Kodi yankho ndi mitzvah?

Derech Chaim - XNUMX

BSD ARA XNUMX

The Ramban mu ndemanga yake ya Bukhu la Deuteronomo (chiyambi cha mutu L) akunena kuti pali mitzvah kupanga teshuva.[1] mitzvah imeneyi ikuphunziridwa m’ndime (ibid.): “Ndi Sabata kwa Yehova Mulungu wanu; Kumbali ina, Maimonides m’Chilamulo cha Kulapa ( XNUMX:XNUMX, XNUMX ) akulemba kuti vesili ndi lonjezo la Mulungu lakuti mapeto a Israyeli adzalapa. Kodi njira ya Maimonides ilinso ndi mitzvah yolapa?

הudindo (Mitzvah Shasad) ndi ena anena kale kutsutsana komwe kulipo panthawiyi. Kumbali ina, bBukhu la Malamulo (Mitzvah Ag) Maimonides analemba kuti:

Ndi iye amene analamula kuti tivomereze machimo ndi mphulupulu zomwe tachimwa pamaso pa Mulungu adzakwera ndikuzinena ndi yankho.

Palibe lamulo pano kuti tiyankhe. Nkhani ya kuvomereza yatchulidwa pano ngati mitzvah yokhazikika: ngati munthu avomereza, ayenera kunena kuvomereza ndi kuphedwa kwa kuvomereza (ndi zonsezi ndi kubweretsa nsembe). Kupanga teshuva komweko sikukuwoneka ngati mitzvah pano (monga popha nyama, aliyense amene akufuna kudya nyama ayenera kupha mwalamulo.[2].

Kuchokera apa mwamuna akumaliza Wothandizira maphunziro (Mitzvah Shasad), kuti ngati munthu wochimwa sanabwerere, alibe chilango chilichonse chifukwa chosalapa (alangidwa chifukwa cha kulakwa kumene adachita kale). Ananenanso kuti ngakhale atalapa osaulula, sanachotse mitzvah yomwe adapanga Davidoi, popeza iyi si mitzvah yabwino (ndi 'existential' mitzvah, wochitayo ali ndi mphotho, koma amene waphwanya. sichichita ndipo sichichotsa chilichonse).[3]

Kumbali ina, m’chiŵerengero cha mitzvos chimene chimatsogolera malamulo a kulapa, Maimonides akulemba motere:

Lamulo limodzi linapangidwa, ndipo ndi lakuti wochimwa abwerere ku machimo ake pamaso pa Mulungu ndi kuulula.

Chifukwa chake chithunzi chowoneka chosiyana chimatuluka. Munthu amene wachimwa akulamulidwa kuti abwerere ku zoipa zake, ndipo kuonjezera apo akulamulidwa kuulula. Apa yankho likuperekedwa ngati matzah, ndipo lili ndi zigawo ziwiri: kupanga yankho ndi kuvomereza.[4] Zimenezi n’zosemphana ndi zimene tinaona m’mawu a Maimonides bBukhu la Malamulo. M’malongosoledwe a njira ya Maimonides, malangizo osiyanasiyana ananenedwa, ndipo m’nkhani ino iwo samalongosola kwenikweni kutsutsana kumeneku. Tidzapereka pano njira yosiyana, kutengera kumvetsetsa kwa udindo wa Bukhu la Malamulo Ndi kumvetsetsa nkhani ya yankho.

Monga momwe kungawonedwere m’kufufuza kwa mizu inayi imene inatsogolera MaimonidesBukhu la Malamulo Ake, Maimonides amaika mu quorum yake mamitzvo okha omwe ali ndi lamulo lomveka bwino mu Torah. Mitzvot yomwe imaphunziridwa kuchokera ku midrasha (onani apo muzu wachiwiri), kapena kuchokera ku Sabra, kapena kuchokera ku Knesset, sizikuphatikizidwa mu quorum yathu. Ngati ndi choncho, pangakhale ngongole zochokera ku Dauriyta zomwe sizinatchulidwe muBukhu la Malamulo. Chomaliza ndi chakuti mfundo yakuti mitzvah sikuwoneka pamenepo sizikutanthauza kuti si mitzvah.[5]

Kodi mu Torah muli lamulo lachindunji ponena za lamulo la teshuva? Taona pamwambapa, kuti malinga ndi Maimonides vesi “ndi Sabata la Yehova Mulungu wako” ndi lonjezo osati lamulo. Komabe, bDzanja lamphamvu Maimonides amabweretsa thayo la kulapa monga ntchito yotheratu. Njira yothetsera izi ndi yakuti ngakhale pali mlandu, umachokera ku sabra osati bible, choncho sichikuwonekera.Safamatz. Mosiyana, bDzanja lamphamvu Maimonides amabweretsa ntchito zathu zonse za halakhic, kaya kuchokera mu Tora, kuchokera ku midrasha, kapena kuchokera ku Durban kapena mwambo, ndipo chotero thayo la kulapa likuwonekeranso pamenepo.

Tapeza kuti malinga ndi kunena kwa Maimonides thayo la kupanga yankho lazikidwa pa Sabra. Ngati palidi njira yomwe Mulungu adalenga kuti tibwerere ndikuchotsera machimo athu, ndiye kuti kuchokera ku Sabra tiyenera kuyigwiritsa ntchito (onani Midrash yomwe ikuwonekera mu Brish. Shaarei Teshuvah Kwa R.I., za pansi pa nthaka zomwe zimapalasa m'ndende, momwe mkaidi aliyense ayenera kutulukamo).

Ichi ndi chifukwa chake mu H. Teshuvah Maimonides samangotchula malamulo okha, komanso akufotokoza ndondomeko ya Teshuvah, ndikubwereza ukoma wa wolemba wa Teshuvah (onani Ibid. F) zomwe zimagwirizana ndi kuthekera ndi udindo wopanga yankho. Sitikupeza zolemba zamtunduwu m'mafayilo ena a halachic a Maimonides. Zikuwonekeratu kuti zonsezi zimapangidwira kuti titsimikizire kuti yankho liyenera kupangidwa, ndipo likhoza kuchitika. Chifukwa chimene Maimonides m’buku lake la halakhic amayesa kutisonkhezera kuchita mitzvah, n’chakuti mulibe lamulo mu mitzvah (= yankho). Maziko ake ali mu Sabra, chotero Maimonides ayenera kutitsimikizira kuti ngakhale kuli kofunika kutero, ndipo ili siliri limodzi la malamulo ofunika koposa (ndipo onani Lacham PG HG, amene analemba kuti amene sanalape m’chilamulocho adzazengedwa mlandu, ndipo tsoka ndi uchimo mwa iwo okha. Mosiyana ndi mawu audindo Zomwe zili pamwambazi ndikuti kusayankha sikulakwa. Ndipo mwina pali kusiyana pakati pa kuchita ndi chaka chonse).

M'mphepete mwa ndemanga zathu timawona kuti nthawi zambiri kusowa kwa malamulo okhudza ntchito za halakhic ndi chifukwa chakuti sizofunika kuti ziphatikizidwe mu halakhic dauriyta. Koma pali mitzvot yomwe kusowa kwa lamulo kuli chifukwa cha kufunikira kwake komanso kukwanira kwake. Mu mitzvos yomwe ili maziko mu ntchito ya Gd, Torah imasamala kuti tisatilamulire, kuti tichite izi kuchokera ku iteruta deltata.

Rabi m’makalata ake akulemba mfundo yofanana ndi imeneyi ponena za ntchito ya ukoma. Iye akufotokoza momveka bwino kuti m’zinthu zofunika kwambiri m’ntchito ya Mulungu lingaliro loyamba lakuti amene salamula ndi kuchita ndi wamkulu limachirikizidwa. Pachifukwa ichi Torah siinatilamulire za iwo.[6] Udindo woyankha ndi chitsanzo cha izi.

Atate wathu ndi Mfumu, tabwerera ndi kulapa kotheratu pamaso panu.

Ndikukhumba Beit Yeshiva yonse, Rosh Yeshiva Shlita, antchito odzipereka, ophunzira onse okondedwa ndi mabanja awo onse ku Beit Yisraeli yonse, kulemba kwabwino ndi kusaina m'buku la Tzaddiks. Chikhale chaka cha kupambana ndi mpumulo woyera. Chaka chathanzi (makamaka kwa mnyamata wokondedwa Israel Yosef ben Ruth ben Tolila ndi kwa tonsefe). Chaka cha aliyah mu Tora ndi ntchito, ndi kupambana m'zochita zathu zonse.

[1] Ndipo iye bmoyo wa munthu, ndiShaarei Teshuvah R.I.

[2] Ngakhale GRIP mu kutanthauzira kwakeBukhu la Malamulo Wa Rasg, akufotokoza kuti njira ya Rasg ili ndi mitzvah kudya nyama pamene mkhalidwe wathu uli wabwino, zomwe zimaphunziridwa kuchokera ku vesilo: Koma iyi ndi njira yapadera, ndipo ndithudi lamulo lakupha limakhalapo pamene munthu amangofuna kudya nyama, ngakhale pamene malire ake sali otambasuka ndipo palibe mitzvah poidya.

[3] Masomphenya ake ndi osavuta: ngatidi kulapa kopanda kuvomereza kunali tchimo, ndiko kuti, kufafaniza, chifukwa ndiye kuti mkhalidwe wa munthu wochimwa ndi kulapa popanda kuvomereza ndi woipa kuposa amene adachimwa osalapa konse. Izi sizokayikitsa ndithu.

[4] Pali zitsanzo zambiri za mitzvos zomwe zimaphatikizapo zambiri. Mwachitsanzo, lamulo la mitundu inayi, kapena lamulo la ngayaye (kuwala kwabuluu ndi koyera). Onani za izi muzu XNUMX wa Maimonides.

[5] Motero ena alongosola kusakhalapo kwa mitzvah ya Yishuv Ai kuchokera m’chiŵerengero cha mitzvos, ngakhale kuti pali umboni wina wakuti Maimonides amavomerezanso kuti iyi ndi mitzvah yochokera mu Torah.

[6] Onaninso nkhani za "Kupereka ndi Challah: Pakati pa Malamulo ndi Chifuniro cha Mulungu", Masana Kaz (ndipo pamenepo ndinasiyanitsa mitundu iwiri ya mitzvos yotere).

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