kaAnderson, ngabantu basePalestina. AmaPalestine ngabantu abasekelwe ngokucacileyo kwisazisi sentelekelelo (ethi ngamanye amaxesha ibandakanye iimbono ezingeyonyani, ezinje ngokuba ngamaFilisti okanye amaKanan ebhayibhile, okanye nakwiminyaka yangaphambili)[6], Idalwe phantse ngaphandle kwanto ngokwemigaqo yembali.

Kunengqiqo ukukhomba apha intsingiselo eqhelekileyo yokuqulunqwa kwemvumelwano. Ekuqaleni kwencwadi yakhe, uZand unikezela le ncwadi: "Esikhumbuzweni sabahlali base-al-Sheikh Mu'anis abaye basuswa kwiindawo ezikude ukusuka apho ndihlala khona kwaye ndisebenza ngoku." Ithoni iyachaza kwaye izolile, kwaye ebusweni bayo ibonakala ingayiboni njengengxaki. Ukuba ubuni besizwe buyinto yentelekelelo ngendalo, ngoko enye ingqikelelo yesazisi ityhala enye. Iza kwaye iyanyamalala. Le yindlela yehlabathi. Ngokutsho kwakhe, ezi zizibakala zengqondo kwaye hayi amaxabiso metaphysical okanye iinyaniso, hayi neenyaniso zembali. Eli lelinye icala lemali yesiqhelo ebona izazisi zesizwe njengentelekelelo.

Isigqibo sesokuba, ukuba ubuni besizwe ngenene sisivumelwano esingenamkhethe, ngoko ke kunokwenziwa izigqibo ezibini (nangona kungeyomfuneko) (nangona kungabi njalo): 1. Amaqumrhu anjalo akanamalungelo okwenene. Izizwe zizidalwa ezingenamqolo, ezingenabomi ngaphandle kweengcinga zabantu. 2. Isazisi sesizwe siyinxalenye yesazisi sabantu abaninzi kwaye enyanisweni akukho nto yimbi yesazisi sesizwe (esiyinyani ngokwenene), ke into yokuba isazisi esicingelwayo ayithethi ukuba amabango kunye namabango amaqumrhu anjalo anokuthi ijongelwe phantsi.

Ngokumangalisayo, uninzi lwabanini bale ndlela bavumela ukuba bayisebenzise ukugxeka isazisi esinye (kwimeko kaZand, umYuda-wamaYuda) kwaye babatyhola ngokufihla indibano yentlalontle engafanelekanga necingelwayo, ukuze sizazi, kwaye Kwangelo xesha linye ukusuka kulo mbono kanye.Olunye uphawu lokucinga (iPalestine, kumzekelo weZand). Ubungenangqondo bugqithiswa ngakumbi kukuba abantu bamaYuda ngokukodwa bangumzekelo ongaphantsi kokuphumelela kwaye abantu basePalestina bangumzekelo ocacileyo wobuzwe obucingelwayo. Ndiya kuphinda kwaye ndigxininise ukuba andizimisele apha ukuxoxa malunga nobudlelwane obufanelekileyo kwibango loluntu olunjalo lokwamkelwa kwezopolitiko, njengoko lo ngumbuzo we-normative-value-political question. Apha ndijongana kuphela nenkcazo yembali-yenkcubeko kunye nokugxeka ukungahambisani kwingxoxo.

Isazisi seSizwe: Indlela eBalulekileyo

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ndiye ndema kwisiqhelo kunye nemeko eyingxaki yayo. Mhlawumbi kanye ngenxa yobu bunzima, abanye bathatha ingcamango yesazisi sesizwe kwiindawo zemetaphysics. Ukuvuswa kwesizwe eYurophu, kunye nokuvuswa kwesizwe samaYuda okwabonakaliswa kwintshukumo yeZionist kwaye kwaphenjelelwa kakhulu yi-romanticism yesizwe yaseYurophu. Ezi ntshukumo zihlala zivakalisa imo yokuba ubuzwe busekwe kwinto ethile yemetaphysical (abantu, isizwe). Ukubonakaliswa okugqithiseleyo kwale mbono kubonakala kumagama obufasi (kwiJamani kaHitler, iBismarck, namanye amaninzi ngaphambi kwawo, kwanakwiItali yaseGaribaldi nezinye). Ezi zimo zengqondo zabonakaliswa kwingcamango yeTorah ngoRabbi Kook nabafundi bakhe. Ezi zamkela le ngcamango yemetaphysical, zaza zayijika yaba ngundoqo wokholo lwamaYuda. Intlantsi yamaJuda, imfiliba, ifihliwe, iphikwa kwaye icinezelwe, nokuba inokuba yintoni na, yiyo echaza ubuYuda bomntu. Isidima sikaSirayeli kunye nokwahluka kwemvelo kunye nemfuza yawo wonke umYuda, kwaba phantse umlinganiselo okhethekileyo kubuYuda, ngakumbi xa zonke iimpawu zemveli (ukugcinwa) zathi shwaka, okanye zayeka ukuba yidinomineyitha ekuvunyelwene ngayo. "I-Knesset yakwaSirayeli" ijikile isuka kwizafobe ibe yintetho ye-ontological yembono yamaYuda yemetaphysical.

Ndibonisa apha indlela ebambekayo ekuphenduleni enye, kodwa kwi-axis yembali kuyacaca ukuba i-substantive (nangona ingasoloko i-metaphysical) i-conception yandulela ukuqhelekileyo. Ngokwembali, ibiziindlela eziqhelekileyo eziye zavela ukuphendula kwiindlela ezibambekayo. Ukuba indlela ebaluleke kakhulu ichongiwe kunye ne-modernism kunye nokuvuswa kobuzwe, ngoko i-conventionalism yinxalenye ye-post-national "i-critique entsha" echongwa kunye nesikhundla esibizwa ngokuba yi-postmodernism.

I-paradox esisiseko

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ndichaze iimbono ezimbini ezichaseneyo. Zingqubana phi? Nguwuphi umahluko phakathi kwabo? Ndicinga ukuba kweli nqanaba sikwimeko emangalisayo. Iprayori abo banendlela yesibini, ezona zibalulekileyo, bakhululekile ekufuneni iinkcazo zobuzwe. Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, ngokutsho kwabo, nabani na onobudlelwane nombono we-metaphysical (Knesset of Israel) ungumYuda. Nangona kwimpikiswano yokuguqulwa siva ngokuphindaphindiweyo malunga nengxabano "yeMbewu kaSirayeli" njengesiseko sokufuna ukuququzelela inkqubo yokuguqulwa, kwaye akumangalisi ukuba ivela ikakhulu kwizangqa ezikufutshane noRabbi Kook. Yimetaphysics esichaza njengamaYuda, kwaye ke ngoko sikhululekile kwimfuno yeenkcazo zenkqubo. Kwi-metaphysical romantics, isazisi somJuda sisinyani esinamandla esingaxhomekekanga kumxholo, ixabiso, okanye nayiphi na enye inqobo. Kambe ke, abo banesimo sengqondo esinjalo banokukholelwa ukuba wonke umYuda umele agcine imilinganiselo nemithetho yeTorah, kodwa oku akunanto yakwenza nengcaciso yakhe njengomYuda nesazisi sakhe.

Kakade ke, ngokutsho kwengcamango yezinto eziphathekayo-ye-metaphysical, iimpawu ezahlukeneyo zesazisi sesizwe samaYuda zinokuphakanyiswa, kodwa ngokwembono yazo ezi ziimpawu ezihambelanayo, oko kukuthi, azibalulekanga ngenjongo yokuchaza uhlanga. Kwanabo bangazijongiyo bangamaYuda ngenxa yokuba bekwingcamango yamaYuda yemetaphysical. Njengoko kungalindelekanga, umbuzo wesazisi ungaphandle kwingcinga yemveli.

Kwelinye icala, abo banendlela eqhelekileyo, abo bangakholelwayo kwi-metaphysical romance, bafuna iinkcazo ezininzi, iikhrayitheriya kunye neempawu abanokuthi bagwebe ngazo ukuba ngubani na ongowalo le identity yesizwe kwaye ngubani na. Yiyo loo nto bezibuza ukuba kutheni singamaYuda nje. Ukuba ayisiyiyo imetaphysics, yintoni ke? Kodwa abaxhamli besiqhelo abayifumani ingcaciso enjalo ebambekayo, kwaye ke bafika kwiimbono zesazisi esicingelwayo. Uninzi lwazo lwamkela ingcaciso engabonakali ngathi kukuqhubekeka kwendalo kobuntu bamaYuda njengoko kwakubonwa kumawaka eminyaka ngaphambi kwethu. Ukufunda iincwadi zika-Amos Oz, ukuthetha isiHebhere, ukukhonza emkhosini kunye nokuhlawula irhafu efanelekileyo kurhulumente, ukutshutshiswa ngokuBulawa Kwabantu Ngenkohlakalo, kwaye mhlawumbi nokuphefumlelwa yimithombo yeTorah, ziimpawu zobuYuda namhlanje. Kule nto kufuneka kongezwe imbali efanayo kunye nomlibo wokuzalwa. Yinyani kwaye yiyo kuphela eyona nto ibonakalisa amaYuda kwixesha lethu (nangona ingengawo onke). Ukuba kunjalo, ngokombono wabo ubunikazi besizwe bukwaluhlobo lwenyani, kanye njengokuba kwindlela ye-metaphysical, ngaphandle kokuba apha yinyaniso yezengqondo-zembali kwaye kungekhona inyaniso ye-metaphysical.

Imibuzo emibini iphakama ngokunxulumene nendlela yesiqhelo:

  • Kungayiphi ingqiqo esenza ukuba oku kuchazwa kobuzwe kuqhubekele phambili nokubonakala kwayo kwangaphambili? Ukuba kuphela isazisi esicingelwayo sisisiseko sokuqhubekeka, ngoko akwanelanga. Kufuneka siqale sichaze iqela kwaye emva koko sinokubuza ukuba zeziphi iimpawu zalo. Kodwa okoko nje iimpawu zingekho singalichaza njani iqela? Lo ngumbuzo ohleli ngaphandle kwesisombululo esanelisayo, kwaye akunakubakho isisombululo esanelisayo kuwo kumfanekiso ovumelanayo. Njengoko kuchaziwe, nabo babambe isikhundla esibalulekileyo abanaso isisombululo kulo mbuzo, ngaphandle nje kokuba abakhathazwa kwaphela yiyo.
  • Ngaba ezi ngcaciso ngokwenene "ziyawenza umsebenzi"? Emva kwayo yonke loo nto, ezi nkcazo azikwazi ukumelana nalo naluphi na uvavanyo olubalulekileyo. Cinga ngoseto olucetyiswe ngasentla. Ukuthetha ngolwimi lwesiHebhere ngokuqinisekileyo akuthethi ukuba amaYuda awazi umahluko phakathi, yaye kwelinye icala kukho amaYuda amaninzi angakwaziyo ukuthetha isiHebhere. Nokuba unxibelelwano neBhayibhile alufani naloo nto (ubuKristu buqhagamshelwe ngokunzulu ngakumbi kuyo, kwaye uninzi lwamaYuda aluqhagamshelwanga kuko konke konke). Ukuhlawulwa kweerhafu kunye nenkonzo yasemkhosini ngokuqinisekileyo ayifani namaYuda (amaDruze, ama-Arabhu, abasebenzi abafudukayo kunye nabanye abemi abangengomaYuda benza oku ngokufanelekileyo). Ngokwahlukileyo koko, kukho iqaqobana lamaYuda alungileyo angakwenziyo oko, yaye akukho namnye ubuthandabuzayo ubuYuda bawo. UAmos Oz kunye neBhayibhile zifundwa emhlabeni wonke, nokuba azikho ngolwimi lwantlandlolo. Kwelinye icala, ngaba uncwadi olubhalwe ePoland lunxulumene neBhayibhile lukwanobuYuda? Ngoko ke yintoni eseleyo?

Kubalulekile ukuqaphela apha ukuba ngokuqinisekileyo kukho iimpawu zomlingiswa wamaYuda, njengoko kunokutshiwo ngophawu oluhlangeneyo lwabanye abantu abaninzi. Kodwa iimpawu zomlinganiswa azifani ngokwesizwe. Ngaphezu koko, ukuze sithethe ngophawu lomlinganiswa kufuneka aqale achaze iqela elinikwe lona. Emva koko, kukho abantu abaninzi ehlabathini abanikwe umlingiswa onokuwela phantsi kwenkcazo yomlingiswa wamaYuda, kodwa akukho mntu uya kuthi angamaYuda. Kuphela emva kokuba sazi ukuba ngubani na umYuda, sinokujonga iqela lamaYuda kwaye sibuze ukuba kukho naziphi na iimpawu zomlingiswa ezibabonakalisayo. Kukwakho nembali yamaYuda kunye nemvelaphi efanayo, kodwa ezi zizibakala nje. Kunzima ukubona ixabiso kuzo zonke ezi zinto, kwaye akucaci ukuba kutheni konke oku kubonwa njengengxaki ekhoyo kwaye njengento efuna ukuchazwa. Kuyinyani ukuba uninzi lwamaYuda anemvelaphi efanayo kunye nembali ngandlela ithile. Ke ngoku? Ngaba ikho indawo yebango elivela kumntu ukuba abe ngumYuda, ngokwengqiqo yomlibo wokuzalwa kunye nembali? Ukuba unjalo ngoko unjalo, kwaye ukuba akunjalo, akunjalo.

Ukuba kunjalo, nokuba sivuleleka kakhulu kwaye sibhetyebhetye, kusenzima ukukhomba umnwe kwikhrayitheriya ebukhali yokuba ngubani na ongumYuda wesizwe ngokwexabiso kwindlela yokuvumelana. Mhlawumbi kufuneka samkele indlela eyamkelweyo kuxilongo lwezengqondo (kwaye ngamanye amaxesha nangonyango), ngokubhekiselele ekubeni ubukho bomlinganiselo othile weempawu kuluhlu olunikiweyo buya kwenza inkcazo eyanelisayo yesazisi samaYuda? Njengoko ndibonisile apha ngasentla, kunzima ukubona oku njengomlinganiselo owanelisayo. Ngaba ukho kuthi onokunikela uludwe olunjalo? Ngaba kukho nabani na kuthi onokuchaza ukuba kutheni isithandathu kolu luhlu lweempawu kufuneka, endaweni yesixhenxe okanye ezintlanu? Yaye ngaphezu kwako konke, ngaba lo mgaqo uya kuphumelela ngokwenene ukwahlula phakathi kwamaYuda nabangemaYuda ngendlela enokuthenjwa? Ngokucacileyo akunjalo (jonga imizekelo engentla).

Ngenxa yolu hlobo luyingxaki, uninzi lwabantu abaqhelekileyo babuyela apha kwiindawo ze-halakhic genetics, okuthetha ukuba nabo bafuna isazisi samaYuda kumama. Abanye baya kuyixhoma kwisazela somntu: umYuda ngulowo uzivayo aze avakalise ukuba ungumYuda.[7] Isetyhula eyakhelwe-ngaphakathi kunye nokungabi nanto yale nkcazo ayibakhathazi ngokwenene abantu abaqhelekileyo. Izivumelwano zikulungele ukwamkela nayiphi na indibano, nokuba isesetyhula okanye ayinantsingiselo nanini na. Ukuba semthethweni kwayo kungenxa yokuba bavumelana ngayo. Kodwa kulindeleke ukuba uluntu lwentelekelelo luya kuvuma ukuseka ubuni balo kwiikhrayitheriya zokucinga. Ngaphaya kwazo zonke ezi ngxoxo, isezinyani okanye iingxoxo ezingento, ezingayichaziyo ingxaki ekhoyo malunga nalo mba.

URabi uShach kwintetho yakhe ecatshulwe ngasentla uhlasela inkcazo yobuJuda, kwaye ukwenza oko ngokwemigaqo ye-halakhic. Ibonisa ngokusisiseko uhlobo lwendawo ebambekayo, kodwa hayi i-metaphysical (isazisi sesizwe malunga nokuzibophelela kumaxabiso athile). I-Wikipedia 'Intetho Yemivundla kunye neeHagu' ichaza indlela uRebbe waseLubavitch aphendule ngayo kwintetho yemivundla kaRabhi Shach ngolu hlobo:

ULubavitcher Rebbe', Indawo yePlugata KaRabhi uShaki iminyaka emininzi, waphendula intetho ngentetho yakhe, awayinikelayoiSabatha Emva koko kwi-beit midrash yakhe. URebbe wathi akukho mntu uvumelekileyo ukuba athethe kakubi ngabantu bamaYuda. Imbono yamaJuda yeyokuba “uSirayeli, nangona isono sikaSirayeli siseso,” abantwana bakwaSirayeli “bangonyana okuphela kwakhe” Zonke Nalowo uthetha ekugwetyweni, abe njengalowo uthetha umgwebo kaThixo; Wonke umYuda kufuneka ancediswe ukugcina yonke into Imiyalelo Unqulo, kodwa aluyihlaseli nangayiphi na indlela. URebbe wachaza abantu bexesha lakhe ngokuthi "iUdim igutyungelwe ngumlilo", kwaye "Iintsana ezithinjiweyo", Ukuba bangabi nakubekwa tyala ngolwazi lwabo nesimo sengqondo ngakumaYuda.

Lo ngumzekelo wokusabela kohlobo lwe-metaphysical. Kwelinye icala, owayesakuba ngumongameli ngelo xesha, uHaim Herzog, wavakalisa impendulo yesiqhelo kumazwi kaRabhi Shach, xa wayezibuza ukuba ubuYuda bee-kibbutzniks zeKubilnik kunye namabanjwa aseka urhulumente kwaye asebenza emkhosini ngokuzinikela okukhulu. wabuza. Ke uRabhi Shach ulungiselela ntoni? Akayamkeli i-metaphysics, kwaye akazimisele ukuba ngumntu oqhelekileyo. Ngaba kukho inketho yesithathu?

Ngaba iikhonsepthi ezingachazekiyo azikho?

Isigqibo esicacileyo sesokuba ingcamango yobuzwe bamaYuda ayinakuchazwa. Kuyenzeka ngokuqinisekileyo ukunika iinkcazo ezahlukeneyo, ngamnye ngokwenqanaba lakhe lokuyila, kodwa ngokuqinisekileyo akunakwenzeka ukuvumelana ngenkcazo, kwaye ubuncinci kumaqela amaninzi ababonakali bengabakhupheli ngaphandle abo bangahambelaniyo nenkcazo yabo. wonke uSirayeli (logama nje unina engumYuda). Ngaba oku kuthetha ukuba umntu onjalo yintelekelelo, nto leyo ethetha ukuba akakho ngokwenene umYuda? Ngaba ekuphela kwenketho yemetaphysics okanye ihalakhic formalism yingxelo? Andiqinisekanga.

Lo mbuzo usisa kwiindawo zefilosofi ukuba akukho ndawo yokungena apha, ngoko ke ndiza kuzama ukubamba nje ngokufutshane. Sisebenzisa amagama amaninzi angacacanga, njengobugcisa, ukuba nengqiqo, inzululwazi, idemokhrasi nokunye. Nangona kunjalo njengoko sisondela ekuchazeni ingcamango enjalo sidibana neengxaki ezifana nezi zichazwe apha. Abaninzi baphetha ngokusuka koku ukuba ezi ngcamango ziyintelekelelo, kwaye bade bakhe ngeenxa zonke kuyo ibhotwe elihle lasemva kwesimanje (uqhagamshelwano oluqikelelwayo kuRabhi Shagar alukho ngengozi). Umzekelo ocacileyo wale ncwadi kaGidiyon Ofrat, Inkcazo yobugcisa, Ngubani onikezela ngeenkcazo ezininzi ezahlukeneyo zengcamango yobugcisa kwaye uyawagatya, ade ekugqibeleni afike kwisigqibo sokuba ubugcisa buyinto eboniswa kwimyuziyam (!). Kwelinye icala, uRobert M. Piersig, kwincwadi yakhe yonqulo Zen kunye nobugcisa bokugcina isithuthuthu, Ichaza uhambo olufuziselayo lukanjingalwazi we-rhetoric ogama linguPhydros, okwiphulo lokuchaza ingqikelelo yomgangatho. Ngaxa lithile ufumana ukukhanyiselwa, egqiba kwelokuba intanda-bulumko yamaGrike ibangele ukuba sicinge ukuba yonke ingcamango kufuneka ibe nenkcazo, kwaye ingcamango ngaphandle kwenkcazo ayikho (icingelwa). Kodwa ingcamango efana nomgangatho mhlawumbi ayinakuchazwa, kwaye nangona kunjalo uyala ukwamkela isigqibo sokuba ngumbono ongenawo umxholo wokwenyani. Indibano nje. Kucacile ukuba kukho unxibelelwano olusemgangathweni kwaye kukho abanye abangenalo. Ngomlinganiselo ofanayo, kukho imisebenzi yobugcisa kwaye kukho imisebenzi yexabiso eliphantsi lobugcisa. Isiphelo sesokuba iikhonsepthi ezinjengomgangatho, okanye ubugcisa, nangona kunzima kwaye mhlawumbi akunakwenzeka ukuchazwa, zisekhona. Akuyomfuneko ukuba zicingelwe.

Kubonakala ngathi ibango elifanayo linokwenziwa kwimeko yesazisi sesizwe. Umntu unokwamkela ithisisi ebalulekileyo yokuba kukho isazisi sesizwe ngaphandle kwesidingo semetaphysics. Isazisi sesizwe sineempawu ezahlukeneyo kwaye kunzima ukunika inkcazo ngayo, kwaye noko akuyomfuneko malunga neengcinga okanye iindibano, kwaye akukho mfuneko malunga nemetaphysics. Inokuba yingcamango yokwenyani ye-amorphous enzima okanye engenakwenzeka ukuyichaza. Kum kubonakala ngathi ingcaciso ebambekayo efanayo iphantsi kwengcamango kaRabhi Shach (nangona ephakamisa inkcazo ye-halakhic, kwaye engawamkeli ukwenzeka kwenkcazo yesizwe). Uxoxa ukuba kukho inkcazo ebalulekileyo yesazisi sobuJuda, kunye neemfuno zamabango abantu asekelwe kuwo. Kwelinye icala, akayiboni imetaphysics njengenye indlela eyanelisayo. Mna ke, andithandi ukucinga njalo. Ngaphandle kwemetaphysics andiboni ukuba umntu anokuthetha njani ngequmrhu lesizwe ngokwendlela ye-ontological. Kodwa kum kuyacaca ukuba abaninzi abavumelani nam kule nto.

Izigqibo

Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku ifilosofi. Kodwa ngoku kuza umbuzo olandelayo: Kutheni le nto konke oku kubalulekile? Kutheni le nto sifanele sichaze, okanye side sizame ukuqonda, ubuYuda? Impendulo yam kukuba ayinamsebenzi kwaphela. Akukho ziphumo zichaphazela lo mbuzo, kwaye ubukhulu becala ngumba wohlalutyo lobukrelekrele (udla ngokuba ludlolo, kwaye mhlawumbi ungenanto yomxholo). Ukuba ndingona kwi-psychology yesitulo se-armchair, ukukhangela isazisi samaYuda yimbonakaliso yokuzinikela kwinkolo yamaYuda kunye nembali ngaphandle kokuzimisela ukuzisebenzisa. Abantu bajonge ezinye iindlela kwisazisi esasikade sinkolo, ukuze bazive bengamaYuda emva kokuchithwa kwesazisi kunye nokuzibophelela kwezenkolo. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, kuyilwa imibuzo emitsha kunye neengcamango ezintsha, kwaye kwenziwa umgudu omkhulu nolilize wokuziqondwa.

Ngokombono wam, akukho ndlela yokuxoxa ngengxoxo ehlakaniphile malunga nobunikazi bamaYuda, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo ungafikeleli kwizigqibo malunga nayo, engabalulekanga ngokwenene. Ukuba yingqungquthela ngoko kutheni niphikisana ngezivumelwano. Ngamnye uya kusayina izivumelwano ezibonakala kuye. Ukuba yimetaphysics, andiboni ukuba ifikeleleka njani kwingxoxo-mpikiswano kunye nengxoxo. Kwaye nokuba siyayamkela ingqikelelo ebambekayo yesazisi sesizwe samaJuda (ngokuchasene ne-halakhic) yesazisi, oku kwakhona akufikeleleki kwiinkcazo, ukuxoxa, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo ayisisigqibo esivunyelweneyo. Ezi ziziphakamiso ze-semantic, ezininzi zazo ezingenasiseko, kwaye ezinye zingenanto ngokupheleleyo kumxholo, okanye azilumeli uvavanyo lwako nakuphi na ukuba nengqiqo. Ngaphezu koko, njengoko ndibonisile, konke oku akunantsingiselo ebonakalayo. Le yimizabalazo yabantu ngokwasengqondweni kunye nabo, kwaye akukho okunye.

Le ngxoxo ingeyomfuneko nengabalulekanga ngoku isetyenziswa ikakhulu ukuhlaba umchasi. Nabani na ofuna ukukhuthaza iingcamango zobusoshiyali - usichazela sonke ukuba ubuYuda buhlala bunontlalontle, kwaye nabani na ongenjalo akangomYuda. Abanye abanomdla kwiingcamango zomkhosi bakwabonisa ubuYuda nobuYuda. Kunjalo ke ngedemokhrasi, ukulingana, ubungxowankulu, inkululeko, ukungafihli nto, ukunyanzeliswa, uthando nobubele, ubulungisa bentlalo, nazo zonke ezinye izinto ezixabisekileyo eziphakamileyo. Ngamafutshane, ubuYuda bukukhanya kwabeeNtlanga, kodwa imo yoko kukhanya ngokusisiseko ayinakuphikiswa kwaye ayinazigqibo. Ngokungafaniyo nezinye iimpikiswano, ezinokuba ziindlela zokucacisa nezinokuba nexabiso elithile kuyo, impikiswano ephathelele ubuYuda ngokomgaqo ayicombululeki yaye ayibalulekanga nangayiphi na indlela.

Inye into ecace gca: akukho nalunye kolu luhlu lwemilinganiselo (ubusoshiyali, impi, ubulungisa kwezentlalo, ukulingana, inkululeko, njl.njl.), okanye naliphi na elinye ixabiso, elinokwenza into ebalulekileyo, eyimfuneko okanye eyaneleyo kwingcaciso Isazisi somYuda. Nabani na okholelwa kuyo nayiphi na kwezi xabiso okanye kuyo nayiphi na indibaniselwano yazo unokuba ngumntu onobubele kuzo zonke iimbono kunye nokungathandabuzekiyo. Akukho nto ibangela ukuba ube yintlanga ye-socialist, ukukhuthaza ukulingana okanye inkululeko, i-militarist okanye hayi. Ke ngoko, zonke ezi aziyiyo inqobo efanelekileyo yesazisi samaYuda, nokuba kwenzeka into engakholelekiyo (kwaye ungoyiki, mhlawumbi ayizukwenzeka) kwaye umntu uya kuba nakho ukungqina ngokwesithethe samaJuda kunye nemithombo ukuba enye yezi yinxalenye ye. inkqubo yolu phawu.

Ubunjalo bamaYuda kwixesha lethu

Isigqibo sesokuba impikiswano ngobuzwe belizwe ililize kwaye ayinaxabiso. Njengoko besele ndikhankanyile, kukwanjalo ngokunxulumene nobuni benkolo. Nabani na ozelwe ngumama ongumYuda okanye oguqule ngokufanelekileyo kufuneka agcine imiyalelo yeTorah kunye namazwi ezilumko kwaye angenzi izikreqo. yiyo leyo. Iinkcazo zomntu, isazisi sakhe, kunye neminye imifuno, yinto ephantsi, kwaye ibe yengqondo, i-metaphysical, i-conventional, okanye mhlawumbi i-amorphous (engenakuchazwa) enye ye-amorphous. Zonke izinto ezinokwenzeka zinokulunga, ngoko ke akukho sizathu sokuxoxa ngazo.

Makhe sihlolisise unokuba yintoni umphumo wengxubusho enjalo? Ngaba umntu uya kuziva anelisekile kukuba engumYuda olungileyo? Ukuziva ulungile ngumbandela kwiisayikholojisti. Iingxoxo malunga nokuba ungubani kwingqiqo yexabiso ziyinkqantosi kunye nesemantics engenanto, kwaye ke ngoko akuyomfuneko. Ukuba impembelelo yekhonkrithi inikezelwa esinomdla ekuchazeni isazisi, ngoko kuya kwenzeka (mhlawumbi) ukuxoxa ngemibuzo efanelekileyo malunga nayo. Kodwa okoko nje kuyingxoxo ngokubanzi, wonke umntu uya kuchaza ubuYuda babo njengoko benqwenela. Nangona enye ilungile kwaye enye iphosakele, lo mbuzo awufanele ube nomdla nakubani na, ngaphandle kwabaphandi abambalwa bezemfundo abaphila ngokuhlalutya kwe-semantic. Kwelinye icala, ndingubani mna ukuba ndingaphazamisana nalo mzamo wobugorha nolilize? I-Sisyphus ikwayinxalenye yesazisi sethu senkcubeko…[8]

[1] Eldad Beck waseJamani, YNET, 1.2.2014.

[2] Inkqubo yokungabi nankolo iphakamisa imiba yesazisi senkolo (ngaba ithetha iProtestanti, yamaSilamsi, okanye yamaKatolika, eyehlabathi?).

[3] Ukuba sijongene neenkcazo, ngoko uhlobo lwe-mitzvos ekuthethwa ngalo kunye nokukhuthaza ukugcinwa kwabo kubaluleke kakhulu. Kwanokuba umthetho ufuna ukuziphatha okuhle, akunakwenzeka ukuba ubuchaze ubuYuda ngolu hlobo ekubeni buqhelekile kubo bonke abantu behlabathi. Nkqu ne-mitzvot efana nokuhlaliswa kwe-Eretz Yisrael, engeyiyo imo yokuziphatha, ayinakuchaza isazisi samaYuda esingokwenkolo, kuba ikhona nakwabo bangazichaziyo njengenxalenye yenkolo yamaYuda, kuba kwiimeko ezininzi impembelelo. ngokuba ubukho bazo buphuma ndaweni-nye.

[4] Nangona uguqulo lukwayinkqubo yona ngokwayo eyimpikiswano njengeminye imiba ye-halakhic, yanele kwiimfuno zethu.

[5] Oku akuzange kuthintele ukuba incwadi iguqulelwe kwiilwimi ezingamashumi amabini kwaye iphumelele iimbasa kwihlabathi jikelele.

[6] Khawubone, ucaphula ileta kaEldad Beck ecatshulwe ngasentla.

[7] Eyona nto ndiyikhumbulayo, owayengumongameli ngelo xesha, uHaim Herzog, ekuphenduleni kwakhe intetho yomvundla, kunye nabanye abaninzi ukuza kuthi ga namhlanje, bakhankanye le "nqobo." Nabani na onovakalelo olusengqiqweni uyamangaliswa sesi siganeko sibangel’ umdla. Sifuna ukuchaza ingcamango yamaYuda, kwaye senze ngale ndlela ilandelayo: yonke into enokuthi ibekwe endaweni ye-X kwifomathi elandelayo: "X owaziva u-X" kwaye inkcazo iphuma yinyaniso, ingamaYuda. Ngokwale nkcazo, nasiphi na isidalwa esizaziyo esingazixokiyo singumYuda (jonga iqela lokubeka).

[8] Kungenzeka ukuba kufuneka siqonde kwakhona isigqibo sikaGidiyon Ofrat ngasentla. Mhlawumbi akathethi ukuba akukho nto injengobugcisa, kodwa ugqiba nje ukuba ingxoxo ngayo ayiyomfuneko kwaye ayinasiqhamo.

Iingcinga ezi-3 "ngoBume bamaYuda ngexesha lethu nangokupheleleyo"

  1. Xa umchaza umYuda njengomntu ozicingela ukuba ungumYuda, awuthethanga nto. Amagama asetyenziswe kwinkcazo kufuneka aqheleke ngaphambi nangaphandle kwayo. Ke ukuba sithatha ukuba igama elithi umJuda ngu-X kwaye inkcazo kufuneka icaciswe, ngoko ke into oyithethileyo kwingcaciso enjalo kukuba umJuda ngu-X ocinga ukuba ngu-X.

  2. andivumi. Ukuchonga imathiriyeli engachazwanga kwaphela. EKabbalah kukho inkcazo yobuthixo kunye nokubengezela njalo njalo. Logama nje umntu ethetha kwiTorah engacacanga ngoko yinkcazo engenantsingiselo. Kukho ngokuqinisekileyo inkcazo. Kodwa andizumzisela ngoku. Into engekhoyo kwinkcazo ithetha ukuba akukho mgaqo omanyanisa wonke umntu ukuchonga omnye. Kwaye ke akukho sazisi esinye kubo bonke. Kukho i-nafkamina yesazisi samaJuda. Ngenxa yokuba ndizibona ndingumYuda kwaye andithandabuzi ukuba ungubani umYuda. Kule nto ndizidibanisa naye kwaye xa ndisenza isenzo esithile kwaye ndiyichaza njengesenzo samaYuda, ngoko ndithi umYuda, inxalenye yemilinganiselo yakhe yamaYuda kukwenza ezi zenzo. Oko akuyonyani ngokwenene kuba ikati ngokomzekelo iziphatha ngokuthozama ngaphandle kokuba nenkolo yesidima nangona kunjalo umntu unesakhono sokuziphatha okwenja kwaye atye phantsi ngenxa yomnqweno wokuphumeza enye injongo. Nangona indlela ayikhethileyo ichasene nendalo.

    Ukuba umYuda ngokwenene uzibona njengomYuda omtsha kwaye azikhwebule kubuJuda, omnye, umzekelo, akayi kusebenzisa uMthetho wokuBuyisa. Ngokukodwa ukuba yenziwa kumaziko karhulumente njengombuso wamaYuda. Kodwa xa uqhagamshelo luqhawulwe ke lubizwa ngokuba sisini kwaye ngokomthetho wamaYuda kufuneka kubangele ukufa okungathanga ngqo.

    Ngoko ukuba sonke sizibona singamaYuda. Nangona kukho iiyantlukwano ke kukho into enye sonke esifana ngayo ukuba yintoni ebangela ukuba singayeki inkcazelo yethu yamaYuda. Kwaye ukuzibandakanya kwethu kudityaniswe nawo onke amaYuda asehlabathini. Le asiyonkcazelo esemthethweni kuba namaYuda angawaziyo umthetho ayakuvuma oko. Le yinkcazo yendlela yokuphila efunwa ngamaYuda onke. Le yinkcazo enentsingiselo ebomini bakhe njengomYuda nokuba kungoxa nje efuna ukuqonda le ngcaciso. Kuyo nayiphi na imeko, liziko lexabiso. Enoba kukuzama ukuyiqonda okanye kukuzama ukungayinanzi ngokunyanzelwa. Kuba kwanaloo nto sisimo sengqondo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ixabiso elingenalo ubudlelwane alikhanyeli into angacingi ngayo konke kwaye aliyi kulawula iingxabano.

Shiya uluvo