Amsa ita ce mitzvah?

Derech Chaim - XNUMX

BSD ARA XNUMX

Ramban a cikin sharhinsa akan Littafin Maimaitawar Shari'a (farkon sura ta L) ya bayyana cewa akwai mitzvah don yin teshuva.[1] An koyi wannan mitzvah daga ayar (ibid.): "Kuma Shabbat ga Ubangiji Allahnku." A wani ɓangare kuma, Maimonides a cikin Dokokin Tuba (XNUMX: XNUMX, XNUMX) ya rubuta cewa wannan ayar alkawari ce daga Allah cewa ƙarshen Isra’ila zai tuba. Shin hanyar Maimonides kuma tana da mitzvah don tuba?

הmatsayi (Mitzvah Shasad) da sauransu sun riga sun nuna sabani a fili a wannan lokacin. A gefe guda, bLittafin Dokoki (Mitzvah Ag) Maimonides ya rubuta:

Shi ne ya yi umarni da a yi furuci da zunubai da laifofin da muka yi kafin Allah ya hau ya ce da su da amsa.

Babu umarni a nan don ba da amsa. An ambaci batun ikirari a nan a matsayin mitzvah na sharaɗi: idan mutum ya yi ikirari, dole ne ya faɗi ikirari tare da aiwatar da ikirari (kuma duk wannan tare da kawo hadaya). Haka aikin teshuva ba kamar mitsiba yake ba a nan (kamar yadda ake yanka duk wanda yake son ya ci nama sai ya yanka shi bisa shari’a. Yanka mitsitsi ne na sharadi, amma cin nama da kowa ba shakka ba mizawa bane).[2].

Daga nan sai miji ya ƙarasa Malamin ilimi (Mitzvah Shasad), cewa idan mai zunubi bai dawo ba, ba shi da wani hukunci ko kaɗan don rashin tuba (ana azabtar da shi ne kawai don laifin da ya gabata). Ya kara da cewa ko da ya tuba bai yi furuci ba, bai fasa wani mitsitsin da Davidoi ya yi ba, tun da wannan ba mitzvah mai kyau ba ne (mitzvah ‘existential’ ne, wanda ya yi shi yana da lada, amma duk wanda ya keta haddi). shi kuma baya yi ba ya soke komai).[3]

A daya bangaren kuma, a kididdigar mitzvos da ke gaban dokokin tuba, Maimonides ya rubuta kamar haka:

An yi doka ɗaya, kuma ita ce mai zunubi ya dawo daga zunubinsa a gaban Allah ya furta.

Don haka hoto da alama daban ya fito. An umurci wanda ya yi zunubi ya dawo daga munanan ayyukansa, haka nan kuma an umarce shi da ya yi ikirari. Anan an gabatar da amsar kamar yadda aka yi matzah, kuma tana da abubuwa guda biyu: ba da amsa da ikirari.[4] Wannan ya saba wa abin da muka gani a cikin kalmomin Maimonides bLittafin Dokoki. A cikin bayanin hanyar Maimonides, an bayyana kwatance daban-daban, kuma saboda a fayyace ba su yi cikakken bayani kan wannan sabani ba. Za mu bayar a nan wata hanya dabam, dangane da fahimtar rawar da Littafin Dokoki Da kuma fahimtar lamarin amsar.

Kamar yadda ake iya gani daga binciken tushen guda huɗu da ke gaban MaimonidesLittafin Dokoki Nasa, Maimonides ya sanya a cikin kundinsa kawai mitzvos waɗanda ke da takamaiman umarni a cikin Attaura. Mitzvot da aka koya daga midrasha (duba can a tushe na biyu), ko daga Sabra, ko daga Knesset, ba a haɗa su a cikin ƙungiyarmu ba. Idan haka ne, za a iya samun basussukan Daurita da ba a ambata a ciki baLittafin Dokoki. Ƙarshen ita ce, kasancewar mitzvah bai bayyana a wurin ba, ba lallai ba ne yana nufin cewa ba mitzvah ba ne.[5]

Shin akwai wata doka bayyananna a cikin Attaura game da umarnin tuba? Mun gani a sama, cewa a cewar Maimonides ayar “Kuma Asabar ga Ubangiji Allahnku” alkawari ne ba umarni ba. Har yanzu, bHannu mai ƙarfi Maimonides ya kawo aikin tuba a matsayin cikakken aiki. Maganin hakan shine, alhali akwai caji, ya samo asali ne daga sabra ba littafi mai tsarki ba, don haka bai zo a ciki ba.Safamatz. Sabanin haka, bHannu mai ƙarfi Maimonides ya kawo dukkan ayyukanmu na halak, ko daga Attaura, daga midrasha, ko daga Durban ko al'ada, don haka wajibin tuba shima ya bayyana a can.

Mun gano cewa akalla a cewar Maimonides wajibcin bayar da amsa ya dogara ne akan Sabra. Idan da gaske akwai tashar da Allah ya halitta domin mu koma mu kuma gafarta mana zunubanmu, to daga Sabra kawai dole ne mu yi amfani da ita (duba Midrash da ya bayyana a cikin Brish). Shaarei Teshuvah Zuwa ga R.I, game da hanyar karkashin kasa da ake yin tuhume-tuhume a gidan yarin, wanda ta cikinsa ne kowane fursuna ya kamata ya bi).

Wannan kuma shi ne dalilin da ya sa a cikin H. Teshuvah Maimonides ba kawai lissafin dokoki ba ne, amma kuma ya kwatanta tsarin Teshuvah, da kuma karanta kyawawan dabi'un marubucin Teshuvah (duba Ibid. F) wanda ke da alaƙa da yiwuwar da kuma wajibi don yin wani abu. amsa. Ba mu sami irin wannan rubutun a cikin sauran fayilolin halchic na Maimonides ba. Sai ya zama cewa duk waɗannan ana nufin su gamsar da mu cewa dole ne a ba da amsa, kuma za a iya yi. Dalilin da ya sa Maimonides a cikin littafinsa na halak ya yi ƙoƙari ya shawo kan mu mu yi mitzvah, shi ne cewa babu wani umarni a cikin mitzvah (= amsar). Tushensa yana cikin Sabra, don haka dole ne Maimonides ya gamsar da mu cewa duk da haka wajibi ne a yi haka, kuma wannan ba ɗaya daga cikin manyan dokoki ba (kuma duba). Lacham PG HG, wanda ya rubuta cewa wanda bai tuba ba a cikin aikin za a tuhume shi, kuma kaiton zunubi ne a kansa. Sabanin maganar damatsayi Abin da ke sama cewa rashin ba da amsa ba laifi ba ne. Kuma watakila akwai raba tsakanin yi da sauran shekara).

A cikin tafsirin maganganun mu mun lura cewa yawanci rashin umarni da hukumce-hukumce da suka shafi ayyukan halak na faruwa ne saboda rashin muhimmancin shigar da su cikin halak daurita. Amma akwai mitzvot waɗanda rashin umarnin ya kasance saboda mafi yawan mahimmancin su da kuma cikas. A cikin mitzvos waɗanda suke ginshiƙai a cikin aikin Gd, Attaura tana mai da hankali kada ta umarce mu, domin mu yi haka daga iteruta deltata.

Malami a cikin wasiƙunsa ya rubuta irin wannan ƙa’ida ta asali game da aikin nagarta. Ya fayyace a can cewa a cikin muhimman abubuwan da ke cikin aikin Allah, tunanin farko na cewa wanda ba ya yin umarni da aikatawa yana da girma. Don haka ne Attaura ba ta umarce mu da su ba.[6] Wajibin amsa shine babban misali na wannan.

Ubanmu kuma Sarkinmu, mun dawo da cikakkiyar tuba a gabanka.

Ina yi wa dukan Beit Yeshiva, da Rosh Yeshiva Shlita, da ma'aikatan da suka kwazo, da dukan ƙaunatattun ɗalibai da iyalansu gaba ɗaya dukan Bet Isra'ila, kyakkyawan rubutu da sa hannu a cikin littafin Tzaddiks. Allah ya sa shekara ce ta nasara da hutu mai tsarki. Shekarar lafiya (musamman ga yaron ƙaunataccen Isra'ila Yosef ben Ruth ben Tolila da kuma dukanmu). Shekarar aliya a cikin Attaura da aiki, da babban rabo a cikin dukkan ayyukanmu.

[1] iya brayuwar mutum, KumaShaarei Teshuvah R.I.

[2] Ko da yake GRIP a fassararsa zuwaLittafin Dokoki Na Rasg, ya bayyana cewa hanyar Rasg tana da mitzvah don cin nama idan yanayinmu ya yi kyau, wanda aka koya daga ayar: To amma wannan wata hanya ce ta musamman, kuma tabbas shari'ar yanka ita ma tana wanzuwa a wani yanayi da mutum kawai yake son cin nama, ko da kuwa iyakarsa ba ta da fadi kuma babu mitsitsi a cikin cin nama.

[3] Ganinsa mai sauƙi ne: idan da gaske tuba ba tare da ikirari zunubi ba ne, wato sokewa ya yi, domin yanayin wanda ya yi zunubi kuma ya tuba ba tare da ikirari ba ya fi wanda ya yi zunubi kuma bai tuba ba ko kaɗan. Wannan ba shakka ba ne.

[4] Akwai misalai da yawa na mitzvos waɗanda suka haɗa da wasu cikakkun bayanai. Misali, umarnin nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau’in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau'in nau’in nau’in nau’in nau’in nau’in nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nau’i nauya)” nau’i”. Dubi wannan a tushen XNUMX na Maimonides.

[5] Don haka wasu sun bayyana rashin mitzvah na Yishuv Ai daga mai ƙididdige mitzvos, ko da yake akwai wasu shaida cewa Maimonides kuma ya yarda cewa wannan mitzvah ne daga Attaura.

[6] Duba kuma labarin "Taimakawa da Challah: Tsakanin Dokoki da Nufin Allah", La'asar Kaz (kuma a can na bambanta tsakanin nau'i biyu na irin wannan mitzvos).

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