Ngaba impendulo yi-mitzvah?

Derech Chaim - XNUMX

BSD ARA XNUMX

URamban kugqabaza lwakhe lweNcwadi yeDuteronomi (ekuqaleni kwesahluko L) uthi kukho i<em>mitzvah yokwenza i<em>teshuva.[1] Le mitzvah ifundwa kwivesi (ibid.): "NeSabatha niyenzele uYehova uThixo wenu." Kwelinye icala, uMaimonides kwimithetho yenguquko ( XNUMX:XNUMX, XNUMX ) ubhala ukuba le ndinyana sisithembiso esivela kuThixo sokuba isiphelo sikaSirayeli siya kwenza inguquko. Ngaba indlela kaMaimonides nayo ine<em>mitzvah yokuguquka?

הisikhundla (Mitzvah Shasad) kunye nabanye sele bekhombe kwinkcaso ecacileyo kweli nqanaba. Kwelinye icala, bIncwadi yeMithetho (Mitzvah Ag) UMaimonides ubhala athi:

Nguye owayalela ukuba sivume izono kunye nobugwenxa esibenzileyo phambi kokuba u-Thixo anyuke aze azithethe ngempendulo.

Akukho myalelo apha wokuphendula. Umba wokuvuma izono ukhankanywa apha njenge- mitzvah enemiqathango: ukuba umntu wenza isivumo, kufuneka athethe isivumo ngokufezwa kovumo (yaye yonke le nto ngokuzisa idini). Kwa esi senzo sokwenza iteshuva akubonakali njenge mitzvah apha (njengaxa kuxhelwa, nabani na ofuna ukutya inyama makaxhele ngokusemthethweni.[2].

Umyeni uqukumbela koku Umququzeleli wezemfundo ( Mitzvah Shasad ), ukuba xa umntu onesono engabuyi, akanaso isohlwayo kwaphela ngenxa yokungaguquki (wohlwaywa kuphela ngenxa yesono esidluleyo). Wongezelela ngelithi, nokuba uguqukile akavuma, akazange awucime ummiselo owenziwa nguDavide, ekubeni le ingeyomtzvah eyakhayo (iyinto ‘ekhoyo’, lowo uyenzayo unomvuzo, kodwa nabani na owaphulayo. yona kwaye ingayenzi ayirhoxisi nantoni na).[3]

Kwelinye icala, kwinani lee-mitzvos ezandulela imithetho yenguquko, uMaimonides ubhala ngolu hlobo:

Umthetho mnye wenziwa, ibe kukuba umoni abuye esonweni sakhe phambi koThixo aze asivume.

Kungoko kuvela umfanekiso obonakala wahlukile. Umntu owonileyo uyalelwa ukuba abuye kuzo zonke izenzo zakhe ezibi, kwaye ukongezelela uyalelwa ukuba avume. Apha impendulo ichazwa njengenziwe matzah, kwaye inamacandelo amabini: ukwenza impendulo kunye nokuvuma.[4] Oku kungqubana noko sikubonileyo kumazwi kaMaimonides bIncwadi yeMithetho. Kwingcaciso yenkqubo kaMaimonides, kwachazwa ulwalathiso olwahlukahlukeneyo, yaye kwimeko yangoku aluchazi ngokupheleleyo olu ngquzulwano. Siza kunika apha ulwalathiso olwahlukileyo, olusekwe ekuqondeni indima ye Incwadi yeMithetho Nokuqonda umbandela wempendulo.

Njengoko kunokubonwa kuhlolisiso lweengcambu ezine ezandulela uMaimonidesIncwadi yeMithetho Eyakhe, uMaimonides ufaka kwikhoram yakhe kuphela iimitzvo ezinomyalelo ocacileyo kwiTorah. IMitzvot efundwa kwimidrasha (bona phaya kwingcambu yesibini), okanye kuSabra, okanye kwiKnesset, ayiqukwanga kwikhoram yethu. Ukuba kunjalo, kunokubakho amatyala avela kwiDauriyta angakhankanywanga kuyoIncwadi yeMithetho. Isiphetho kukuba into yokuba i- mitzvah ayibonakali apho ayithethi ukuba ayiyiyo i-mitzvah.[5]

Ngaba kukho umyalelo ocacileyo kwiTorah malunga nomyalelo wenguquko? Sibonile ngasentla, ukuba ngokutsho kukaMaimonides indinyana ethi “neSabatha kuYehova uThixo wakho” lidinga kungekhona umyalelo. Sekunjalo, bIsandla esomeleleyo UMaimonides uzisa uxanduva lokuguquka njengomsebenzi opheleleyo. Isisombululo kule nto kukuba ngelixa kukho intlawulo, isuka kwi-sabra kungekhona ibhayibhile, ngoko ayibonakaliSafamatz. Ngokwahlukileyo, bIsandla esomeleleyo UMaimonides uzisa yonke imisebenzi yethu ye<em>halakhic, enoba ivela kwiTorah, ivela kwi<em>midrasha, okanye ivela eThekwini okanye isiko, yaye ngoko ke imbopheleleko yokuguquka ibonakala apho.

Siye safumanisa ukuba ubuncinane ngokutsho kukaMaimonides imbopheleleko yokwenza impendulo isekelwe kuSabra. Ukuba ngokwenene kukho ijelo asidalele lona uThixo ukuba sibuyele kulo kwaye sicamagushele izono zethu, ngoko ngokulula ukusuka eSabra kufuneka siyisebenzise (jonga iMidrash ebonakala kwiBrish. Shaarei Teshuvah eR.I. malunga nendawo ephantsi komhlaba ebhexwayo entolongweni, apho wonke umbanjwa ufanele ukuba aphume khona).

Esi sizathu sokuba kwi-H. Teshuvah Maimonides ingadweli kuphela imithetho, kodwa ichaza inkqubo yeTeshuvah, kwaye iphinda ifunde ubuhle bombhali we-Teshuvah (jonga i-Ibid. F) ephantsi kwento enokwenzeka kunye nesibophelelo sokwenza impendulo. Asilufumani olu hlobo lokubhala kwezinye iifayile ze<em>halachic zikaMaimonides. Kuyavela ukuba zonke ezi zenzelwe ukusiqinisekisa ukuba impendulo kufuneka yenziwe, kwaye inokwenziwa. Isizathu sokuba uMaimonides kwincwadi yakhe ye<em>halakhic azame ukuseyisela ekubeni senze i<em>mitzvah, kukuba akukho myalelo kwi<em>mitzvah (= impendulo). Isiseko sawo siseSabra, ngoko ke uMaimonides umele asiqinisekise ukuba nangona kunjalo kunyanzelekile ukwenjenjalo, yaye lo asingowona myalelo ubalulekileyo (yaye bona Lacham PG HG, owabhala ukuba lowo ungazange aguquke kwisenzo uya kumangalelwa ngenxa yaso, kwaye uyeha sisono ngokwaso. Ngokuchaseneyo namazwi kaisikhundla Oku kungasentla ukuba ukungaphenduli ngokuqinisekileyo akulotyala. Kwaye mhlawumbi kukho iyantlukwano phakathi kokwenza kunye nonyaka wonke).

Kwimida yamazwi ethu siyaqaphela ukuba ngokuqhelekileyo ukungabikho kwemithetho malunga nemisebenzi ye-halakhic kubangelwa ukuba akubalulekanga ngokwaneleyo ukuba kufakwe kwi-halakhic dauriyta. Kodwa kukho i-mitzvot apho ukunqongophala komyalelo kubangelwa ngokuthe ngqo kuninzi lokubaluleka kunye nokucokiseka kwayo. Kwii-mitzvos ezisisiseko kumsebenzi we-Gd, iTorah ilumkile ukuba ingasiyaleli, ukuze senze oko ngaphandle kwe-teruta deltata.

Urabhi kwiincwadi zakhe ubhala umgaqo osisiseko ofanayo ngokuphathelele ukusebenza kwesidima. Ucacisa apho ukuba kwizinto ezisisiseko emsebenzini kaThixo ingcamango yokuqala yokuba lowo ungayaleliyo nowenza mkhulu iyaxhaswa. Ngenxa yoko, umthetho awusiwiselanga mthetho ngazo.[6] Umsebenzi wokuphendula ngumzekelo obalaseleyo woku.

Bawo wethu, Kumkani wethu, sibuyile phambi kwakho ngenguquko epheleleyo.

Ndinqwenelela iBeit Yeshiva yonke, iRosh Yeshiva Shlita, abasebenzi abazinikeleyo, bonke abafundi abathandekayo kunye neentsapho zabo ngokubanzi yonke iBeit Yisraeli, ukubhala okuhle kunye nokutyikitywa kwincwadi yeTzaddiks. Mayibe ngunyaka wempumelelo nokuphumla okungcwele. Unyaka wempilo (ngokukodwa kwinkwenkwe ethandekayo u-Israel Yosef ben Ruth ben Tolila kunye nathi sonke). Unyaka ka-Aliyah kwiTorah nomsebenzi, nempumelelo kuyo yonke imisebenzi yethu.

[1] Kwaye ewe yena bubomi bomntu, KwayeShaarei Teshuvah R.I.

[2] Nangona i-GRIP ekutolikeni kwakheIncwadi yeMithetho Of Rasg, icacisa ukuba indlela yeRasg ine-mitzvah yokutya inyama xa imeko yethu intle, efundwa kule ndinyana: Kodwa le yindlela ekhethekileyo, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo umthetho wokuxhela ukho kwimeko apho umntu afuna nje ukutya inyama, nangona umda wayo ungekho banzi kwaye akukho mitzvah ekuyidleni.

[3] Umbono wakhe ulula: ukuba ngenene inguquko ngaphandle kovumo yayisisono, oko kukuthi, ukucinywa kwenzile, kuba ngoko imeko yalowo wonayo waza wenza inguquko ngaphandle kokuvuma izono imbi kakhulu kunalowo wonayo waza akaguquka konke konke. Oku akunakwenzeka kunjalo.

[4] Kukho imizekelo emininzi ye-mitzvos ebandakanya ezinye iinkcukacha. Ngokomzekelo, umyalelo weentlobo ezine, okanye umyalelo we-tassel (ukukhanya okwesibhakabhaka nomhlophe). Bona oku kwingcambu ye-XNUMX kaMaimonides.

[5] Ngaloo ndlela bambi baye bacacisa ukungabikho kwe<em>mitzvah kaYishuv Ai kwinani lee-mitzvos, nangona kukho ubungqina bokuba uMaimonides naye uyavuma ukuba le yi<em>mitzvah evela kwiTorah.

[6] Bona kwakhona amanqaku "Igalelo kunye neChallah: phakathi kweMithetho kunye neNtando kaThixo", Emini emaqanda Kaz (kwaye apho ndahlula phakathi kweentlobo ezimbini zeemitzvos ezinjalo).

Shiya uluvo