Ingabe impendulo i-mitzvah?

Derech Chaim - XNUMX

I-BSD ARA XNUMX

I-Ramban ekuhlaziyeni kwayo kweNcwadi kaDuteronomi (ekuqaleni kwesahluko L) ithi kune-mitzvah yokwenza i-teshuva.[1] Le mitzvah ifundwa evesini (ibid.): "NeSabatha libe kuJehova uNkulunkulu wenu." Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uMaimonides eMthethweni Wokuphenduka ( XNUMX:XNUMX, XNUMX ) ubhala ukuthi leli vesi liyisithembiso sikaNkulunkulu sokuthi ukuphela kukaIsrayeli kuyokwenza ukuphenduka. Ingabe indlela kaMaimonides nayo ine- mitzvah yokuphenduka?

הisikhundla (Mitzvah Shasad) nabanye sebevele bakhombe ukuphikisana okusobala ngalesi sikhathi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, bIncwadi Yemiyalo (Mitzvah Ag) UMaimonides uyabhala:

Nguye owayala ukuba sivume izono kanye nobubi esibenzile phambi kukaMvelinqangi akhuphuke futhi akusho ngempendulo.

Awukho umyalo lapha wokuphendula. Indaba yokuvuma isono ibalulwe lapha njenge- mitzvah enemibandela: uma umuntu evuma, kufanele asho avume ngokufezwa kwesivumo (futhi konke lokhu ngokuletha umhlatshelo). Yona kanye isenzo sokwenza i-teshuva asibonakali njenge-mitzvah lapha (njengasekuhlatshweni, noma ubani ofuna ukudla inyama kufanele ahlabe ngokusemthethweni. Ukuhlaba kuyi- mitzvah enemibandela, kodwa ukudla inyama ngayinye akuyona i-mitzvah)[2].

Kulokhu kuphetha umyeni Umsizi wezemfundo (Mitzvah Shasad), ukuthi uma umuntu onesono engabuyi, akanaso nhlobo isijeziso ngokungaphenduki (ujeziselwa icala elidlule kuphela). Wengeza ngokuthi lanxa ephendukile engavumanga, kazange asule iMitzvah eyenziwa nguDavido, ngoba le akusiyo ipositive mitzvah (it is an ‘existential’ mitzvah, lowo oyenzayo inomvuzo, kodwa owephulayo. yona futhi ingakwenzi ayikhanseli lutho).[3]

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, enomboloni ye-mitzvos eyandulela imithetho yokuphenduka, uMaimonides ubhala kanje:

Umthetho owodwa wenziwa, futhi uwukuthi isoni sibuya esonweni saso phambi kukaNkulunkulu futhi sivume.

Ngakho-ke kuvela isithombe esibonakala sihlukile. Umuntu owonayo uyalwa ukuba abuye ezenzweni zakhe ezimbi, futhi ngaphezu kwalokho uyalwa ukuba avume. Lapha impendulo yethulwa njenge-matzah eyenziwe, futhi inezingxenye ezimbili: ukwenza impendulo nokuvuma.[4] Lokhu kungqubuzana nalokho esikubonile emazwini kaMaimonides bIncwadi Yemiyalo. Encazelweni yendlela kaMaimonides, kwashiwo iziqondiso ezihlukene, futhi esimweni samanje azikuchazi ngempela lokhu kungqubuzana. Sizonikeza lapha indlela ehlukile, ngokusekelwe ekuqondeni indima ye Incwadi Yemiyalo Nokuqonda indaba yempendulo.

Njengoba kungase kubonakale ekuhloleni izimpande ezine ezandulela uMaimonidesIncwadi Yemiyalo Okwakhe, uMaimonides ufaka ekhoramuni yakhe kuphela ama-mitzvo anomyalo ocacile kuyiTorah. I-Mitzvot efundwa ku-midrasha (bheka lapho empandeni yesibili), noma evela ku-Sabra, noma evela ku-Knesset, ayifakiwe kwikhoramu yethu. Uma kunjalo, kungase kube nezikweletu ezivela ku-Dauriyta ezingashiwongo kuIncwadi Yemiyalo. Isiphetho siwukuthi iqiniso lokuthi i-mitzvah ayiveli lapho akusho ngempela ukuthi akuyona i-mitzvah.[5]

Ingabe ukhona umyalo ocacile kuTorah mayelana nomyalo we-teshuva? Sibonile ngenhla, ukuthi ngokukaMaimonides ivesi elithi “NeSabatha kuJehova uNkulunkulu wakho” liyisithembiso hhayi umyalo. Noma kunjalo, bIsandla esinamandla UMaimonides uletha umsebenzi wokuphenduka njengomsebenzi ophelele. Isixazululo salokhu ukuthi nakuba kunecala, lisuka ku-sabra hhayi ibhayibheli, ngakho aliveli ku-Safamatz. Ngokuphambene, bIsandla esinamandla UMaimonides uletha yonke imisebenzi yethu ye-halakhic, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi ivela eTorah, evela emidrasha, noma eThekwini noma isiko, ngakho-ke isibopho sokuphenduka siyavela lapho.

Sithole ukuthi okungenani ngokukaMaimonides isibopho sokwenza impendulo sisekelwe kuSabra. Uma ngempela ukhona umzila uNkulunkulu awudalele ukuba sibuyele kuwo futhi ahlawulele izono zethu, khona-ke ngokusuka kuSabra kufanele siwusebenzise (bheka iMidrash evela kuBrish Shaarei Teshuvah Ku-R.I., mayelana nomhlabathi ogwedlwayo ejele, lapho zonke iziboshwa kufanele zihambe).

Lesi futhi isizathu esenza ukuthi ku-H. Teshuvah Maimonides angagcini nje ngokubhala imithetho, kodwa futhi uchaza inqubo ye-Teshuvah, futhi aphindaphinde ubuhle bombhali we-Teshuvah (bheka i-Ibid. F) ehambisana nokwenzeka kanye nesibopho sokwenza impendulo. Asilutholi lolu hlobo lokubhala kwamanye amafayela we-halachic kaMaimonides. Kuvele ukuthi konke lokhu kuhloswe ukusiqinisekisa ukuthi impendulo kumele yenziwe, futhi kungenziwa. Isizathu esenza uMaimonides encwadini yakhe ethi halakhic azame ukusenza sikholelwe ukuthi mitzvah, ukuthi awukho umyalo ku-mitzvah (= impendulo). Isisekelo sawo sikuSabra, ngakho-ke uMaimonides kumelwe asiqinisekise ukuthi nokho kuyisibopho ukwenza kanjalo, futhi lokhu akuwona nowodwa wemithetho ebaluleke kakhulu (futhi bheka Lacham PG HG, owabhala ukuthi lowo ongaphendukanga esenzweni uyomangalelwa ngakho, futhi usizi kuyisono ngokwaso. Ngokuphambene namazwi kaisikhundla Lokhu okungenhla kokuthi ukungaphenduli akulona neze icala. Futhi mhlawumbe kukhona ukuhlukana phakathi kokwenza kanye nonyaka wonke).

Emaphethelweni ezinkulumo zethu siphawula ukuthi ngokuvamile ukuntuleka kwemithetho mayelana nemisebenzi ye-halakhic kungenxa yokuthi ayibalulekile ngokwanele ukuba ifakwe ku-halakhic dauriyta. Kodwa kunemiyalo okushodayo kwayo ngenxa yokubaluleka kwayo nokuphelela kwayo. Kuma-mitzvos ayizisekelo emsebenzini ka-Gd, iTorah iyaqaphela ukuthi ingasiyaleli, ukuze sikwenze lokho ngaphandle kwe-teruta deltata.

Urabi ezincwadini zakhe ubhala isimiso esiyisisekelo esifanayo mayelana nomsebenzi wokulunga. Ucacisa lapho ukuthi ezintweni ezibalulekile emsebenzini kaNkulunkulu kusekelwe umbono wokuqala wokuthi ongayaleli futhi awenze mkhulu. Ngaleso sizathu iTorah ayizange isiyale ngazo.[6] Umsebenzi wokuphendula uyisibonelo esihle salokhu.

Baba wethu neNkosi, sibuyile ngokuphenduka okuphelele phambi kwakho.

Ngifisela iBeit Yeshiva yonke, iRosh Yeshiva Shlita, izisebenzi ezizinikele, bonke abafundi abathandekayo kanye nemindeni yabo jikelele iBeit Yisraeli yonke, ukubhala okuhle nokusayina encwadini yamaTzaddiks. Kwangathi kungaba unyaka wempumelelo nokuphumula okungcwele. Unyaka wempilo (ikakhulukazi kumfana othandekayo u-Israel Yosef ben Ruth ben Tolila kanye nathi sonke). Unyaka ka-aliyah eTorah nomsebenzi, nempumelelo kuzo zonke izenzo zethu.

[1] Futhi yebo bimpilo yomuntu, FuthiShaarei Teshuvah R.I.

[2] Nakuba i-GRIP ekuchazeni kwakheIncwadi Yemiyalo Of Rasg, uchaza ukuthi indlela ye-Rasg ine-mitzvah yokudla inyama lapho isimo sethu sisihle, okufundwa evesini: Kodwa lena indlela eyingqayizivele, futhi ngokuqinisekile umthetho wokuhlaba ukhona esimweni lapho umuntu efuna nje ukudla inyama, ngisho nalapho umkhawulo wayo ungebanzi futhi ingekho i-mitzvah ekuyidleni.

[3] Umbono wakhe ulula: uma ngempela ukuphenduka ngaphandle kokuvuma isono kwakuyisono, okungukuthi, ukwesulwa kwenzile, ngoba isimo salowo owonile futhi wenza ukuphenduka ngaphandle kokuvuma isono sibi kakhulu kunalowo owonayo futhi ongaphendukanga nhlobo. Lokhu akunakwenzeka Yebo.

[4] Kunezibonelo eziningi ze-mitzvos ezifaka imininingwane ethile. Isibonelo, umyalo wezinhlobo ezine, noma umyalo wentshakaza (okukhanyayo okwesibhakabhaka nokumhlophe). Bona ngalokhu kumpande XNUMX kaMaimonides.

[5] Ngakho abanye baye bachaza ukungabikho kwe- mitzvah ka-Yishuv Ai ekubaleni kwezinombolo ze-mitzvos, nakuba kunobunye ubufakazi bokuthi uMaimonides naye uyavuma ukuthi lena i-mitzvah evela kuyiTorah.

[6] Bheka futhi isihloko esithi "Umnikelo kanye No-Challah: Phakathi Kwemithetho Nentando KaNkulunkulu", Emini Kaz (futhi lapho ngahlukanisa phakathi kwezinhlobo ezimbili zama-mitzvos anjalo).

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