Zotsatira zakukana kukayikira njira yanu ndi Descartes

Mayankho > Gulu: General > Zotsatira zakukana kukayikira njira yanu ndi Descartes
Zomveka Anafunsa zaka 2 zapitazo

Mtendere,
Ndinkafuna kufunsa za zomwe ndidapeza patsamba la Olapa,
Pali funso lodziwika bwino la Kant kuti palibe kugwirizana pakati pa subjective ndi dziko pa se ndi zikuwoneka zophweka, ndiye funso limabwera momwe tingakhulupirire maganizo athu kuti pali kugwirizana pakati pa dziko ndi munthu. Pambuyo pake, sizingatheke kupereka umboni wotero chifukwa nthawi zonse takhala tikukumana ndi kubwezeredwa kwa mafunso, koma zikuwoneka kuti iwo omwe sakayikira amavomereza lingaliro lakuti malingaliro oyambirira sayenera kubweretsa umboni ndipo makamaka kuti uku ndiko kutanthauzira kwawo monga kufotokozera. axiom.
Chifukwa chake ndidafuna kufunsa, kodi malingaliro olakwika akuti chilichonse chomwe chilibe chifukwa ndi chokayikitsa, chokhacho ndi chongopeka?
Ngati ndi choncho, ndiye kuti zikuwoneka kuti tili ndi udindo woganiza motsimikiza za malingaliro athu oyambirira, koma monga momwe amadziwira rabbi savomereza izi, koma m'malo mwa kutsimikizika ndi kulingalira, koma ndi momwe zimakhalira m'nkhaniyi? Kuthekera komweku kumangoganiza kuti mukuvomereza zokayikitsa zonena kuti ayi?
Komanso, kamodzi kokha ndinabwera ndi funso lokhudza Descartes yemwe malinga ndi iye sanawonekere kuti sakupeza zonse, koma chifukwa cha umboni wa ontological kuphatikiza kuti Mulungu ndi wabwino poyesa kuthetsa nkhaniyi, koma adaganiza bwanji kuti zabwinozo. ndi cholinga?

Siyani ndemanga

1 Mayankho
mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Sindikudziwa kuti ndamvetsetsa funsolo. Komabe, ndiyankhapo pang'ono pazomwe mwanena:

  1. Kant sakunena kuti palibe kugwirizana pakati pa malingaliro athu ndi dziko lapansi. Pali ndithudi kugwirizana, ndi zambiri momwe. Amangonena kuti chithunzi chomwe timachiwona ndi chinthu chozindikira. Koma iye akuimira chodabwitsa mu dziko lenilenilo. Mwachitsanzo, mafunde a electromagnetic padziko lapansi amamasulira kukhala kuwala mu chidziwitso chathu. Kodi palibe kugwirizana pakati pawo? Mwachidziwikire pali kulumikizana. Kuwala ndi chiwonetsero cha mawonekedwe a electromagnetic wave.
  2. Pali funso lomwe ladzutsidwa ku Kant, ndikuchokera komwe amadziwa kuti pali dziko palokha ngati zonse zomwe tingathe kuzipeza ndizongochitika zokha (zochitika zachidziwitso). Ndikuganiza kuti izi ndi zotsatira za mfundo ya causality, yomwe ndi mfundo yoyamba. Kuchokera pa mfundo iyi zikutsatira kuti ngati pali chodabwitsa chodziwika payenera kukhala chinachake padziko lapansi chomwe chimayambitsa izo.
  3. Sindinamvetsetse funso lachinthu chopanda chifukwa. Mukufuna kufunsa ngati pali zinthu popanda chifukwa? Mfundo n'zotheka inde, koma mfundo causality amaganiza ayi. Mu chiphunzitso cha kuchuluka, mwachitsanzo, ubale pakati pa choyambitsa ndi zotsatira zake ndi wosiyana ndipo kulibe kwenikweni m'lingaliro wamba. 
  4. Inu mukusakaniza kutsimikiza ndi choonadi. Zomwe ndikuganiza kuti palibe chotsimikizika sichikhudzana ndi zokambirana mwanjira iliyonse.
  5. Kukayikira kumatsutsana ndi kulolera. Wokayikira amaganiza kuti kutsimikizika kokha kumapereka chowonadi, monga momwe zimawonekera kuchokera ku zomwe mukunena. Koma mukulakwitsa zimenezo. 
Zomveka Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Zikomo kwambiri chifukwa cha ndemanga zina zomwe ndidamvetsetsa ndiyesetsa kumveketsa mbali zomwe sindinazimvetse.
2. Ndinafunsanso za mfundo imeneyi. Aliyense amene sakayikira akuwoneka kuti akuvomereza kuti payenera kukhala kugwirizana pakati pa dziko lapansi ndi zochitikazo (nenani maso ndi kuwala mu Doge 1), koma ngati chidziwitso chathu chonse chimamangidwa pa mfundo yoyamba monga causality ikhoza kukhala. kutanthauziridwa pazifukwa zosawerengeka momwe zowonekera kuchokera ku mphamvu zinapangidwira, ngakhale Descartes Ndi chifukwa pansi pa lingaliro lalikulu ili; Koma ambiri aife sitiganiza kuti ndi chifukwa chabwino. Ngati ndi choncho, mfundo ya causality yokha sikuwoneka yokwanira, koma ikusowa china, ngakhale kuti ikuwoneka kuti ili kumbuyo.

3. Sindinatanthauze funso lokhudza zochitika kapena zogwiritsidwa ntchito, ngakhale kuti pali kugwirizana, koma makamaka zokhudzana ndi malingaliro ndi zonena, mwachitsanzo tanthauzo la kulingalira ndikuti alibe chifukwa. Ndikuganiza kuti ndi izi zokha zomwe zitha kukhulupiriridwa, mwanjira yamalingaliro kuti Mulungu ndiye nangula wazinthu padziko lapansi. Koma ngati sitikukayikira zongoganizirako tinganene bwanji kuti chinachake n’chosatsimikizika komanso chili ndi mbali ya kulolera? Kupatula apo, malingaliro aliwonse okhudzana ndi kulolera amatengera kumbuyo kuti akhoza kukayikiridwa.
3. Komanso kumbali ina, wokayikira mu njira yake alidi wokonzeka kukayikira malingaliro, koma ngati ndi choncho, akhoza kukayikiranso lingaliro lakuti malingaliro ayenera kufunsidwa kapena kuti chirichonse popanda chifukwa chiri cholakwika. Ngati ndi choncho, kodi akuwoneka kuti akudula nthambi yake? Ayi?
5/4 ndimatanthauza ngati 3 Risha.

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

3. Mumagwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "chifukwa" mwanjira yomwe sindikumvetsetsa. Mukutanthauza kukoma / kulingalira?
Ndithudi palibe maziko a maziko. Koma sizowona kuti sindikukayikira zongoganiza. Palibe zonena, zongoganiza kapena zomaliza, ndizotsimikizika kwa ine.

Woganiza bwino Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Zowonadi ndikutanthauza kumbali ya chifukwa / kukoma.
Choyamba, ponena za 2 kodi mukuvomereza kuti timangokhala ndi lingaliro lakuti zomwe timawona ndizowona? Pakuti sizikuwoneka kukhala zokwanira kuti mfundo iliyonse priori kukhala kuti iye yekha * mlatho ku kuvomereza dziko lapansi.

Ndiye ngati ndi choncho, mumatha bwanji kupeza maziko koma mosatsimikizika? Izi ndi zomwe sindikuzidziwa bwino.
Ndipo ngakhale mutati n'zotheka, mogwirizana ndi zomwe zidzakhala zosatsimikizika? Pankhani ya pempho lina kapena kukayikira kwina? Mwinanso kukayikira komweko kungaganize kuti pali kufotokozera kwina komwe kuli kofunikira komanso, kapena choyamba dongosolo lofotokozera pachimake chake ndi axiomatic. Koma ndiye zimangotanthauza kuti lingaliro lomwe tinkaganiza kuti ndilofunika silotero, koma mawu omaliza kuchokera ku chinthu china chofunikira.
Pokhapokha ngati mukukayikira ndikudzinenera kuti malingaliro angakayikire, koma ndiye kuti mwayiwo umapita kuti? Chifukwa chilichonse kwa iye chimakhala chokhazikika. (Ndipo kuganiza kuti chilichonse nchosakhazikika ndi chokhazikika ...)

Ndipo ngati ndi choncho, monga momwe mumapezera zokayikitsa ndiye kuti palibenso chowonadi kuti chinachake chikuwoneka chololera kwa ine, chifukwa zotheka zonse zimangokhala pamlingo wa kulingalira kokhazikika koma palibe kugwirizana pakati pa izo ndi dziko lapansi ndi cholinga. sichikhoza kulumikizidwa ngati chiyambi.
Ndipo ngati simukukayika, ndiye kuti simukukayikira zongoganiza ...

Woweruza womaliza Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

"An electromagnetic wave in the world is translate into light"
Mafundewa amamasulira kukhala ma neuronal sign. Kumasulira mu chinthu china Kumasulira mu chinthu china… Penapake pamapeto pamakhala kuwala.
Palibe kulumikizana mwachindunji pakati pa kuwala ndi mafunde. Nkhani yake ndi yosalunjika kwambiri.

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Ndinakutayani kwathunthu. Mumasakaniza kugonana ndi osagonana mobwerezabwereza, ndipo osatchula zomwe ndayankha. Ndayankha kale zonse.

Arbitrator, ndi kulumikizana kwachindunji. Chimodzi chimayambitsa chimzake, ngakhale chikachitika kudzera munjira zingapo. Mukasokoneza njira pakati pa kusisita machesi ndi kuyatsa moto mudzapeza magawo apakati. Ndiye? Chimodzi chimayambitsa chimzake. Kodi mungatani Nafam ngati pali magawo apakatikati? Ndipo kuti tikuchita ndi nkhani ya mphamvu ya mphamvu yake?

Amayankha kutayika Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Ngati munanditaya ndiye mwayankha bwanji?...

Chomwe sichidziwika kwa ine ndikuti amavomereza kuti tanthauzo la maziko ndikuti palibe chifukwa choyikira.
Koma ngati ndi choncho, kodi maziko angakayikire bwanji popanda kugwiritsa ntchito mfundo inayake? Monga munanenera kuti mukutero.
Ndiye mbali inayo mumapeza kuti malingaliro amatha kufunsidwa kotero mungaganize bwanji kuti chinthu chili chocheperako kapena chocheperako? Kupatula apo, mutha kuyikanso kukaikira kwina pamalingaliro oti mwina…? Ndipo kotero kutsimikizira kwanu kunali koyenera kukhala sulfist. Kapena mudzakayikira lingaliro lomwe mungakayikire ndipo mudzakakamira.
Koma ziyenera kunenedwa kuti pali poyambira kuganiza malingaliro ena * ena * adzakhala aang'ono monga momwe alili.
Mwachitsanzo, lingaliro lakuti zomwe timaganiza kuti n'zomveka ndi zomveka (ngakhale sizingakhale zolinga). Chifukwa kuyambira pamenepo tinganene kuti ogwira ntchito ndi otheka, etc. Koma ngati mukunena kuti zolingalira zathu zonse sizikhala ndi gawo linalake lokhala ndi chikaiko chokhazikika mwa iwo, ndiye kuti chikaiko chimenecho chiyenera kupangidwa potsatira zokayikitsa zomwe ziri kunja kwa iwo, ndipo monga momwe inu muliri wokaikira simunganene konse kuti chinachake chiripo. zomveka monga momwe zilili ...

Chifukwa chake ndikufuna kunena kuti mukuvomerezanso kuti pali china chake choyambirira panjira yanu osati zonse zomwe zimangomveka. Kapena mwayi ndi wotsimikizika.
Komabe, ngati ndikulondola, ndiye chomwe chili chabwino kuwona ndichakuti mungakonde kukhala wa postmodernist m'malo motsatira mfundo zachikhazikitso 😉

Ndipo ngakhale palibe umboni woti tinene, Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Ndipo ngakhale palibe umboni woti tilankhulepo, pali njira yolankhulira m'mawu oyamba a zolemba za chikhulupiriro:
"Monga momwe ndikudziwira, munthu alibe mwayi wopeza chitsimikizo m'munda uliwonse." Ngati adapeza njira yotsimikizira izi mwina adalakwitsa (zowona! 🙂) ”
Izi zikutanthauza kuti pali china chake komanso chofunikira pansi pamalingaliro athu kumapeto kwa tsiku chomwe chimati pali kulumikizana pakati pa kulolera ndi dziko lina liyenera kukhala lokayikira.

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Yankhani, ndakutayani tsopano (mukufuna chiyani tsopano) popeza ndayankha zonse kale.

mipando? Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Kodi njira yanu iyeneranso kukhala ndi malo ena (ngakhale ochepa), omwe tidzavomereza motsimikiza osati chifukwa chololera.
Ndipo ndikuganiza kuti mfundo iyi ndiyakuti zomwe zikuwoneka zomveka kwa ife ndizomveka ndipo pali kulumikizana ndi izi. Ndi njira iyi yokha yomwe ndikuganiza kuti mafunso anga akhoza kulungamitsidwa popanda kugwa m'kukayikira kotheratu ndipo kumbali ina osanena kuti chirichonse chiri chotsimikizika.
Kumbali ina, poyamba munanena kuti munali “kukaikira zongopeka. Palibe zonena, zongoganiza kapena zomaliza ndizotsimikizika kwa ine. "
Koma ngati mumatanthawuza zomwe mwalemba, muyenera kukhala ndi kuthekera kozindikira kuti ndi mfundo iti yolondola kapena ayi (chifukwa sindinu okayikira….), Koma kuthekera uku ndi mtundu wamalingaliro ndipo mudzakaikira ndikubwerezabwereza. ndiyeno muyenera kukhala okayikira.
Ndikuganiza kuti zinthu izi ndi zophweka, koma popeza ndikuwona kuti ndiwe wafilosofi wachiwiri wonena zinthu zofanana pamene nonse mumadzilengeza kuti ndinu osakhala a postmodernists ndimafuna kuwona ngati ndinalidi wolondola kapena ngati mawu anga sanali akuthwa. Ndipo mukhoza kudya kekeyo komanso kuisiya yathunthu.

Chifukwa amavomerezanso kuti palibe kugwirizana pakati pa zongoganiza ndi kufunitsitsa kwawo padziko lapansi molingana ndi Kant ndipo aliyense ayenera kukayikira, komabe pankhani zina pali zomveka ... Ndapereka apa.

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Ndikuyankha kachitatu: ayi. Palibe chotsimikizika m'maso mwanga. Ndipo ndikubwereza kwa nthawi ya khumi ndi zisanu ndi ziwiri kusatsimikizika si kukayikira. Kukayikira kumatanthauza kuti udindo wina suli wabwino kuposa zosiyana. Kusatsimikizika, kumbali ina, kumangotanthauza kuti sindikutsimikiza.
Izi. Ndinamaliza.

mtsikana Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Nanga bwanji gawo la geometric lomwe limakonda kukhala 0. Chinachake chinawoneka chomveka kwa ine. Ndizomveka m'maso mwanga kuti zomwe zikuwoneka zomveka kwa ine - ndizomveka. M’maso mwanga ndimaona kuti zimene ndikuona kuti n’zanzeru. Tidzachepetsa mwayi wotsimikizika wa 99.99% ndipo zonena zilizonse zidzapitilira mpaka 0% kutsimikizika.

mtsikana Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Ndinalemba zomwe ndinamva kuchokera ku funsolo. Chifukwa ngati yankho ndiloti "chinachake chikuwoneka chomveka kwa ine" tikayika pa 99.99, ndiye kuti ndi 99.99 pambuyo pa akaunti zonse zapadziko lapansi, ndipo izi ndizodziwikiratu padziko lapansi osati kudzinenera ndekha - ndiye ife zindikirani mgwirizano wovuta pakati pa kulolera ndi kutsimikizika motsimikiza.

Osamvetsetseka kwathunthu Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Kodi chozizwitsacho chimapangidwa bwanji kuti palibe chotsimikizika koma sichimayambitsa kukayikira?
Chifukwa lingaliro lonse la kusatsimikizika ndikukhala wololera likuganiza kuti pali njira yachiwiri, koma mulibe kuthekera kowunika zomwe zili zomveka chifukwa palokha lingaliro lina lomwe mungafunsenso ngati kuli koyenera ...

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Chozizwitsa chodabwitsachi chili mu kusiyana pakati pa 90% manyazi ndi 50% kukaikira (ngati ife kuumirira quantifying). Ngakhale kuti izi ndi zodabwitsa komanso zosamvetsetseka, zikhoza kuchitikabe. Ndimagubuduza kachulukidwe ka 100 miliyoni. Ndikubetcha kuti zotsatira zake zidzagawidwa mofanana ndipo padzakhala zotsatira pafupifupi milioni pa wigi iliyonse. Ndikayika (si XNUMX%) komabe izi ndi zomwe zichitike. Zodabwitsa.
Ndipo ndimatha kuwunikanso mwanzeru kufunika kwa chidziwitso. Kuzungulira uku ndi gibberish chabe. Zili ngati kufunsa mmene umadziwira kuti ukulondola, ndiwe amene umasankha kuti ukunena zoona. Kodi izi zikusiyana bwanji ndi mkangano wamba?
Tatopatu nkhani zimenezi mpaka kukhetsa magazi.

mtsikana Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Kodi pali kulumikizana kotani pakati pa izi ndi mkangano wamba wokayikira. Apa munthu safunsa kuti “wadziwa bwanji” koma amavomereza zonse zimene munthuyo wanena ndipo amangokambirana njira yake basi. Ngati akunena kuti ali wotsimikiza kuti chinachake chiri cholondola, ndipo alinso wotsimikiza XNUMX peresenti kuti ngati ali wotsimikiza kuti chinachake chiri cholondola ndiye kuti chinachake chiri cholondola - ndiye kuti zonse zili bwino chifukwa. amene ali nacho chilichonse adzakhala mmodzi. Koma ngati ili ndi mwayi chabe, ndiye kuti bwalo lobwerezabwereza likuzirala mpaka ziro. Zosavuta kwambiri. Mulimonsemo, zikuwoneka kuti ndizotheka kwa ine kuti palibe wina pano patsamba lino kupatula inu amene mukudziwa momwe mungayankhire izi. Ndipo ngakhale mutakhala ndi yankho lanzeru simungathe kulipeza pano mu ulusi. Zikuwoneka kuti SAG inali yolakwa ndipo inasintha pakati pa kuyankha ndi kuyankha.

Ndikukhulupirira kuti ndinazindikira kale Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

poyeneradi. Ndikuvomereza kuti ndizosavuta kotero kuti pamapeto pake luso lodziyesa lokha ndilomwe muyenera kuvomereza * motsimikiza *, ngakhale mu intuition ikuphatikizidwa kuti nzosatsimikizika, koma sizimachokera ku woperekera kunja, koma * mkati * kukaikira Gawo la tanthauzo la izi, chinthu chachikulu kuti pali chinthu china apa motsimikiza.

Mfundo imeneyi ndi yofunika chifukwa ndinkafuna kuonetsetsa kuti zinthu zimene zinkaoneka ngati zosavuta kwa ine zinalidi zoona. Chifukwa monga ndidanenera pachiyambi pali wina wofunikira yemwenso ndi wafilosofi wotere yemwe amatsutsa mfundoyi koma amatsutsa kumbali ina kuti sakukayikira zomwe zikuwoneka kuti sizingatheke.
Ndipo kotero mu zokambirana zonse apa zingawoneke kuti inunso mupite ku njira yake, kotero ine sindinathe kuwona momwe chozizwitsa ichi chingapangidwe ndipo makamaka mu kumvetsa kwanga kwapita kwa inu kuti ichi ndi chikayikiro chakunja kwa maziko ndiye funso likubwera. chifukwa chake ndi 10% kukaikira osati 50% kukaikira methodological. Koma ndikuwona mukugwirizana ndi njira yanga yomwe ndapereka apa.

Zowonadi, ndizotheka kuti Shabbat adapereka kufotokozera komwe kumafotokoza wanzeru yemweyo pogwiritsa ntchito kuphatikizika kwa mafotokozedwe opanda malire kuti ngakhale kufotokozera kulikonse kumafunikira kufotokozera kumakhalabe ndi zolemetsa zochepa, kwa ine ndekha zimamveka zododometsa ngati zingatheke nkomwe. Koma ndi njira yokhayo yomwe ndinapezera.

Funsoli ndilofunikanso pakutsutsa kwanu zonena zachikhazikitso kumbali imodzi komanso kuthekera kwa kusatsimikizika kwina. Koma mutha kunena kuti ndi mtundu wina wa tatology. Ngakhale ndikuganiza kuti zimakulitsa kusiyana pakati pa wogulitsa kunja (PM) ndi wothandizira wamkati (njira yanu yopangira).

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Ayi, sizowona. Izinso sizotsimikizika.

zokwiyitsa Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Kodi mumavomereza kusiyana pakati pa kudzinenera kwanu kuti malingaliro oyambira iwo eni ali mu lingaliro losatsimikizika, ndi kukaikira komwe kuli kunja kwa malingaliro oyambira enieniwo? (Ndiye mwina mumapeza njira ina yowongolera ngati maziko, kapena mukutsutsidwa ngati wokayikira).

Kupanda kutero sindikumvetsetsa momwe simukukayika ngati mukukayikira zongoganiza ngakhale pamaperesenti amodzi (bola ngati sichili gawo la lingaliro lomwelo lomwe silikudziwika).

Zikuwoneka kwa ine ngati pali kusiyana pano komwe mwina sindikumvetsa chifukwa ngati sizili monga ndidanenera sindikumvetsetsa momwe mukunena kuti simukukayika. Mwina mungafotokoze mfundo yaing’ono iyi.

mikyab Ogwira ntchito Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Sindikudziwa komwe kuli vuto apa. Ndikunena zinthu zosavuta komanso zomveka bwino. Malingaliro anga sali otsimikizika m'maso mwanga. Osati chifukwa pali quirks za iwo koma chifukwa sindiri wotsimikiza ngati iwo ali olondola (pali zotheka zina). Sindikudziwa kuti kukayikira kwakunja ndi chiyani. Ndili ndi chikaiko pamalingaliro anga. ndichoncho.

tsopano ndamva? Adayankha zaka 2 zapitazo

Kukayika kwakunja Cholinga chake ndi chakuti kukayikira kumachokera ku malo oipa monga mtundu wa kusokonezeka kwakunja kwa kulingalira koma osati chibadwa monga gawo la lingaliro lomwe mwachitsanzo likunena kuti ndilolondola mu 90% yokha ya milandu.

Koma mutangolemba kuti: "Zolingalira zanga sizotsimikizika pamaso panga". Chifukwa sindikutsimikiza ngati ali olondola (pali njira zina). Chifukwa chake zikuwoneka ngati wopereka wopanda pake ndipo ngati ndi choncho mutha kupitiliza kuyiponyanso:

Chifukwa zikutanthauza kuti pali "inu amene mukuwona" ndipo monga kunja kwa iwo mumayang'ana malingaliro. Mwachitsanzo mutha kumvetsetsa izi mu fanizo lanu la maso amalingaliro kuti amayang'ana malingaliro akutali.
Koma ngati ndi choncho, muyenera kuvomereza kuti inu ndi amene mumasiyanitsa (= maso?) Iwowokha ali ndi chitsimikizo chonse cha kuthekera kwawo kuzindikira ziganizo zoyambirira kotero kuti ngakhale simukupeza kulondola kwawo kokwanira muyenera kutero. vomerezani motsimikiza kuti ali ndi mulingo wina wake wolondola.Ndipo magawo ena monga mtunda wa lingaliro, zilakolako ndi zina. Choncho ku mlingo womwewo simukukayika konse kuti ngakhale kusalondola mwa iwo ndi kobadwa nawo pa mfundo imeneyi.
Koma ngati mutaikanso chikaiko pa iwo;
1. Mukatero simudzatha kuchoka mu chikaiko. 2. Palibe chifukwa choganiza kuti chiwerengero cha ziwerengero zoperekedwa ndi 10% kuganiza osati 50%. Ndipo izi zili kale kukayikira kotheratu 3. Zidzabweretsa kukayikira komwe mudzavomereza kuti kulondola kwa chowonadi chanu chokhazikika kumafikira zero pa kuchuluka kwa zotheka. 4. Mukhozanso kukayikira mfundo yokayika zinthu zoipa.

Siyani ndemanga